Atoxoplasmosis in Bali Mynahs (Leucopsar rothschildi)

Publication Type:Journal Article
Year of Publication:1989
Authors:Partington, CJ, Gardiner, CH, Fritz, D, Jr., LGPhillip, Montali, RJ
Journal:Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
Date Published:1989
ISBN Number:10427260
Keywords:Acridotheres, Acridotheres tristis, Cardinalidae, Fringillidae, Gracula, Gracula religiosa, Hesperiphona, Hesperiphona vespertina, Leucopsar, Leucopsar rothschildi, Passer, Passer domesticus, Passeridae, Pheucticus, Pheucticus ludovicianus, Serinus, Serinus serinus, Sturnidae
Abstract:Examination of impression smears and tissue sections of multiple organs from two young Bali mynahs (Leucopsar rothschildi) that died in March 1988 revealed severe disseminated infections with Atoxoplasma (Isospora), a protozoan parasite previously described in sparrows (Passer domesticus), canaries (Serinus canarius), evening grosbeaks (Hesperiphona vespertina), rose-breasted grosbeaks (Pheucticus ludovicianus), and two species of mynah (Acridotheres tristis melanosternus, Gracula religiosa). Seven additional young Bali mynahs were found to have atoxoplasmosis, diagnosed from impression smears of liver biopsies and laparoscopic examination of the spleen. Two of the seven Bali mynahs died near the beginning of the study and showed infections similar to the index cases. Fecal samples from five of the young birds and three parent pairs contained coccidial oocysts with isosporan morphology when sporulated. Atoxoplasma infection was believed to be initiated when sporulated oocysts were ingested and disseminated when the zoites released in the intestine invaded macrophages. No effective treatment has been found although some evidence indicates that primaquine suppresses tissue forms and sulfachlor-pyrazin may reduce oocyst shedding. Infection is best prevented by reducing exposure to sporulated oocysts.
Short Title:Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
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