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Birds of Indian Subcontinent

Mortality of Wood Warbler Phylloscopus sibilatrix nests in Welsh Oakwoods: predation rates and the identification of nest predators using miniature nest cameras

Publication Type:Journal Article
Year of Publication:2012
Authors:Mallord, JW, Orsman, CJ, Cristinacce, A, Butcher, N, Stowe, TJ, Charman, EC
Journal:Bird Study
Volume:59
Issue:3
Date Published:2012
ISBN Number:0006-3657
Keywords:Accipiter, Accipiter nisus, Accipitridae, Buteo, Buteo buteo, Dendrocopos, Dendrocopos major, Garrulus glandarius, Passer, Passer montanus, Passeridae, Phylloscopidae, Phylloscopus, Phylloscopus sibilatrix, Picidae, Picoides major, Sibilatrix sibilatrix, Vulpes vulpes
Abstract:Capsule Predation was the main cause of nest failure, but predation rates have remained unchanged since the 1980s. Eurasian Jays Garrullus glandarius were the most common predator. Aims To quantify, and compare, nest predation rates for 1982?84 and 2009?11, and to identify predators of Wood Warbler Phylloscopus sibilatrix nests in Welsh oakwoods. Methods During 2009?11, 167 Wood Warbler nests were monitored and purpose-built miniature nest cameras deployed at 73 of them. Nest predation rates were compared with 67 nests monitored during 1982?84. Results Of 167 nests monitored from 2009 to 2011, 62 failed due to predation (32/73 camera nests, 30/94 non-camera nests), giving an overall Daily Survival Rate (DSR?±?se) of 0.979?±?0.003. This was not significantly different from the rate during 1982?84 (0.967?±?0.006). In 2009?11, the DSR of nests declined temporally during the season at both the egg and chick stages. For chick stage nests, DSR varied annually and nonlinearly with age of nestlings. There was no evidence for an effect of cameras at either stage. Of 32 camera nests lost to predation, the predator was identified from 28, resulting in 30 predators being identified. There was one case of multiple predators at a single nest. The majority of nest predation was carried out by birds (28/30), predominantly Eurasian Jays (18/28), but also Common Buzzards Buteo buteo (5/28), Great Spotted Woodpeckers Dendrocopos major (3/28) and Eurasian Sparrowhawks Accipiter nisus (2/28). There was one predation by both a Eurasian Badger Meles meles and a Red Fox Vulpes vulpes. There were no records of Grey Squirrels Sciurus carolinensis depredating nests. Conclusions Nest predation rates were similar in both periods, suggesting that increased rates of nest predation have not been driving the decline of the Wood Warbler population in Wales. Deployment of nest cameras did not affect nest survival rates and were successful in identifying nest predators, the majority of which were avian, especially Eurasian Jays. Knowledge of the identity of nest predators can aid the development of conservation measures.Capsule Predation was the main cause of nest failure, but predation rates have remained unchanged since the 1980s. Eurasian Jays Garrullus glandarius were the most common predator. Aims To quantify, and compare, nest predation rates for 1982?84 and 2009?11, and to identify predators of Wood Warbler Phylloscopus sibilatrix nests in Welsh oakwoods. Methods During 2009?11, 167 Wood Warbler nests were monitored and purpose-built miniature nest cameras deployed at 73 of them. Nest predation rates were compared with 67 nests monitored during 1982?84. Results Of 167 nests monitored from 2009 to 2011, 62 failed due to predation (32/73 camera nests, 30/94 non-camera nests), giving an overall Daily Survival Rate (DSR?±?se) of 0.979?±?0.003. This was not significantly different from the rate during 1982?84 (0.967?±?0.006). In 2009?11, the DSR of nests declined temporally during the season at both the egg and chick stages. For chick stage nests, DSR varied annually and nonlinearly with age of nestlings. There was no evidence for an effect of cameras at either stage. Of 32 camera nests lost to predation, the predator was identified from 28, resulting in 30 predators being identified. There was one case of multiple predators at a single nest. The majority of nest predation was carried out by birds (28/30), predominantly Eurasian Jays (18/28), but also Common Buzzards Buteo buteo (5/28), Great Spotted Woodpeckers Dendrocopos major (3/28) and Eurasian Sparrowhawks Accipiter nisus (2/28). There was one predation by both a Eurasian Badger Meles meles and a Red Fox Vulpes vulpes. There were no records of Grey Squirrels Sciurus carolinensis depredating nests. Conclusions Nest predation rates were similar in both periods, suggesting that increased rates of nest predation have not been driving the decline of the Wood Warbler population in Wales. Deployment of nest cameras did not affect nest survival rates and were successful in identifying nest predators, the majority of which were avian, especially Eurasian Jays. Knowledge of the identity of nest predators can aid the development of conservation measures.
URL:http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00063657.2012.669359
Short Title:Bird Study
Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith