Nuclear DNA Evolution and Phylogeny of the New World Nine-Primaried Oscines

Publication Type:Journal Article
Year of Publication:1988
Authors:Bledsoe, AH
Journal:The Auk
Date Published:1988
ISBN Number:00048038
Keywords:Cardinalidae, Cardinalis, Cardinalis cardinalis, Carduelis, Carduelis pinus, Catamblyrhynchus, Catamblyrhynchus diadema, Coereba, Coereba flaveola, Coerebidae, Cyanerpes, Cyanerpes cyaneus, Dendroica, Dendroica striata, Diglossa, Diuca, Diuca diuca, Emberizidae, Fringilla, Fringilla coelebs, Fringillidae, Icteridae, Nephelornis, Nephelornis oneilli, Parulidae, Passer, Pooecetes, Pooecetes gramineus, Psarocolius, Psarocolius angustifrons, Setophaga, Setophaga striata, Sicalis, Sicalis luteola, Spinus, Spinus pinus, Tachyphonus, Tachyphonus rufus, Tersina, Tersina viridis, Thraupidae, World
Abstract:Estimates of phylogeny were derived from measures of dissimilarity of single-copy nuclear-DNA sequences for 13 species that represent the currently recognized major groups of New World nine-primaried oscines and an outgroup (Passer). The dissimilarity coefficients (delta mode and delta ${\rm T}_{50}{\rm H}$ ) calculated from thermal dissociation curves of reassociated DNA sequences exhibited the properties of a metric. No statistically significant increase in goodness-of-fit of the raw data to a phylogeny estimated from a least-squares analysis of the 13 × 13 matrix of distances was achieved when the lengths of sister branches were allowed to vary. "Jackknife" and negative branch-length analyses identified unstable stems that resulted from non-additivity caused in part by measurement error. Such stems were collapsed to produce a more robust topology, which served as the basis for estimating the positions of taxa not included in the 13 × 13 matrix. The clade that subsumed several "typical" tanagers (e.g. Tachyphonus rufus) also included Sicalis luteola and Diuca diuca (usually allied with the North American emberizine sparrows); Cyanerpes cyaneus, two species of Diglossa, and Coereba flaveola (often split among several major groups); and Tersina viridis, Catamblyrhynchus diadema, and Nephelornis oneilli (whose affinities are often considered uncertain). This "tanager" clade and its sister group, the cardinals (represented by Cardinalis cardinalis), together formed one fork of a trichotomy. Several emberizine sparrows (e.g. Pooecetes gramineus) formed the second fork, and wood-warblers (e.g. Dendroica striata) and New World orioles (e.g. Psarocolius angustifrons) formed the third. The chaffinches (represented by Fringilla coelebs) and several cardueline finches (e.g. Carduelis pinus) together formed the sister group of the other New World nine-primaried oscines included in the study. This phylogeny implies that convergence in feeding specializations among lineages is more extensive than traditional arrangements of the assemblage would suggest.
Short Title:The Auk
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