Birds of Indian Subcontinent

Altitudinal Variations in Nests of the Hawaiian Honeycreeper Hemignathus virens virens

Publication Type:Journal Article
Year of Publication:1984
Authors:Kern, MD, III, Cvan Riper
Journal:The Condor
Date Published:1984
ISBN Number:00105422
Keywords:Chlorodrepanis, Chlorodrepanis virens, Fringillidae, Hemignathus, Hemignathus virens, Loxops, Loxops virens, Nestor, Nestor notabilis, Viridonia, Viridonia virens
Abstract:We examined more than 90 nests of the Common Amakihi (Hemignathus virens virens) from the Island of Hawaii to determine if their placement, composition, or insulation varied with meteorological conditions at the time of nesting. Common Amakihi nest chiefly during the wet season. The nests were always within the canopy of the nest trees and consequently were probably shielded from rain. The nests from a warm rain forest on Kohala Mountain were significantly higher in the canopy and nearer each tree's center than the nests from Mauna Kea, a cold upland savannah. On Mauna Kea, nests were nearer the edge of the canopy at higher elevations, i.e., in a location where they would benefit from radiant solar energy. Nests from Kohala Mountain lacked liners and were more porous than those from Mauna Kea. These features permitted the nests to dry rapidly. Nests from Mauna Kea, in contrast, were always lined, which retarded drying and increased their insulating capacity--features appropriate for the drier, colder conditions in areas where they were built. All of the nests were excellent windscreens. The thermal conductance of nests from Mauna Kea diminished with altitude, i.e., nests at higher elevations had more insulation than those at lower elevations. This trend was associated with differences in the nests' walls, which were denser (but not thicker) at higher elevations. The nest's thermal conductance can be used to estimate the energetic expense of incubation. For Common Amakihi, the energy required to keep a clutch at incubation temperature may be as much as 0.115 W or 47% of the birds' metabolic rate at rest.
Short Title:The Condor
Taxonomic name: 
Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith