Birds of Indian Subcontinent

Spot variation in Maniola jurtina (L.) (Lepidoptera: Satyridae) in southern Portugal and a comparison with the Canary Islands

Publication Type:Journal Article
Year of Publication:1993
Authors:Owen, DF, SMITH, DAVIDAS
Journal:Biological Journal of the Linnean Society
Date Published:1993
ISBN Number:1095-8312
Keywords:Algarve, Canary islands, E. B. Ford, Fringillidae, seasonally, Serinus, Serinus canaria, spotting
Abstract:A sample of 2013 meadow brown butterflies, Maniola jurtina, was obtained in the Algarve, southern Portugal, on behalf of E.B. Ford, the founder of ecological genetics. Variation in the meadow brown occupied Ford's attention for more than 40 years. Ford died in 1988; most of his collection had earlier been destroyed, but the meadow browns remained and became available for analysis. The butterflies were scored for spotting characters on both fore- and hindwings. The population is homogeneous over the entire area of the Algarve and there is no conclusive evidence of a difference between the two years of collection (1986 and 1987). It is probably also homogeneous with southern Iberia in general, an area unique in the western Palaearctic range of the species as it is characterized by a high spot average in males and a low spot average in females. Algarve butterflies differ markedly from those of the Canary Islands, where there is considerable inter-island heterogeneity, supporting the view that the Canary Island populations did not originate from southern Iberia. In the Algarve, many females aestivate and by September there is an essentially all-female population. These are low-spotted and differ significantly from females active in May and June at the start of the annual (one generation) flight season.
Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith