Trout Ovulatory Proteins: Site of Synthesis, Regulation, and Possible Biological Function1

Publication Type:Journal Article
Year of Publication:2000
Authors:Coffman, MA, Pinter, JH, Goetz, FW
Journal:Biology of Reproduction
Volume:62
Issue:4
Date Published:2000
ISBN Number:0006-3363
Keywords:Fringillidae, Serinus, Serinus serinus
Abstract:Abstract The mRNA transcripts for trout ovulatory proteins (TOPs) are dramatically up-regulated at the time of ovulation. Previous studies indicated that TOPs were produced by the ovaries and were also present in the coelomic fluid that bathes ovulated eggs. In the present study, Western analysis indicated that TOPs were not present in the coelomic fluid prior to ovulation and therefore must be secreted into the coelomic fluid in large quantities during and after ovulation. Using in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry, TOP mRNA and proteins were localized to the granulosa cell layer of the postovulatory follicle. A whole-follicle in vitro incubation system was used to look at the effects of various mediators on TOP mRNA and protein levels. Results of several different secondary messenger agonists suggest that TOPs are regulated through a G protein-mediated pathway that does not involve cAMP but may involve the activation of protein kinase C. Other agonists that had significant effects on TOP RNA and/or protein included transforming growth factor α (TGF-α), serine proteases, corticosteroids, bacterial lipopolysaccharide, and the nitric oxide generator SNAP ([±]-S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine). Overall, while several compounds caused significant effects, none were able to reproduce the increase in TOP RNA and protein that occurs in vivo, suggesting that the natural mediator of TOPs may still be untested, or that a combination of mediators may be involved. Finally, coelomic fluid inhibited the growth of the Gram negative bacterium, P. aeruginosa, and this inhibition was lost following immunoprecipitation of TOPs. This suggests that one function of TOPs may be to protect ovulated eggs from bacterial infection.Abstract The mRNA transcripts for trout ovulatory proteins (TOPs) are dramatically up-regulated at the time of ovulation. Previous studies indicated that TOPs were produced by the ovaries and were also present in the coelomic fluid that bathes ovulated eggs. In the present study, Western analysis indicated that TOPs were not present in the coelomic fluid prior to ovulation and therefore must be secreted into the coelomic fluid in large quantities during and after ovulation. Using in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry, TOP mRNA and proteins were localized to the granulosa cell layer of the postovulatory follicle. A whole-follicle in vitro incubation system was used to look at the effects of various mediators on TOP mRNA and protein levels. Results of several different secondary messenger agonists suggest that TOPs are regulated through a G protein-mediated pathway that does not involve cAMP but may involve the activation of protein kinase C. Other agonists that had significant effects on TOP RNA and/or protein included transforming growth factor α (TGF-α), serine proteases, corticosteroids, bacterial lipopolysaccharide, and the nitric oxide generator SNAP ([±]-S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine). Overall, while several compounds caused significant effects, none were able to reproduce the increase in TOP RNA and protein that occurs in vivo, suggesting that the natural mediator of TOPs may still be untested, or that a combination of mediators may be involved. Finally, coelomic fluid inhibited the growth of the Gram negative bacterium, P. aeruginosa, and this inhibition was lost following immunoprecipitation of TOPs. This suggests that one function of TOPs may be to protect ovulated eggs from bacterial infection.
URL:http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod62.4.928
Short Title:Biology of Reproduction
Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith