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Common Name : Australasian Grass-Owl
Scientific Name : Tyto longimembris ()
Order : Strigiformes
Family : Tytonidae
Taxonomic Group : Strigiformes - Tytonidae ( Barn owls )
Vernacular Name : Assam: Sun ulu sorai
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Common Name : Australasian Grass-Owl
Scientific Name : Tyto longimembris
Order : Strigiformes Family : Tytonidae (Barn-Owls)
Number of SubSpecies : 6
|Taxon Category||Sub Species / Race||Range||subspecies||Tyto longimembris longimembris (walleri)||India to Indochina, Sulawesi, Lesser Sundas, n and e Australia|
|subspecies||Tyto longimembris chinensis (melli)||SE China (se Yunnan to Jiangsu) and Vietnam|
|subspecies||Tyto longimembris pithecops||Taiwan|
|subspecies||Tyto longimembris amauronota||Philippine Islands|
|subspecies||Tyto longimembris baliem||W New Guinea|
|subspecies||Tyto longimembris papuensis||Montane grasslands of e New Guinea|
3rd Edition, 2003. Revised and Corrected per Corrigenda to December 31, 2006
Common Name : Grass Owl
Scientific Name : Tyto capensis
SubFamily : Tytoninae
Number of SubSpecies : 6
|Sub Species / Race||Tyto capensis capensis|
|Tyto capensis longimembris|
|Tyto capensis chinensis|
|Tyto capensis pithecops|
|Tyto capensis amauronota|
|Tyto capensis papuensis|
IOC Common Name : Eastern Grass Owl
IOC Scientific Name : Tyto longimembris
Region : OR, AU Range : India to se China, Taiwan, Philippines, Sulawesi, se New Guinea, n, ne Australia, New Caledonia
Order : STRIGIFORMES Family : Tytonidae
Category : Barn Owls
Note: Tyto longimembris is split from T.capensis (König et al. 1999);recognized by BLI
SYNOPIS NO : 608
Scientific Name: Tyto capensis
Common Name: Grass Owl
Common Name : Eastern Grass-owl
Scientific Name : Tyto longimembris ((Jerdon, 1839))
Birdlife Synonym : Eastern Grass Owl (5)
BirdLife Redlist Status Year 2010: LC
BirdLife Species FactSheet for Eastern Grass-owl ( Tyto longimembris )
Taxonomy Treatment : R
Birdlife Taxonomy Notes : Tyto capensis and T. longimembris (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993), cross-regional species, are retained as separate species contra Christidis and Boles (1994) who include longimembris as a subspecies of T. capensis.
IUCN Common Name (Eng) : Eastern Grass-owl
Scientific Name : Tyto longimembris (Jerdon, 1839)
IUCN Redlist Species FactSheet for Eastern Grass-owl ( Tyto longimembris )
Species : longimembris
Genus : Tyto
Family : Tytonidae Order : Strigiformes
IUCN RedList Status : LC
IUCN RedList Criteria Version : 3.1
IUCN RedList Year Assessed : 2008
IUCN RedList Petitioned : N
Family : TYTONIDAE
Scientific Name : Tyto capensis
Common Name : Grass Owl
IOC Checklist Difference : = African Grass Owl,
Birdlife Checklist Difference : = African Grass Owl,
OBC Checklist Justification : Sibley & Monroe (1990)treated longimembris as a separate species from the extralimital capensis African Grass Owl, without giving reasons. However, Amadon & Jewett (1946), who thought that the morphological differences were not significant, treated them a
Other Justification : Sibley & Monroe (1990) merely noted that 'May be conspecificwith T. capensis but here regarded as an allospecies.' Rasmussen & Anderton (2005) noted that 'A number of marked differences exist between longimembris and capensis, inluding plumage, proportions, egg size and vocalisations (flight song at least). In morphology, capensis has a heavier build and is almost uniformly dark brown above, with indistinct wing-banding, the central tail uniformly dark brown, grading to white and weakly banded dark on outer rectrices; below has has larger dark spots, and stronger legs are more heavily feathered, whilelongimembris has blotchy brown and golden upperparts, prominent dark wing-banding and essentially white tail strongly banded dark. In flight song, capensis gives repeated series of 4-12 short clicks, followed by short very rapid insect-like trills (pitch 1.4-2.3 kHz, click rate c.6/s, trill d, 0.2 s; Australia-BOC, DS); much drier and less musical, and with different pattern than for longimembris. Full species status for T. longimembris is clearly indicated.'
Bibliography of Australasian Grass-Owl ( Tyto longimembris )
Number of Results found : 18
1. Claus Konig; Friedhelm Weick; Jan-Hendrik Becking , (2009), Eastern Grass Owl (Tyto longimembris), Owls of the World; Yale University Press, : 227 / 4.
2. Craig Robson , (2005), Eastern Grass-Owl (Tyto longimembris), BIRDS OF SOUTH-EAST ASIA; New Holland Publishers Ltd, : 32.
3. Dick Watling , (2004), Eastern Grass-Owl (Tyto longimembris), A GUIDE TO THE BIRDS OF FIJI & WESTERN POLYNESIA; Environmental Consultants (Fiji) Ltd, : 134 / 2.
4. Simpson; Day , (2004), Eastern Grass-Owl (Tyto longimembris), FIELD GUIDE to the BIRDS of AUSTRALIA; Princeton University Press, 7th Edition: 158.
5. RS Kennedy; PC Gozales; EC Dickinson; HC Miranda Jr; TH Fisher , (2000), Eastern Grass-Owl (Tyto longimembris), A GUIDE TO THE BIRDS OF THE PHILIPPINES; Oxford University Press, USA, : 34.
6. Krys Kazmierczak; Ber van Perlo , (2000), Eastern Grass-Owl (Tyto longimembris), A FIELD GUIDE TO THE BIRDS OF THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT; Yale University Press, : 156.
7. Chris Doughty; Nicolas Day; Andrew Plant , (1999), Eastern Grass-Owl (Tyto longimembris), BIRDS OF THE SOLOMONS, VANUATU & NEW CALEDONIA; A&C Black, : 126.
8. FITZGERALD, M. & C.R. THORSTENSEN , (1994), A note on Eastern Grass Owl Tyto longimembris diet from the north coast of New South Wales, Corella, 18: 87 - 88.
9. Jim Flegg; N.Longmore , (1994), Eastern Grass-Owl (Tyto longimembris), PHOTOGRAPHIC FIELD GUIDE - BIRDS of AUSTRALIA; , : 206.
10. Fitzgerald, M., C. R. Thorstensen. , (1994), A note on Eastern Grass Owl Tyto longimembris diet from the north coast of New South Wales., Corella, 18: 87 - 88.
11. Squire, J. , (1987), Notes on Eastern Grass Owls Tyto longimembris breeding in North Queensland., Australian Bird Watcher, 12: 66.
12. Sedgwick, E. , (1984), An Eastern Grass Owl at Coen, Queensland., Australian Bird Watcher, 10: 236 - 237.
13. Beste, H. , (1982), Observations at a nest of Eastern Grass Owls., Australian Bird Watcher, 9: 154 - 157.
14. Salim Ali; S Dillon RipleyÂ , (1981), No. 608. Grass Owl (Tyto capensis longimembris ) (Jerdon), Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan; Oxford University Press, New Delhi, Volume 3 (Stone Curlews to Owls ): 252.
15. Estbergs, J. A., R. Garstone. , (1979), An observation of piracy in the Black Falcon Falco subniger at Darwin, N.T., Northern Territory Naturalist, 1(2): 6.
16. Amadon D; , (1959), Remarks on the subspecies of the Grass Owl, Tyto capensis, Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 56:2: 344 - 346.
17. Hartert E; , (1929), On various forms of the genus Tyto. Tyto alba and T. longimembris and their subspecies, Novitates Zoologicae, 36:: 93 - 104.
18. Stone A.C. , (1917), Description of the eggs and the nesting-place of Strix candida, Tickell (Tyto longimembris walleri, Mathews), Australian Grass-Owl., The Emu - Austral Ornithology, 17:1: 39 - 40.
Jerdon, III. Ind. Orn. Pl. 30 - S. longimembris, Jerdon, Cat. 38 - Glaux javanica, apud Blyth, Cat. 173. S. Capensis, Horsf., Cat. 97.
The Grass Owl.
Descr. - Above, tawny yellow, the feathers all broadly ended with brown, and a white spot at the tip ; or brown, with a white terminal spot, and yellow at the base; quills fulvous yellow, with distinct brown bars ; tail pale yellow, with four dark brown bars, the terminal one mottled at the ending; disk whitish, orÂ ulvous white, with a dark brown spot at the inner angle of the eye; ruff dark fulvous; beneath, yellowish white, with small brown specks; irides very dark brown ; bill horny ; legs livid.
Length 14 inches; wing 14 ; tail 4 1/2 ; tarsus, 3 1/2 ; mid toe and claw, Tarsus and toes with a few scattered bristles, scarcely plumed at the knee. The wings reach three inches beyond tail; the claws are blunter and less curved than in the last.
The Grass Owl is found throughout the greater part of India, but thinly scattered, and by no means plentiful. I first procured it on the grassy side of a hill on the Neilgherries, at about 6000 feet of elevation. I afterwards obtained it in the Carnatic, and in Central India, and it was procured by Tickell in the same district, and probably occurs also in the N. W. Provinces, for Mr. Phillips P. Z. S., under the name of Strix javanica, mentions its living in long grass, and to be found in abundance some miles from Hodal.Â Tickell, too, mentions its being found throughout Bengal and the Upper Provinces.
Our species does, indeed, live almost exclusively in long grass notÂ requenting jungles, nor coming near the haunts of man, like the last. It is probably not rare in some localities, for on the occasion of the long grass and reeds in the dry bed of a large tank near Nellore being fired to drive out some wild pigs, I saw at least twenty of these Owls. It in general rises heavily, and flies only a short distance, when it drops down suddenly into the grass. Mr. Phillips mentions that it may be sometimes put up and chased by hawks. I presume he means by trained falcons, for I have heard that a favorite quarry for hawking in the Punjab is a grass owl which gives an excellent and long chase. It must be remembered, however, that Otus brachyotus frequents similar localities, and may be the one alluded to rather than this one.
Kaup gives Stria; capensis, Smith, S. A. Z. Pl. 45 from S. Africa, as synonymous with our Indian bird, but on comparing Smith's plate, there appear some differences in color, and the wings and legs appear to be shorter than in the Indian bird. It is probably also Horsfield's S. capensis, from a drawing of Buchanan Hamilton's.
61. :- Jerdon's Birds of India, Vol. I, p. 118; Hume's Scrap Book, p. 345.
The Grass Owl.
Length, 14; wing, 14; tail, 4.5 ; tarsus, 3.5.
Bill horny; irides very dark brown; legs livid, above tawny yellow; the feathers brown, yellowish at base and with a terminal white spot; the quills fulvous-yellow, with distinct brown bars; tail pale yellow, with four dark brown bars, the terminal one mottled at the ending ; disc fulvous-white, with a dark brown spot at the inner angle of the eye; ruff dark fulvous ; beneath yellowish-white, with small brown specks; tarsus and toes with a few scattered bristles, scarcely plumed at the knee ; the wings reach three inches beyond the tail; the claws are blunter and less curved than in the last.
Dr. Jerdon procured the Grass Owl in Central India, as did also Colonel Tickell. Neither Colonel Swinhoe or myself met with it there.
Strix Candida, Tick., Jerd. B. Ind. i, p. 118.
Glaux Candida (Tick.), Hume, Rough Draft N. & E. no. 61.
Mr. C. H. Parker, to whom I owe the only egg of the Grass-Owl contained in my museum, has favoured me with the following note :-Â "When I was in Tirhoot, I found whilst out partridge-shooting near Shapur, on the 26th of October, 1866, a nest of the Grass-Owl in long grass; both the old birds rose from the nest, and one was shot as a specimen. There were five eggs much incubated and two young ones just hatched in the nest. The following day another nest was found in a similar locality containing five eggs; these were fresh, and measured about 1.5 inch long by 1.25 inch broad. The eggs from the first nest appeared broader than those from the last, but I did not measure them."
Colonel Tickell, in his paper on the nidification of certain species in the plains of India, remarks in regard to the present bird :-Â " Little or no nest, at most a little grass scattered and smoothed down in the midst of heavy grass-jungle; always on the ground. Eggs usually four in number, round, pure white ; size 1.75 by l.37 inch ; November or December."
The eggs of this species with which I have been favoured by Mr. Parker are pure white, with very little gloss, and of more elongated oval than those of S. flammea. The two eggs sent by Mr. Parker measured 1.65 by 1.27 inch and 1.66 by 1.28 inch.
Other eggs which I have received from the Khasia Hills and Cachar are quite similar, dull white glossless eggs, rather elongated ovals, varying but little in size or shape; the shell is quite yellow when held up against the light.
They measure from 1.53 to 1.61 in length, and from 1.21 to 1.25 in breadth.
Strix Candida, Tickell, J. A. S. B. ii, p. 572 (1833); Jerdon, IB. Ind. Orn. pl. 30; id. B. I. i, p. 118; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 93; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. ii. p. 308; Blyth & Wold. Birds Burm. p. 68; Fairbank, S. F. iv, p. 253 ; Hume & Dav. S. F. vi, p. 27; Ball & Hume, S. F. vii, p. 200; Hume, Cat. no. 61; Reid, S. F. x, p. 14; Davison, ibid. p. 341; Terry, ibid. p. 469; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 168; id. in Hume's N. & E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 95 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 18. Strix longimembris, Jerdon, Madr. Jour. L. S. x, p. 86 (1839). Glaux javanica, Blyth, Cat. p. 42 (1849); nec Strix javanica, Gmel. Glaux Candida, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xix, p. 513; Hume, N. & E. p. 60. Scelostrix Candida, Kaup, Tr. Z. S. iv, p. 248; Blyth, Ibis, 1866, p. 251; 1870, p. 160; Hume, Rough Notes, p. 345; A. Anderson, S. F. iii, p. 388.
Coloration. Disk either white or suffused with pale pinkish ferruginous, a blackish-brown spot in front of each eye; ruff dark brown above, white or buff at the sides of the head and below, some of the feathers often tipped with brown; upper plumage dark brown, each feather with a minute white spot; basal portion of feathers orange-buff,â€”this colour is conspicuous in places, especially on the neck ; smallest wing-coverts orange-buff, with small brown spots; quills buff, tipped with brown, mottled above the tip and with some imperfect dark bars farther up, inner webs mostly white; tail-feathers white, the middle pair generally and the outer webs of the others often buff above, all, except sometimes the outermost, with brown cross-bars; lower parts from chin white or buff, with several scattered brown spots that are seldom or never entirely wanting.
The buff lower parts and the pink disk may be signs of youth (they are not so in S. flammea); they are certainly not sexual.
Bill and cere pinky white; irides deep brown; legs and feet blackish brown; claws horny, tinged bluish (Davison).
Length about 14; tail 5; wing 13; tarsus 3.2-3.8; bill from gape 1.6.
Distribution. The grassy plains near the base of the Himalayas as far west as Dehra Dun, also parts of Bengal, the Eastern Central Provinces (Balaghat, Raipur), and Southern India (Nellore, Carnatic, Nilgiris), but not Ceylon. Fairbank thought he saw this Owl in the Bombay Deccan, but I agree with Butler that probably some other species may have been taken for it. To the eastward it has been found in Assam, the Khasi hills, Manipur, and at Toungngoo in Burma, and as far as Formosa in one direction, and Queensland in another, but it appears to be rare as a rule and very locally distributed.
Habits, &c. This species has generally been found in long grass, but Davison says that on the Nilgiris he has flushed it from grass scarcely a foot high. Very little is known of its habits. The nest, a very slight one, if any, is made on the ground; the eggs, 4 or 5 in number, are white, and measure about 1.63 by 1.27. They have been taken from October to December.
Strix longimembris Jerdon, Madr. Journ. Lit. Sci, x, p. 86 (1839) (Madras). Strix Candida. Blanf. & Oates, iii, p. 266.
Vernacular names. Sun-Oloo-sorai (Assam).
Description. Disk pure white to pale pinkish-ferruginous; ruff pure white in a few specimens, dark brown above in most and nearly always tipped above and below with ferruginous brown; a dark brown spot above the eye ; upper plumage dark rich brown, each feather with a spot of white near the tip, usually very small, sometimes rather larger; the bases of the feathers and most of the outer edges are orange-buff and show through in a varying degree, most conspicuously so on the neck; innermost lesser wing-coverts orange-buff speckled with brown ; median and greater coverts brown, the inner coverts more or less mottled with orange-buff, tipped with brown, more or less mottled with brown on the outer edges of the terminal halves, white on the edges of the inner webs and barred with dark brown; tail white or buffy-white, mottled at the tip and barred with dark brown, the markings obsolete or absent on the outermost pair; lower surface white, generally suffused with buff on the breast and flanks and lightly spotted on these parts with dull brown.
Colours of soft parts. Iris hazel to deep brown; bill fleshy-white to fleshy-horny; the cere more decidedly pink: legs and feet dark fleshy-brown to almost blackish-brown; claws horny-brown.
Measurements. Wing 305 to 348 mm.; tail 114 to 125 mm. ; tarsus 86 to 94 mm.; culmen about 36 mm. Nestling in down is fulvous-rufous.
Distribution. The sub-Himalayas from Dehra Dun to Eastern Assam; Bengal, East of the Bay, and Purnea, Maldah, etc ; Balaghat and Raipur in the Central Provinces; Southern India in Nellore, Carnatic, Nilgiris and adjoining Hills.
Nidification. This Owl breeds during the Cold Weather in India from October to March but in the hills of North Cachar I found eggs in July. The eggs are always laid on the ground and nearly always on level ground in fairly long grass. Occasionally the nest is made in quite short grass and one nest I found in grass only a few inches high, but this was in a hollow in the side of a very steep bank of a stream. The eggs number four to six and are laid on a good pad or nest of soft shreds of grass, sometimes a couple of inches thick. Forty eggs average 39.9 x 32.7 mm.: maxima 42.7 X 33.6 and 42.1 x 34.0 mm.; minima 36.0 x 30.0 mm.
Habits. The Grass-Owl inhabits the immense plains of long grass found in the lower hills, or Terai, of the Himalayas and the adjoining plains of Bihar, Bengal and Assam. Even where these Owls are common they are but seldom seen unless put up by parties shooting big game but I have often seen them when benighted out Gaur-shooting. Their extraordinary calls are just like those of the Barn-Owl and their flight is the same ghostly glide past of a grey shadow, with a soft flip-flap as they alight on a tree or once more leave it. They eat not only field-mice and similar small mammals but small reptiles, such as frogs and the smaller harmless snakes, and they also eat other birds' eggs and young. I have also seen the remains of locusts, grasshoppers and cicadae in their pellets and such, probably, form a large portion of their food.
The name Candida Tickell, 1833, is preoccupied by Latham, Ind. Orn. Suppl. p. xiv (1787) and cannot therefore be used.
Tyto longimembris longimembris Jerdon.
Strix longimembris Jerdon, Madr. Jour. Lit. Sci., vol. x, p, 86, 1840: Neilgherries, Madras.
Strix Candida Tickell, J. A. S. B. vol. ii, p. 572, Nov. 1833 : Bengal; not Strix Candida Latham, 1801.
