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Slaty-breasted Rail - Gallirallus striatus


General Information


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Common Name : Slaty-breasted Rail
Scientific Name : Gallirallus striatus (Linnaeus, 1766)

Order : Gruiformes
Family : Rallidae
Taxonomic Group : Gruiformes - Rallidae ( Rails, Crakes, Gallinules, and Coots )
Vernacular Name : Gujarat: Piroji pan lauva, Patawali santhakukdi, Tamil: Kanan kozhi, Telugu: Wadi kodi, Malayalam (Kerala): Tuttuterippan, Sinhala (Sri Lanka): Kirimeti korowaka



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Taxonomy



Common Name : Slaty-breasted Rail
Scientific Name : Gallirallus striatus
Order : Gruiformes Family : Rallidae (Rails, Gallinules, and Coots)
Number of SubSpecies : 7

Taxon Category Sub Species / Race Range
subspeciesGallirallus striatus albiventerIndia and Sri Lanka to s China (Yunnan) and Thailand
subspeciesGallirallus striatus obscuriorAndaman and Nicobar islands
subspeciesGallirallus striatus jouyiCoastal s China and Hainan I.
subspeciesGallirallus striatus taiwanusTaiwan
subspeciesGallirallus striatus gularisMalaysia to Indochina, Sumatra, Java and s Borneo
subspeciesGallirallus striatus striatusPhilippines, Sulu Archipelago, n Borneo and Sulawesi
subspeciesGallirallus striatus paratermusSamar I. (Philippines)



3rd Edition, 2003. Revised and Corrected per Corrigenda to December 31, 2006

Common Name : Slaty-breasted Rail
Scientific Name : Gallirallus striatus
Number of SubSpecies : 6

Sub Species / Race
Gallirallus striatus albiventer
Gallirallus striatus obscurior
Gallirallus striatus jouyi
Gallirallus striatus taiwanus
Gallirallus striatus gularis
Gallirallus striatus striatus



IOC Common Name : Slaty-breasted Rail
IOC Scientific Name : Gallirallus striatus

Distribution :
Region : OR Range : widespread
Order : GRUIFORMES Family : Rallidae
Category : Rails, Crakes & Coots



SYNOPIS NO : 329- 330

Scientific Name: Rallus striatus
Common Name: Bluebreasted Banded Rail



Common Name : Slaty-breasted Rail
Scientific Name : Gallirallus striatus ((Linnaeus, 1766))
Birdlife Synonym :

BirdLife Redlist Status Year 2010: LC
BirdLife Species FactSheet for Slaty-breasted Rail ( Gallirallus striatus )

Taxonomy Treatment : R




IUCN Common Name (Eng) : Slaty-breasted Rail
Scientific Name : Gallirallus striatus (Linnaeus, 1766)
IUCN Redlist Species FactSheet for Slaty-breasted Rail ( Gallirallus striatus )

Species : striatus
Genus : Gallirallus
Family : Rallidae Order : Gruiformes

IUCN RedList Status : LC

IUCN RedList Criteria Version : 3.1
IUCN RedList Year Assessed : 2008
IUCN RedList Petitioned : N



Family : RALLIDAE

Scientific Name : Gallirallus striatus
Common Name : Slaty-breasted Rail



Bibliography


Bibliography of Slaty-breasted Rail ( Gallirallus striatus )
Number of Results found : 17

1. Pankaj Kumar & R. Suresh Kumar , (2009), Record of Slaty-breasted Rail Rallus striatus breeding in Dehradun, India, INDIAN BIRDS, 5:1: .


2. Craig Robson , (2005), Slaty-breasted Rail (Gallirallus striatus), BIRDS OF SOUTH-EAST ASIA; New Holland Publishers Ltd, : 40.


3. RS Kennedy; PC Gozales; EC Dickinson; HC Miranda Jr; TH Fisher , (2000), Slaty-breasted Rail (Gallirallus striatus), A GUIDE TO THE BIRDS OF THE PHILIPPINES; Oxford University Press, USA, : 13.


4. Krys Kazmierczak; Ber van Perlo , (2000), Slaty-breasted Rail (Gallirallus striatus), A FIELD GUIDE TO THE BIRDS OF THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT; Yale University Press, : 108.


5. Robson C; , (2000), From the field: Bhutan, Oriental Bird Club Bulletin, 32:: 66.


6. , (1993), From the field. Nepal, Oriental Bird Club Bulletin, 18:: 69.


7. Warakagoda D; , (1992), Kotte; Colombo, Ceylon Bird Club Notes, 1992:March: 49 - 50.


8. Neelakantan KK; , (1991), Bluebreasted Banded Rail Rallus striatus Linn. nesting in Kerala, Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 88:3: 448 - 450.


9. , (1990), Recent reports: Nepal, Oriental Bird Club Bulletin, 12:November: 41 - 42.


10. Santharam V; , (1989), Random notes and observations, Newsletter for Birdwatchers, 29:1-2: 8 - 9.


11. Yang, L., R. Pan, S. Wang. , (1984), [A newly recorded subspecies of Blue-breasted Rail in China.], Dongwuxue Yanjiu, 5: 226.


12. Salim Ali; S Dillon Ripley  , (1980), No. 330. Andaman Bluebreasted Banded Rail (Rallus striatus obscurior ) (Hume), Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan; Oxford University Press, New Delhi, Volume 2 (Megapodes to Crab Plover ): 153.


13. Salim Ali; S Dillon Ripley  , (1980), No. 329. Indian Bluebreasted Banded Rail (Rallus striatus albiventer ) Swainson, Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan; Oxford University Press, New Delhi, Volume 2 (Megapodes to Crab Plover ): 152.


14. Lahiri RK; , (1956), A note on newly hatched chicks of the Slatybreasted Rail Rallus striatus Linnaeus, Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 53:3: 475 - 476.


15. Baker ECS; , (1927), The game birds of the Indian Empire. Vol 5. the waders and other semi-sporting birds. Part 4, Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 32:2: 237 - 245.


16. Hume AO; , (1875), Novelties?, Stray Feathers, 3:5: 389 - 391.


17. Hume AO; , (1874), Contributions to the ornithology of India: the Islands of the Bay of Bengal, Stray Feathers, 2:1,2&3: 29 - 324.



Book Excerpts



913.  Rallus striatus, Linnaeus.

Blyth, Cat. 1671-Jerdon, Cat, 330-R. gularis, HorsFIELD-Wade-kodi, Tel.

The blue-breasted RaIL.

Descr.-Top of head and hind neck dark chesnut; upper plumage (including the quills and tall) olivaceous throughout, with narrow white, black-edged bars; beneath, the chin and throat whitish, the neck, breast, and upper abdomen bluish grey ; the lower abdomen, vent, under tail-coverts, and thigh-coverts, dull olivaceous, with white bands.

Bill yellowish green; irides red; legs dull green. Length 10 ½ inches ; wing 5 ¼  ; tail 1 5/8 ; bill at front 1 ½ ; tarsus 1 ½; mid-toe 1 ¾. The young want the ferruginous head and the bluish breast.

The Blue-breasted Rail is found throughout India, from the extreme South and Ceylon, to the foot of the Himalayas and the Punjab, especially in the cold weather. It frequents marshes and grassy ground by the sides of tanks and rivers, and is most abundant in well-watered districts : it is rare In the Carnatic and Deccan. It extends through Burmah to the Malayan islands. It  probably breeds in the well-watered districts of Bengal, &c. ; I found its nest in a swamp below Rangoon, containing six eggs, reddish cream colour with dark red and brown spots.

To this group belong several species chiefly from the Eastern islands and the Oceanic region ; R. pectoralis, Cuvier ; R. Philippensis, Latham, &c. R. Lewinii, Swainson, from Australia, is also nearly allied, and is made the type of Lewinia by Bonaparte. 2nd.-With longer bills,-{Rallus, as restricted).




THE ANDAMANESE BANDED RAIL.



Hypotaenidia obscuriora, Hume.

 

Vernacular Names.—[?]

I HAVE already pointed out (note p. 245) the differences that exist between this species and the Banded Rail of Continental India, Burma, and the Malay Penin- sula (the constantly larger size, the nearly black upper surface, almost entirely wanting the brown margins to the feathers, the deep leaden grey neck and breast, and the dusky maroon cap and nape), and I have explained the doubt that may still exist as to which of the two forms should properly bear the name striata. I have now only to add that the present form is, we believe, absolutely confined to the Andaman Group (where it is a permanent resident), it not having as yet been procured even at the Nicobars.

From the little I can learn (for no one seems as yet to have observed it closely), the habits of this species are precisely those of its Continental congener.

Davison remarks:- " I have only observed this bird at Aberdeen, South Andaman, where I have flushed it from the sugarcane fields and secondary scrub on the outskirts of fields and gardens. Generally they are found singly, occasionally in pairs. I have never heard them utter any note; I have always found them silent and very shy of observation. The flight is slow and somewhat heavy, and seldom extends for more than twenty or thirty yards. I did not observe it at the Nicobars."

Two NESTS of this species, taken in May and July, were mere pads of grass, placed in tufts of grass and rush, near the edges of clearings in the neighbourhood of Aberdeen. They contained four and six eggs respectively.

All these eggs, as well as two previously sent me by Captain Wimberley, are precisely similar. They are very regular ovals, usually slightly more pointed at one end, and with a faint gloss. The ground varies from nearly white to a pale brown or pinkish stone colour, and it is more or less sparingly spotted, streaked, blotched, and speckled with a rather rich red or
brownish red. These markings are somewhat more numerous towards the large end, where, in some, they form an irregular cap. Besides these primary markings, a number of pale purple
clouds and spots are scattered about the egg, mostly towards the large end. The eggs vary from 1.38 to 1.48 in length, and from 1.05 to 1.14 in breadth, but the average of twelve is
1.43 by 1.oo.

Unfortunately we have but few specimens measured in the flesh ; these vary as follows:—

Length, 11.5 to 12.75 ; expanse, 17.5 to l8.5 ; wing, 5.3 to 5.5 ; tail from vent, 2.25 to 2.5 ; tarsus, 1.5 to 1.75; bill from gape, 1.75 to 2.0.

In no adult is the wing as small as 5.2, and it runs to at least 5.6.

The colours of the soft parts were recorded in only two specimens ; in these they were as follow :—

Legs and feet slaty green and dark greenish horny; irides deep brown ; bill Indian red; tips of both mandibles and ridge of upper mandible deep horny brown.

Doubtless a more ample record would show variations in the colouring of these parts analogous to those observed in striata.

THE plate. The left hand figure is supposed to represent our present species, and it is, if anything, less satisfactory than that of striata. The face, sides of the neck, and breast should be a very dark leaden grey, not in the least like the colour represented ; the forehead, crown, occiput, and nape should be, not the light chestnut of which a trace is shown over the eye and behind the ear-coverts, but a dusky maroon, with no trace of the spotting which the plate exhibits. Even in younger birds there are no such spottings, only blackish streaks on the centre of the crown and occiput, which would not have been visible in the position in which the bird is placed. The colour of the rest of the upper parts is correct enough, but the banding should have been white, and not pale yellowish. The colours of the soft parts are also, I believe, wrongly represented.

I have satisfied myself that the Rail described by me (S. R. III., 389) as H. abnormis is a young bird of this species, and herein lies another marked difference between the present and the Continental form that, whereas the latter at no stage after it is fully fledged ever appears to want the white banding or spotting on the upper surface, this is entirely absent in nearly full grown birds of the present species, which, it thus appears, assumes the characteristic white bandings of the upper surface some months later than does the Continental species.

The following is a description of a nearly full-grown Andamanese bird, the colours of which closely resemble those of the nestling of the Continental form : —

Forehead, crown, occiput, back of neck, entire back, rump and upper tail-coverts black or deep blackish brown, the feathers very narrowly margined laterally with dull olive brown ; scapulars similar, but most of them with a minute brownish white speck on the outer (and in some few on both) webs near the tip; chin and throat, as far as the end of the maxilla, white; rest of the throat, lores, entire sides of head and neck, and breast a uniform very dark grey-brown, or deep leaden grey with a brownish tinge ; wings and tail black, with narrow white bars, in many cases reduced to spots, on both webs ; the coverts, secondaries and tertiaries margined with dull olive brown, as in the case of the back feathers, and in the case of the quills, with the outer webs, between the white bars, with more or less of an olive tinge, not reaching in any case either to the bars or the shafts; abdomen, vent, lower tail-coverts, sides and flanks, dull dusky olive brown, obscurely barred with brownish white, the white more or less bounded above and below with blackish ; lower surface of the wing blackish, more or less banded with white.

There are many other species of Banded Rails (Hypotaenidia) distributed through the Islands of the Archipelago, Australia, New Zealand, and the Islands of the South Pacific, but none, so far as I know, from the mainland of Asia or elsewhere. They are mostly very migratory species, but I cannot ascertain that either striata in India or obscuriora in the Andamans are at all migratory.





THE BLUE-BREASTED BANDED RAIL.



Hypotaenidia striata, Linne.

 

Vernacular Names.-[Kana-Koli (Tamil); Wade-Kodi (Telegu); Yay -gyet (Burmese), Pegu;]

HERE again I am terribly at fault as to the real distribution of this species. Dr. Jerdon tells us that this species is found throughout India, from the extreme south and Ceylon to the foot of the Himalayas and the Punjab; but, so far as I have been able to ascertain, the Blue-breasted Banded Rail occurs in only a fractional portion of India. Dr. Jerdon may have possessed sources of information not open to me, but I must state the distribution as I have at present ascertained it.

It seems common in Southern Ceylon, and occurs about the bases of the Nilgiris, the Wynad, and the Malabar Coast, whence it extends into Belgaum and the Southern Koncan. Two specimens were also sent me by Captain Mitchell said to have been procured in the Madras market.

North of this I can find no record of its having been procured in the Madras Presidency, in the Deccan, the Nizam's Territory, Khandesh, Guzerat, Berar, the Central Provinces, the Central India Agency, Rajputana, Kutch, Kathiawar, Sind, the Punjab, Oudh, the North- Western Provinces or Chota Nagpore. I do not rely only on published lists; in many of these localities I have personally collected on a large scale, while in others I have had experienced collectors, like Mr. F. R. Blewitt, collecting for a series of years.

The species reappears in the deltaic districts of Lower Bengal, from several localities in which I have received specimens ; it is very common in the neighbourhood of Calcutta itself. I have it from Sylhet, Cachar, and the Khasia Hills ; and, though I have seen no specimens thence, have been informed that it occurs right up the Assam valley to Sadiya.

I should expect it to occur in the Duars and in the Tarais, running thence westwards along the bases of the Himalayas; but I can obtain no verification of this fact, and Mr. Hodgson never seems to have obtained it in Nepal or Sikhim, or to have received it from the Tarais below these. Doubtless it occurs in Tipperah and Chittagong, but the fact still remains to be established.

We know of its occurrence in Aracan, many localities in Pegu, and several in Tenasserim.

Outside our limits it has been obtained in Independent Burma, Western Yunan, and Southern China generally and Formosa ; in Siam, Cochin China (Saigon), the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and probably (but see note, p. 245) the Philippines.

In the early mornings, in the neighbourhood of Calcutta, where alone I have been able to observe this species, it may be seen running about on the grassy banks of water channels or on short turf bordering on rice fields, swampy thickets, and the like, but at all other times it lies concealed in wet standing crops, brush-wood, in low hollows or dense herbage, often on the margins of river channels, and ponds.

It runs with great rapidity and ease, but as it feeds, walks slowly along with rather a circumspect air, lifting its feet very deliberately, but holding its body all the while nearly horizontal ; every now and then it makes a little run here and there to seize some favourite morsel; then it will stand still a moment and raise its head as if to listen, and again resume its deliberate march, occasionally, but not nearly so often as do the Porzanas, jerking its little tail. I do not think it is quick sighted, or, if it be so, it does not look many feet above the level of the ground ; for I have stood for several minutes at a time in grass scarcely above my knees, watching one of these birds on the open sward scarcely ten yards distant. Even raising my hat silently to wipe my forehead has not caught the bird's attention, but at the slightest sound, e.g., the clicking of a rupee once against my gun barrel, it would give a little shrug and glide, stooping low, into cover with wonderful quickness. Keep perfectly quiet, and if it is still early, and the heavy dew thick on the grass, in a very short space of time, just where it disappeared, you will see the bird's head and neck protruded from the reeds, and after a moment or so our friend re-emerges, and, running to close to the spot whence he (or she) was frightened, resumes its food-quest

I have seen as many as five birds thus feeding within a circle of fifty yards ; but single birds or pairs are far most commonly thus observed, and this is equally the case when beating likely spots with dogs, when you are pretty sure of flushing all the birds there are, once, at any rate. Without dogs, unless you surprise them, suddenly emerging from the cover nearest to them, and rushing at them, they are hard as a rule to put up, preferring, in most cases, even though in the open, to depend upon their legs. With dogs they rise once. readily enough, but after that will usually allow themselves to be caught rather than fly a second time.

Their flight is slow and flapping (their large legs hanging down conspicuously behind), and is rarely extended beyond twenty or thirty yards, after which they drop, into cover if possible, but if there be none close enough in the direction in which you have driven them, on to the bare ground, where they take up the running in real earnest. Where dogs are barking behind them, they make a push to reach the nearest cover before alighting; but on one occasion on which I chanced to cut off a bird from the only patch of real cover within two hundred yards, it dropped into a tiny bush after a flight of perhaps seventy yards, and was seized by a dog directly.

They are very silent birds, and I have never heard their regular call, but when feeding, if a pair are together, I have heard one utter a rather sharp, though not loud, whistled note.

I have never seen them swimming voluntarily; a wounded bird dropping in the water will swim, and if pursued will dive, but I do not think that they normally take to the water.

Their food is very varied, chiefly, I think, worms, small snail and other shells, tiny grasshoppers and other insects, but grass seeds and vegetable substances are generally found mingled with their other food, and with it all an abundance of coarse sand. When wounded, they will hide up in any hole, most especially in holes, just above water level, in under-cut banks of streams and water-courses, and if shot at on such banks and not killed outright, they are sure to disappear into some such refuge, leaving no scent behind them, as they always run or paddle some little distance in the water, under the overhanging bank, before lying up.

In the day time, even when beating patches of swamp which you know to contain several, you will rarely flush one unless you have small active dogs. At first, no doubt, they run about, but if the hustling is continued, they creep into some hole, or if there be none such, crouch under some dense tuft, where a sharp-eyed beater every now and then spies them out and pounces on them.

They are very easy to keep for a time in confinement, and soon get so tame that they will feed out of your hand, eating greedily worms, small snails, boiled rice, vegetables, almost anything of this kind you give them. But they dislike a bright light, and always take refuge in the darkest corner during the sunnier hours of the day, and after a, time always seem to pine away and die. Probably they would live well enough in suitable aviaries. I have always had them in cages.

I do not know exactly how to define it; but, having seen much of this species, I should say that it was much less of the Water- Hen type than are the Crakes and more of the Water-Rail.

I cannot say whether this species is at all migratory in India. Some remain all the year round in the neighbourhood of Calcutta, but they seem much more numerous there in March and April than at any other time perhaps because the whole country is drier and fewer places suited to their habits are then avail­able, and they are therefore easier to find.

They seem to breed in all the localities where I have noted their occurrence, the breeding season extending from May to the end of October, and they rear, I believe, at least two broods during this period.

The nest, a pad or heap of grass varying from one to twelve inches in height, and from six to ten inches in diameter at top, where there is a slight depression for the eggs, is always placed in grass, rushes, or standing rice in the immediate neighbourhood of water.

Six is the largest number of eggs that I have known to be found in any nest, but seven appears to be the full complement.

A nest taken on the 12th of July in a small swamp outside and south of the Botanical Gardens, Calcutta, which several of the birds had frequented throughout the cold season, was a conical heap of dry rush about eighteen inches in diameter at base, nine at the top, and about six inches in height. The depression may have been an inch deep in the centre, and was lined with green grass. It was placed half on the land and half in the water, completely surrounded by dense bulrushes, through which, on the land side, the birds had made three distinct paths. On the water side there was a tiny natural opening through the bulrushes. The nest contained six hard-set eggs, and the female was snared on it, having returned to it despite the disturbance caused by two people smashing through the bulrushes to it and all round about in looking for it.
Mr. Cripps " found a nest in Sylhet on the 22nd of June, snaring the female on it. It was a heap of grass, rushes, &c, about five inches in height, with a slight, central depression, placed in a grass field close to water, and contained four fresh eggs."

Mr. Darling writes that he "found a nest on the 26th August at Sultan's Battery, Wynad, elevation about 2,000 feet. The nest was placed in some long grass by the side of a small swamp lying between the public road and a bamboo jungle. The nest was in the centre of a tuft of grass about eighteen inches in diameter, and was entirely concealed. It was built exclusively with grass, dry and decaying at base, green and fresh at top, and was some eight inches high and six in diameter, with a central depression two inches in depth. There were five eggs, all covered with mud, which must have first adhered to the feathers of the bird when she was feeding. In this same swamp, not quarter of an acre in extent, I found fifteen shells of three other nests that had hatched off."

But Mr. Oates has seen many more nests of this species than any of us, and he says :—

"This bird is very common in Lower Pegu, and I have found no less than eight nests. The breeding season seems to extend from about the 1st of July to the 11th October, on which latter date a nest of well-incubated eggs was found.

" The nest is a mere pad of soft grass, leaves, and the outer rind of the elephant grass, about eight inches in diameter and one thick, placed in a tuft of grass, always near water, and raised a few inches above the ground. The coarse grass growing round paddy fields is a favourite locality. The bird sits very closely, and the nest is not easy to discover. The male bird sits on the eggs, at least at times, and I killed one with a stick while he was sitting on seven eggs,

" Seven is the full number of eggs, occasionally six only. In length they vary from 1.43 to 1.18, and in breadth from 1.o8 to 0.96, but the average of 31 eggs is 1.34 by 1.00 ; some are almost glossless, others are considerably glossy. The ground colour is pinkish stone, pale when fresh and darkening as incubation proceeds. The shell markings consist of blotches and splashes of pale purple evenly, but sparingly, distributed over the egg, and the surface marks consist of large blotches and streaks of rather bright rusty brown. These marks are larger at the thick end than elsewhere, and run chiefly in the direction of the longer axis of the egg. In some eggs the marks form a distinct cap, and the shell marks are very few. All the eggs are exceedingly beautiful."

The eggs of this species obtained in India are regular ovals of the usual Water- Hen type. The shell is tolerably fine and compact, but they have not much gloss. The ground colour varies from white to salmon pink. The markings consist of spots, specks, streaks, and blotches, varying from maroon red to reddish brown, and smaller spots and streaks of dull inky purple or grey. The markings apparently, never very dense or numerous, are chiefly confined to the larger end.
The eggs I possess only vary from 1.28 to 1.41 in length, and from 0.98 to 1.13 in width, but the average of twenty-four is 1. 35 by 1.02 nearly.

The dimensions of this species vary very considerably, but I cannot make out that there is any constant difference in size between the sexes, though possibly with a very large series of measurements the females would prove to average slightly larger. As it is, the largest and the smallest birds we have ever measured were both females.

Length, 9.8 to 11.5; expanse, 14.25 to 17.5 ; wing, 4.5 to 5.0; tail from vent, 1.5 to 2.25 ; tarsus, 1.35 to 1.62; bill from gape, 1.35 to 1.82 ; weight, 3.6 ozs. to 5 ozs.

These are all specimens measured in the flesh ; in twenty­

three other specimens from India, Burma, and the Malay Peninsula, the wings vary from 4.4 to 5.0. There is not a single specimen in my large series in which the wing exceeds 5.1.

As for the colours of the soft parts, these vary to an extent that is quite incomprehensible ; the irides are most commonly reddish brown, but they are also light yellowish brown, yellowish chestnut, vandyke brown, Sienna brown, pale brown, Indian red, and litharge red ; the legs and feet are plumbeous green, olive green, fleshy grey, greyish brown, brown, greenish brown, slaty green, leaden blue, " leaden grey, tinged with greenish and brown" (Swinhoe), and "dirty but!" (Ramsay).

The bill varies equally; the following are the colours as recorded by myself and others ; upper mandible dusky brown ; gape and lower mandible orange, shading to brown at tip ; culmen deep brown ; basal portion of bill rosy red ; terminal portion greyish brown ;—" bill purplish brown ; base dull crimson" (Everett);—"bill bright plum colour" (Ramsay);—bill dull Indian red, except along ridge of culmen, which is dark brown ;— upper mandible dark brown; lower mandible and triangular patch at base of upper mandible pink ;—bill purple; culmen dark brown ;—" bill bright madder pink on basal two-thirds, light violet grey on apical one-third ; culmen dark" (Swinhoe) ;—" bill bright coral pink, whitish in the centre, brown on the culmen and at tip of both mandibles" {Butler),

The plate is by no means satisfactory ; the right hand figure is intended to represent our present species. The face, sides of the neck, and breast should be a rather pale blue grey instead of the colour shown ; the whole of the spotting of the crown, nape, and back of the neck is due to some mistake. These parts should be unspotted chestnut red, like the streak shown in the plate from behind the eye. It is only in the young bird that these parts are mingled with brown, and then the brown is in long streaks not spots. The white banding on the wings and mantle is not sufficiently distinctly shown, and, varying as do the colours of bills and feet, I doubt whether they are ever as depicted in the plate.

The nestling of this species has the whole upper surface blackish brown, the feathers of the back margined with brown ; the chin, throat, and middle of the abdomen whitish ; the rest of the lower surface chiefly fawny brown, with faint traces of white barrings on the side of the abdomen ; the little wings are like the back, except that they exhibit pale dots on either web of the feathers the first traces of the barrings that extend in the adult bird over the entire wings and upper plumage.

In this species the white barrings develop very rapidly, and may be observed in comparatively quite young birds which have not yet acquired a trace of rufous on the crown and neck.

It seems still somewhat doubtful what name our Indian birds should bear. Striata was described from the Philippines.

Recently the Marquis of Tweeddale, in one of his valuable Papers on the birds of the Philippines, remarked of two specimens of this species :—

" These Zebu specimens may be regarded as being typical; and from them Andaman and Rangoon examples cannot be separated; consequently the titles founded on the Andaman race must fall. A comparison made with Continental, Indian, and Malaccan examples does not support my former opinion that the Andaman birds specifically differ from Indian and Malaccan; otherwise the Indian race would require a new title."
This would appear conclusive ; but the fact is that our very large series, probably the largest in the world, does not confirm this view. Our specimens are from Ceylon, Madras, the Nilgiris, the Wynad, the Malabar Coast, various places in Lower Bengal and Assam, Aracan, Pegu, Rangoon itself, various localities in Tenasserim, and all parts of the Malay Peninsula. These are all absolutely of the same type, the birds of the southern portions of the Indian and Malayan Peninsula as a whole slightly palest, those of Assam slightly darkest, but not one single adult bird out of between fifty and sixty making any approach to the colouration of any Andamanese specimens. The Andamanese bird is not only much deeper coloured, its crown and nape are almost maroon against chestnut in the Continental bird, it almost entirely wants the brown margins to the feathers of the upper surface, and it is distinctly larger. It is not possible that the Zebu birds should be inseparable from both Ran­ goon and Andamanese birds. Either Lord Tweeddale wrote from memory, or he had before him immature specimens, either from Rangoon or Zebu, or from both. For be it noted, that at one stage, before it puts on the complete chestnut head of the fully adult bird, and while this is still much mingled with brown, the immature bird of the Continental race is almost as dark as the mature Andaman bird, but not nearly so dark as the corresponding stage of the latter, which is almost black. It still remains uncertain, therefore, whether the Philippine bird, the true striata, agrees with Indian and Malayan or the Andamanese form. If the latter, then

obscuriora must be suppressed, arid the Indian bird would require a new title; but if the former, which seems most probable, then the names as given in the text would stand.

Of course the question as to whether we should accept the peculiar Andamanese race as a distinct species still remains an open one. I can only say that the insular birds are uniformly, sex for sex (of course taking adults only), markedly larger (as are their eggs), and the colouration so different that no single Indian or Malayan specimen in our huge series approaches or can be confounded with any Andaman bird. If we suppress it, so must we suppress one or two others of the genus now universally accepted.

Mr. G. Vidal writes :—

"I found a few birds of this species in a mangrove swamp on the Vashishti river in this district (Ratnagiri), about five miles from the coast. I shot one male on the 30th March 1879 measuring as follows :—Wing, 4 4/3 ; bill, 1 3/8 ; tarsus. 1 1/2 ; mid-toe and claw, 1 3/4 Eyes red; legs greenish ; bill dusky above and reddish below. I have not yet seen this species elsewhere, nor has any one else to my knowledge obtained it in this district. In its habits it appears to be less skulking than P. bailloni. Towards evening I have seen them come fearlessly out of the_ thick cover of the bushes and mangroves to the edge of the mud banks to feed, giving a good shot from a boat.' But if once alarmed, they dodge rapidly under the bushes, and it is almost impossible to put them up again,"

Mr. Oates writes:-

" The commonest of all the Rails. It is found everywhere in Pegu in the plains. It is a constant resident, I think, but I do not remember ever seeing it in the dry weather, November to May.

Diard  Finsch and Conrad. K. K. Z. b. G.,Vienna, 1873. 4th June.





The Blue-Breasted Banded Rail. (Vol. II., pp. 245, et seq)—

 

On Plate II will be found a figure of an egg of this species.





Hypotaenidia striata, Lin.

 

913. :- Jerdon's Birds of India, Vol. II, p. 726, Butler, Deccan ; Stray Feathers, Vol IX, p. 432.

The Blue Breasted Banded Rail.
 

Length, 9.8 to 11.5 expanse, 14.25 to 17.5; wing, 4.5 to 5.0 ; tail, 1.5 to 2.25; tarsus, 1.35 to 1.62; bill from gape, 1.35 to 1.82 ; weight, 3.6 to 5 oz.

The colors of the soft parts are extremely variable.

Top of head and hind-neck dark chesnut; upper plumage (including the quills and tail) olivaceous throughout, with narrow white, black-edged bars; beneath, the chin and throat whitish; the neck, breast, and upper abdomen, bluish-grey; the lower abdomen, vent, under tail-coverts, and thigh-coverts, dull olivaceous, with white bands.

The Blue-breasted Banded Bail is a not uncommon seasonal visitant to portions of the Deccan ; it breeds during August and September. It does not occur in Sind, neither has it been record­ed from Guzerat.





192. Hypotaenidia striata (Linn.),

 

Wald., Trans. Zool. Soc. viii. p. 95 ; Hume, Nests and Eggs Ind. B. p. 605; Blyth, B. Burm. p. 161 ; Hume, Str. F iii, p. 189; Hume and Dav., Str. F. vi. p. 468; Legge, B. Ceylon, p. 775 ; Hume and Marsh., Game Birds ii. p. 245, pl.; Oates, Br. Burm. ii. p. 339; Murray, Avif. Brit. Ind. ii. p. 638, No. 1326. Rallus striatus, Linn., Syst. Nat. i. p. 262. :-

The Blue-breasted Banded Rail.
 

Top of head, nape and hind neck chestnut; upper plumage, including the wing coverts and tertiaries, blackish brown, each feather broadly edged with olive brown and barred with white ; primaries, secondaries and tail dark brown, barred with white j lores, cheeks, ear coverts, sides of the neck, foreneck and breast bluish grey, tinged somewhat with rufescent; sides of the body, lower abdomen, vent, under tail and thigh coverts, also the under wing coverts, dark brown, barred with white; centre of abdomen dull white ; bill rosy pink on the basal half; remainder horn colour or yellowish green; irides red; legs and feet dull greenish or olive brown. The young has not the chestnut head and bluish breast

Length. :- 9.8 to 11.5 inches; wing 4.5 to 5 ; tail 1.5 to 2.25 ; tarsus 1.35 to 1.62 ; bill from gape 1.32 to 1.82.

Hab. :- Southern India, along the bases of the Neilgherries, the Wynaad, Malabar Coast, Southern Konkan, in the Rutnagherry districts and Southern Ceylon. It also occurs in Lower Bengal in the deltaic districts, in the neighbourhood of Calcutta too, as well as in Sylhet, Cachar, Khasia Hills, and the Assam Valley to Sadiya. In Arracan it is said to be fairly common, while in Burmah, Oates says, it is found throughout the whole province, Tenasserim included. It breeds in all localities where they occur, from May to October, making a small nest of grass on the ground near water, surrounded by thick vegetation. Eggs, seven in number, of a pinkish stone colour blotched with pale purple. In length they vary from 1.28 to 1.41 inches, and from 0.98 to 1.13 in width.

Hypotaenidia obscuriora. Hume, Str. F. ii. p. 302; iv. p. 294; id. and Marsh., Game Birds 253, pi, is recorded from the Andamans as a separate race, but to my mind it can scarcely stand as a species, and hence it is suppressed.





Hypotaenidia obscuriora, Hume.
The Andaman Banded Rail.

Hypotaenidia obscuriora, Hume ; Hume, Cat. no. 913 bis.

Two nests of this species, taken in May and July, were mere pads of grass, placed in tufts of grass and rush near the edges of clearings in the neighbourhood of Aberbeen. They contained four and six eggs respectively.

All these eggs, as well as two previously sent me by Captain Wimberley, are precisely similar. They are very regular ovals, usually slightly more pointed at one end, and with a faint gloss. The ground varies from nearly white to a pale brown or pinkish stone-colour, and it is more or less sparingly spotted, streaked, blotched, and speckled with a rather rich red or brownish red. These markings are somewhat more numerous towards the large end, where, in some, they form an irregular cap. Besides these primary markings, a number of pale purple clouds and spots are scattered about the egg, mostly towards the large end.

The eggs vary from 1.38 to 1.48 in length and from 1.05 to 1.14 in breadth; but the average of twelve is 1.43 by 1.00.




1323. Hypotaenidia Striata (Linn),

 

Wald., Trans. Zool. Soc. viii. p. 95 ; Hume, Nests and Eggs Ind. B. p. 605 ; Blyth, B. Burm. p. 161 ; Hume, Str. F. iii. p. 189; Hume and Dav., Str. F. vi. p. 468; Legge, B. Ceylon, p. 775 ; Hume and Marsh., Game Birds ii. p. 245, pl. ; Oates, Br. Burm. ii. p. 339. Rallus striatus, Linn., Syst. Nat. i. p. 262. -

The Blue-breasted Banded Rail.
 

Top of head, nape and hind neck chestnut; upper plumage, including the wing coverts and tertiaries, blackish brown, each feather broadly edged with olive brown and barred with white ; primaries, secondaries and tail dark brown, barred with white; lores, cheeks, ear coverts, sides of the neck, foreneck and breast bluish grey, tinged somewhat with rufescent; sides of the body, lower abdomen, vent, under tail and thigh coverts, also the under wing coverts, dark brown, barred with white; centre of abdomen dull white ; bill rosy pink on the basal half; remainder horn colour or yellowish green; irides red ; legs and feet dull greenish or olive brown. The young has not the chestnut head and bluish breast.

Length. - 9.8 to 11.5 inches; wing 4.5 to 5 ; tail 1.5 to 2.25 ; tarsus 1.35 to 1.62 ; bill from gape 1.32 to 1.82.

Hab. - Southern India, along the bases of the Neilgherries, the Wynaad, Malabar Coast, Southern Konkan, in the Rutnagherry districts and Southern Ceylon. It also occurs in Lower Bengal in the deltaic districts, in the neighbourhood of Calcutta too, as well as in Sylhet, Cachar, Khasia Hills, and the Assam Valley to Sadiya. In Arracan it is said to be fairly common, while in Burmah, Oates says, it is found throughout the whole province, Tenasserim included. It breeds in all localities where they occur, from May to October, making a small nest of grass on the ground near water, sur­rounded by thick vegetation. Eggs, seven in number, of a pinkish stone colour blotched with pale purple. In length they vary from 1.28 to 1.41 inches, and from 0.98 to 1.13 in width.

Hypotaenidia obscuriora. Hume, Str. F. ii. p. 302 ; iv. p. 294 ; id. and Marsh., Game Birds 253, pl., is recorded from the Andamans as a separate race, but to my mind it can scarcely stand as a species, and hence it is suppressed.





Hypotaenidia striata (Linn.).  
The Blue-breasted Banded Hail,


Rallus striatus, Linn., Jerd. B. Ind. ii, p. 726.
Hypotanidia striata (Linn.), Hume, Rough Draft N. & E. no. 913.

The Blue-breasted Banded Rail breeds from May to October according to locality. The nest, a pad or heap of grass varying from One to twelve inches in height and from six to ten inches in diameter at top, where there is a small depression for the eggs, is at ways placed in grass, rushes, or standing rice in the immediate neighbourhood of water.

l5r. Jerdon says :- " It probably breeds in the well-watered districts of Bengal, &c. I found its nest in a swamp below Rangoon, containing six eggs, reddish cream-colour with dark red and brown spots."

Colonel Butler writes from Belgaum ; - " Belgaum, 15th August, 1880. A nest in a rice-field on a small mound of earth about one foot above the level of the ground. The field was damp but not very wet, and the nest, which consisted of a pad of dry grass, contained nine slightly incubated eggs.

" Another nest taken on the same date contained eight eggs, also slightly incubated. The nest was similar to the one above described, but was built in longish grass in swampy ground adjoining rice-fields."

On the 2nd September, 1880,1 shot a hen bird, in a rice-field near Belgaum, that was just going to lay, but unfortunately the egg was broken by the shot. On the 11th September one of my nest-seekers took another nest in a rice-field containing six fresh eggs.

" Another nest containing seven fresh eggs on the 17th September, 1880, and One with seven incubated eggs in long rushes growing round a tank on the 27th September same year."

Mr. J. R. Cripps found a nest of this Rail in Sylhet on the 22nd of June, containing four fresh eggs.

Mr. J. Darling, Junior, writes from Southern India; - " Nest found at Sultan's Battery,Wynaad, 2000 feet above the sea, on 26th August, 1874. The nest was built in some long grass by the side of a small swamp, bounded on one side by the Government Road, and other sides by bamboo jungle. It was in a tuft of grass, the grass concealing it well, and measured 6 inches in diameter and 8 inches deep. The entire nest was built of grass, from top to bottom ; the foundation was decayed but the top was green grass, as if the bird went on putting grass under the eggs. There were five eggs in the nest."

Major Wardlaw Ramsay remarks :- " The Blue-breasted Rail breeds at Tonghoo in August and September. I took a nest on the 20th September 1874, containing five eggs. The bird is common at Rangoon and Tonghoo."

Mr. Gates found numerous nests of this Rail in Pegu from the 1st of July to the 11th October. They were generally built in the coarse grass which grows between the paddy-fields, and were small pads of vegetable matter on or near the ground. The eggs are usually six or seven in number.

The eggs of this species though all of the same type differ a great deal inter se. Typically they are very regular ovals, but a good many are decidedly compressed towards the small end; some are rather more elongated and occasionally an almost pyriform egg is met with the ground-colour varies from almost pure white to a rich salmon-pink, though pinky white or pinky stone-colour is most usual.
The majority of eggs have scarcely any gloss, but I have one or two specimens very fairly glossy ; the markings consist of bold blotches chiefly about the large end, and moderate-sized spots and specks, more or less thinly distributed about the rest of the egg; but some eggs almost entirely want the larger blotches and are somewhat more thickly set with the smaller spots; while some again have only a number of moderate-sized spots about the large end and scarcely any markings elsewhere.

In colour the markings vary from bright burnt sienna-red to dull reddish purple, while besides these, which we may call primary markings, a number of spots or blotches of pale subsurface-looking greyish lilac occur in most eggs, but chiefly about the large end, and very often these latter markings are far more numerous than the former.

The eggs vary from 1.3 to 1.4 in length and from 0.98 to 1.13 in breadth; but the average is 1.35 by 1.02,




1390. Hypotaenidia obscurior.

 

The Andamanese Banded Rail.

Rallus striatus, apud Ball, J. A. S. B. xii, pt. 2, p. 288; id. S. F. i, p. 86; nec Linn. Hypotaenidia striata, apud Hume, S. F. ii, p. 302; Walden, Ibis, 1874, p. 146. Hypotaenidia obscuriora, Hume, S. F. ii, p. 302 (Jan. 1874) ; iv, p. 294 ; id. Cat. no. 913 bis; Hume & Marsh. Game B. ii, p. 253, pl.; Oates in Hume's N. & E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 400. Hypotaenidia ferrea, Walden, Ibis. 1874, p. 303 (April 1874). Hypotaenidia abnormis, Hume, S. F. iii, p. 147 (1875); id. Cat. no. 913 ter. Hypotaenidia obscurior (H. striatae subsp.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiii, p; 37.

Like the last species, but larger and much darker in colour; the head and nape dark rufous brown ; upper parts generally blackish brown, with narrow pale edges to the feathers ; breast slaty grey.

Bill Indian-red, tips of both mandibles and whole culmen deep horny brown; irides deep brown; legs and feet dark greenish horny (Davison).

Length 12 ; tail 2 ; wing 5.4 ; tarsus 1.6 ; bill from gape 1.75.

Distribution. The Andaman Islands.

Habits, &c. As in the last species. Nests with 4 and 6 eggs, resembling those of H. striata and measuring about 1.43 by 1, have been taken in May and July.





1389. Hypotaenidia striata.

 

The Blue-breasted Banded Rail.

Rallus striatus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 262 (1766) ; Blyth, Cat. p. 285 ; Adams, P. Z. S. 1858, p. 508; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 726; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. 2, p. 175. Hypotaenidia striata, Hume, N. & E. p. 605 ; Hume & Oates, S. F. iii, p. 189 ; Armstrong, S. F. iv, p. 349; Oates, S. F. v, p. 165 ; Wardl-Rams. Ibis, 1877, p. 471; Hume & Dav. S. F. vi, p. 468; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 692 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 775 ; Hume, Cat. no. 913 ; Hume & Marsh. Game B. ii, p. 245, pl. ; iii, p. 435, pl. ii (egg) ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 87 ; Butler, ibid. p. 432 ; Davison, S. F. x, p. 415; Terry, ibid. p. 480; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 339; id. in Hume's N. & E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 399; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 329; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 372 : id. Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. vi, p. 141, pl. fig. 913 (egg); Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiii, p. 33.

Kana-koli, Tam. ; Wade-koli, Tel.; Yay-gyet, Burm.

Coloration. Crown, nape, and sides of neck chestnut, more or less streaked with dark brown, that disappears in old birds ; upper parts, including the wing and tail-feathers, dark brown with narrow broken white cross-bars, forming spots rather than bars, on the back, all the feathers except the quills with lighter olive-brown edges; chin and middle of throat white; sides of head below eyes, whole fore neck and breast ashy grey; abdomen, flanks, and under wing- and tail-coverts blackish, barred with white.

Females are rather duller, especially on the crown and nape ; middle of abdomen sullied white.

Young birds have the crown and nape brown, not rufous, and no white cross-bars on the back.

Colours of soft parts very variable: upper mandible and tip of lower brown, basal portion of lower mandible and basal commissure of upper various shades of red ; irides light yellowish brown to Indian-red: legs and feet olive-green to leaden grey or fleshy grey.

Length 10.5 ; tail 1.9 ; wing 4.75 ; tarsus 1.5; bill from gape 1.6.

Distribution. Probably the greater part of India, Burma, and Ceylon in marshy places; a resident species. This Bail has not been recorded from North-western India north of 20° N. lat. except by Adams, who states that it is pretty common in the Punjab. It has, however, not been obtained either there or in the North-west Provinces by later collectors. It is common in Lower Bengal and in Pegu. Outside Indian limits it is found in South-eastern Asia and the Malay Archipelago as far as the Philippines and Celebes.

Habits, &c. Very similar to those of Rallus indicus, except that the present species is a very silent bird, and only occasionally utters a rather sharp though not loud whistled note. The breeding-season in Bengal and Pegu is from May to the end of October; the nests are pads of grass, varying in thickness, in swampy ground, and the eggs are usually from 5 to 7 in number, pinkish stone-colour, spotted or blotched, chiefly about the larger end, with reddish brown and greyish lilac. They measure about 1.35 by 1.02.





92. Hypotaenidia obscurior.

 

The Andamanese Banded Rail.

Male 11 1/2" to 12 3/4". Legs slaty green. Bill 1 3/4", Indian red. Resembles H. striata. Face, sides of neck, and breast lead-grey. Forehead and crown dark maroon. Above dark brown, banded white. The Andaman Islands. Four to six eggs (1.43 x 1). (H. & M. ii. 253.)

Also H. brachypus, 7 1/2", from W. and S. Australia and Tasmania; and H. muelleri, from Auckland Islands ; and one subspecies (extinct), H. pacifica, from Tahiti.

H. philippinensis, 11 1/2", from Philippines to Celebes, the Moluccas, Australia, New Zealand, and Pacific Islands ; and one subspecies, 10 1/2", from Macquarie Islands.

Throat black, or black, barred white.
H. torquata. 11". From Philippines.
H. celebensis. 13 1/2". From Celebes.
H. jentinki. 11". From Sula Islands.
H. saturata. 13". From New Guinea.
H sulcirostris. 10 1/2". From Sulu Islands.
H. insignis. 12". From New Britain.

Also the genus Cabalus, with genys distinctly decurved at tip. Mid toe and claw 2". Three species— C. dieffenbachi, 7", and C. modestus, 7", from Chatham Islands; and C. sylvestris, 12", from Lord Howe Island.

Tarsus longer than mid toe and claw.

Also the genus Eulabeornis, with no bare patch behind eye. Mid toe and claw from 2.2" to 2.7". Three species— E. castaneiventris, 17", from N. Australia and Am Islands ; E. poecilopterus, 13" from Fiji Islands; and E. woodfordi, 14 1/2", from Solomon Islands.

Also the genus Tricholimnas, plumage soft and hair-like. Mid toe and claw 2 1/2", One species— T. lafresnayanus, 17", from New Caledonia.

Also the genus Gymnocrex, with bare patch behind eye. Two species— G. rosenbergi, 7", from Celebes; and G. plumbeiventris, 13", from Moluccas, New Guinea, and Solomon Islands.

Also the genus Aramidopsis. One species— A. plateni, 11 1/2", from Celebes.

Also the genus Aramides, with tail somewhat shortened. Mid toe and claw from 2.05" to 3.4". Eight species and three subspecies, from 10 1/2" to 16 1/2", all confined to Neotropical region.

Also the genus Megacrex, with frontal shield distinct and tail decomposed. Incapable of flight. One species— M. inepta, from 17" to 21 1/2", from S. New Guinea.

Also the genus Habroptila, small frontal shield, plumage black. Mid toe and claw 2.85". One species—- M. wallacei, 15", from the Moluccas. (B.M. Cat., xxiii. 37-63.)

(ii.) Culmen shorter than mid toe and claw.





91. Hypotaenidia striata.

 

The Blue-breasted Banded Rail.

Wade-kodi (Telugu); Yay-gyet, Burma.

Male 9 2/3" to 11 1/2"; 3 1/2 to 5 oz. Legs dingy pink. Bill 1 1/2", reddish. Chin and mid-throat white. Above olive, with narrow white bars edged black. Vent and under-tail dull, with white bands. Face, neck, and breast blue-grey. White banding on wings. S. E. Asia, Malay Archipelago, Philippines, and Celebes. Resident in India, Ceylon, and Burma. Five to seven eggs (1.35 x 1.02), stone colour, spotted brown. (J. 913. B. 1389.)





Blue-breasted Banded Rail.

 

Hypotaenidia striata.

Kana-holi, Tamil.

This very pretty bird is also about the size of a snipe, with a distinctly long bill; the face and under-parts are grey, much as in the Indian water-rail, and the flanks similarly barred with black-and-white, but there is a distinctive point in the cap of chestnut covering the head and running down the neck, and in the broken white pencilling on the brown back. This white marking is wanting in young birds, which also have the cap less richly tinted, but it soon begins to develop. Hens are less richly coloured than cocks.

Although the bill of this bird is long, it is not so much so as in the Indian water-rail, and is thicker for its length. It is a widely distributed bird in our Empire, except in the North-west, but in the Andamans is represented by a larger race— the so-called Andaman banded rail (Hypotaenidia obscurior), which is much darker all over, the cap being rather maroon than chestnut, the breast slaty, and the back blacker.

The banded rail is not quite such a skulker as the water-rail, though it frequents the same sort of grass and mud cover on wet ground, and feeds in a similar way; now and then four or five birds together may be seen out feeding on turf or grassy banks near the rice fields or wet thickets in the early morning, but commonly they go singly or in pairs. Like button-quail, they will rise to a dog readily enough the first time, but will risk capture rather than get up again; and they do not fly many yards in any case. They can swim if put to it, but are not water-birds in the sense that moorhens and some of the crakes are.

This species is not apparently migratory, though a wide-ranging bird, and found throughout south-east Asia to Celebes. It nests at the water's edge in grass, rice, or similar cover, making a pile of rushes and grass, and laying about half a dozen white or pink eggs with reddish and mauve markings of various sizes, chiefly towards the large end. They may be found as early as May, or as late as October. This bird is called Kana-koli in Telugu, in Burmese Yay-gyet.





(2008) Hypotaenidia striata gularis.

 

The Indian Blue-breasted Banded Rail.

Rallus gularis Horsf., Trans. Linn. Sac, xiii, p. 196 (1821) (Java).

Vernacular names. Kana Koli (Tam.); Wadi-koli (Tel.); Yaygyet (Burm.).

Description. - Male. Crown to hind-neck rufous ; upper parts dark-brown marked with wavy white bars, broken into spots on the lower back and primaries each feather edged with olive-brown, much abraded in worn plumage; chin and throat white ; sides of the head, fore-neck and breast ashy-grey; abdomen, flanks, under wing-coverts, axillaries and under tail-coverts dark brown barred with white.

Colours of soft parts. Irides light brown in younger birds to Indian red in old adult breeding birds; upper and tip of lower mandible horny-brown to dark brown, lower mandible and commissure dull yellowish-red to bright red ; legs and feet olive-grey, olive or fleshy-grey.

Measurements. Wing 108 to 131 mm.; tail 38 to 41 mm.; tarsus 34 to 37 mm.; culmen 31 to 34 mm.

Females are a trifle duller, the chestnut of the head more inclined to he streaked with blackish and the abdomen paler, more whitish.

Young birds have the feathers of the back streaked with dark brown and the white bars and spots obsolete or absent; the crown and neck are rufous-brown freely streaked with dark brown.

Distribution. The Indian form is found practically throughout Ceylon, India and Burma in suitable localities where there are sufficient marshes and swamps, whilst it extends, as already noted, to South China and Formosa in the East and to Java in the South.