Number of Museum Specimen Records Found : 17 for Tyto longimembris
|No.||Museum||Species||Collection Deatils||Collector||Date of Collection||Record||Locality||GBIF Portal Link||1||Yale University Peabody Museum||Tyto longimembris longimembris||YPM ORN ORN.042617||C. M. Inglis||1923-01-21 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Darbhanga District Bihar State India Southern Asia||Link|
|2||University of Michigan Museum of Zoology||Tyto longimembris longimembris||UMMZ Bird 143058||Koelz, Walter N||1950-07-18 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Kohima Naga Hills Assam India Southern Asia||Link|
|3||University of Michigan Museum of Zoology||Tyto longimembris longimembris||UMMZ Bird 143059||Koelz, Walter N||1950-10-12 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Karong Manipur India Southern Asia||Link|
|4||University of Michigan Museum of Zoology||Tyto longimembris longimembris||UMMZ Bird 143057||RupChand, Thakur||1951-10-07 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Khasi Hills, Mawrygkneng [United] Khasi [-Jaintia] [Meghalaya] India Southern Asia||Link|
|5||University of Michigan Museum of Zoology||Tyto longimembris longimembris||UMMZ Bird 143047||Koelz, Walter N||1952-12-15 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Khasi Hills, Mawphlang Khasi Assam India Southern Asia||Link|
|6||University of Michigan Museum of Zoology||Tyto longimembris longimembris||UMMZ Bird 143053||Koelz, Walter N||1952-12-15 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Nongspung Khasi Hills Assam India Southern Asia||Link|
|7||University of Michigan Museum of Zoology||Tyto longimembris longimembris||UMMZ Bird 143054||Koelz, Walter N||1952-12-15 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Nongspung Khasi Hills Assam India Southern Asia||Link|
|8||University of Michigan Museum of Zoology||Tyto longimembris longimembris||UMMZ Bird 143055||Koelz, Walter N||1952-12-15 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Nongspung Khasi Hills Assam India Southern Asia||Link|
|9||University of Michigan Museum of Zoology||Tyto longimembris longimembris||UMMZ Bird 143056||Koelz, Walter N||1952-12-15 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Nongspung Khasi Hills Assam India Southern Asia||Link|
|10||University of Michigan Museum of Zoology||Tyto longimembris longimembris||UMMZ Bird 143049||Koelz, Walter N||1953-01-08 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Khasi Hills, Mawphlang Khasi Assam India Southern Asia||Link|
|11||University of Michigan Museum of Zoology||Tyto longimembris longimembris||UMMZ Bird 143048||Koelz, Walter N||1953-01-13 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Khasi Hills, Mawphlang Khasi Assam India Southern Asia||Link|
|12||University of Michigan Museum of Zoology||Tyto longimembris longimembris||UMMZ Bird 143052||Koelz, Walter N||1953-01-13 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Khasi Hills, Mawphlang Khasi Assam India Southern Asia||Link|
|13||Field Museum||Tyto longimembris longimembris||FMNH Birds 268854||1953-01-13 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Mawphlang Khasi Hills Meghalaya India Southern Asia||Link|
|14||University of Michigan Museum of Zoology||Tyto longimembris longimembris||UMMZ Bird 143050||Koelz, Walter N||1953-01-14 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Khasi Hills, Mawphlang Khasi Assam India Southern Asia||Link|
|15||University of Michigan Museum of Zoology||Tyto longimembris longimembris||UMMZ Bird 143051||Koelz, Walter N||1954-08-08 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Khasi Hills, Mawphlang Khasi Assam India Southern Asia||Link|
|16||Field Museum||Tyto longimembris longimembris||FMNH Birds 268855||1954-08-08 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Mawphlang Khasi Hills Meghalaya India Southern Asia||Link|
|17||University of Michigan Museum of Zoology||Tyto longimembris longimembris||UMMZ Bird 190606||RupChand, Thakur||1955-07-22 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Khasi Hills, Mawphlang Khasi Assam India Southern Asia||Link|
Biodiversity occurrence data provided by: (Accessed through GBIF Data Portal, 2009-08-06)
- Field Museum ( 2 Records )
- University of Michigan Museum of Zoology ( 14 Records )
- Yale University Peabody Museum ( 1 Records )
Avibase - The World Bird Database for Australasian Grass-Owl ( Tyto longimembris )
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Anonymous. 2014 Tyto longimembris - (Australasian Grass-Owl ) in Deomurari, A.N. (Compiler), 2010. AVIS-IBIS (Avian Information System - Indian BioDiversity Information System) v. 1.0. Foundation For Ecological Security, India retrieved on 09/11/2014