Nidification. The breeding-season commences as soon as the Rains have well set in and the lakes and swamps begin to fill up. The nest is a well-made, rather massive affair of weeds and rushes often wet and muddy in the lower half but warm and dry in the upper half, in which is a well-marked depression for the eggs. It is most often placed in rank vegetation or reeds in the shallower portions of some swamp but occasionally at some little distance from water. The eggs vary from five to eight in number and are decidedly handsome. The ground-colour varies from creamy-white to a warm salmon-buff. The markings are of two characters: in the one they consist of sparsely-scattered blotches and spots of rich reddish-brown with underlying marks of neutral tint; in the other longitudinal specks and small blotches of pale reddish are numerously distributed over the whole surface. Two hundred eggs average 33.7 x 25.8 mm.: maxima 36.6 x 28.6 and 36.3 x 28.8 mm.; minima 30.6 x 25.0 and 33.9 x 23.9 mm.

Habits. This is one of the most familiar Indian Water-birds and may be found in almost every village pond as well as in the remoter lakes. They are very tame and confiding, walking about over the weeds with slow deliberate steps, the tail jerked with each step, taking but little notice of observers. They swim well and very high in the water and can dive without much effort but their flight is poor and laboured. They feed on water-snails, insects and the seeds, buds and shoots of water-plants and young crops. The males fight often during the breeding-season but without much energy or viciousness.





(2009) Hypotaenidia striata obscuriora.

 

The Andaman Blue-breasted Banded Rail.

Hypotaenidia obscuriora Hume, Str. Feath., ii, p. 302 (1874) (Andamans). Hypotaenidia obscurior. Blanf. & Oates, iv, p. 162.

Vernacular names. None recorded.

Description. Similar to the preceding bird but darker and larger. The upper plumage is much blacker, the breast a deeper grey and the chin and throat much less white.

Colours of soft parts. Iris dark brown; bill Indian red, tips of both mandibles and whole culmen deep horny-brown; legs and feet dark greenish-horny (Davison).

Measurements. Wing 129 to 136 mm.; culmen 33 to 36 mm. The female is duller and rather greyer.

Distribution. The Andamans and Nicobars.

Nidification. The nidification differs in no way from that of the Indian bird and Osmaston took a wonderful series of their eggs from the first week in June to the end of August. The full clutch seems to be four to six eggs and these are on an average much more richly coloured than those of H. s. gularis. One hundred eggs average 36.0 x 27.5 mm.: maxima 39.2 x 28.7 and 37.0 x 29.4 mm,; minima 32.7 x 25.2 and 32.7 x 25.0 mm.

Habits. Similar to those of the preceding bird. It is extremely common in the Andamans and in some of the Nicobar islands, haunting swampy places both inside and on the fringe of forests.





Hypotaenidia striata gularis Horsf.

 

Rallus gularis Horsf., Trans. Linn. Soc, vol. xiii, p. 196, 1821: Java.

Rallus indicus Gray, Hand-1. Gen. Sp. Birds, pl. iii, p. 57, 1871, as of Verr., as synonym; not of Blyth, 1849.





Hypotaenidia striata obscuriora Hume.

 

Hypotaenidia obscuriora Hume, Str. Feath., vol. ii, p. 302, 1874: Andamans.

Hypotaenidia ferrea Walden, Ibis, April 1874, p. 147: Andamans.

Hypotaenidia abnormis Hume, Str. Feath., vol. iii, p. 389, 1875: S. Andamans.





Hypotaenidia striata Linn.

 

Hypotaenidia striata striata Linn.

 

{Rallus striatus Linn,, Syst. Nat., 12th ed., vol. i, p. 262, 1766: Philippines.)





Museum Collections


Number of Museum Specimen Records Found : 7 for Gallirallus striatus

No. Museum Species Collection Deatils Collector Date of Collection Record Locality GBIF Portal Link
1Field MuseumRallus striatus albiventerFMNH Birds 400612SpecimenS Syhlet, Rema Tea Estate, Luckerpore Valley Assam India Southern Asia Link
2Yale University Peabody MuseumGallirallus striatus albiventerYPM ORN ORN.042317A. M. PrimroseSpecimen Cachar District Assam State India Southern Asia Link
3Yale University Peabody MuseumGallirallus striatus obscuriorYPM ORN ORN.042318G. DalglieshSpecimenAndaman Islands India Southern Asia Link
4Cornell University Museum of VertebratesRallus striatus gularisCU CUMV-Bird 41561878-01-27 00:00:00.0SpecimenCalcutta West Bengal India Southern Asia Link
5Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard UniversityRallus striatus gularisMCZ BIRDS 236175Blanford, W. T.1878-01-27 00:00:00.0SpecimenCalcutta [=Kolkata], Province [West Bengal] added and Locality [=Kolkata] emended per wikipedia.org, August 2008| [West Bengal] India Asia Southern Asia Link
6Field MuseumRallus striatus albiventerFMNH Birds 4209201946-07-21 00:00:00.0SpecimenBichhia Madhya Pradesh India Southern Asia Link
7Field MuseumRallus striatus albiventerFMNH Birds 4209211946-07-22 00:00:00.0SpecimenBichhia Madhya Pradesh India Southern Asia Link

Biodiversity occurrence data provided by: (Accessed through GBIF Data Portal, 2009-08-06)


Data Providers
  • Cornell University Museum of Vertebrates ( 1 Records )

  • Field Museum ( 3 Records )

  • Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University ( 1 Records )

  • Yale University Peabody Museum ( 2 Records )


Sound/Call


2 calls found for Gallirallus striatus



Remarks:
Call Type: calls (A)


Remarks: Ssp: taiwanus. 'ka-ka-ka-ka...'
Call Type: song (C)

The Bird Calls are embedded through xeno-canto.org See Terms of Use xeno-canto.org


Links



Avibase - The World Bird Database for Slaty-breasted Rail ( Gallirallus striatus )

BirdLife Species FactSheet for Slaty-breasted Rail ( Gallirallus striatus )

Biodiversity Heritage Library for Slaty-breasted Rail ( Gallirallus striatus )

Discover Life Maps for Slaty-breasted Rail ( Gallirallus striatus )

Entrez, The Life Sciences Search Engine for Slaty-breasted Rail ( Gallirallus striatus )

GBIF, Global Biodiversity Information Facility for Slaty-breasted Rail ( Gallirallus striatus )

Google Images for Slaty-breasted Rail ( Gallirallus striatus )

Google Scholar for Slaty-breasted Rail ( Gallirallus striatus )

Google Websites for Slaty-breasted Rail ( Gallirallus striatus )

Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) for Slaty-breasted Rail ( Gallirallus striatus )

Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) CANADA for Slaty-breasted Rail ( Gallirallus striatus )

IUCN Redlist Species FactSheet for Slaty-breasted Rail ( Gallirallus striatus )

NCBI Molecular Data for Slaty-breasted Rail ( Gallirallus striatus )

Pubmed Literature for Slaty-breasted Rail ( Gallirallus striatus )

Catalogue of Life : Annual Checklist for Slaty-breasted Rail ( Gallirallus striatus )

Tree Of Life for Slaty-breasted Rail ( Gallirallus striatus )

uBio Portal for Slaty-breasted Rail ( Gallirallus striatus )

uBio for Slaty-breasted Rail ( Gallirallus striatus )

Wikipedia for Slaty-breasted Rail ( Gallirallus striatus )

Xeno - Canto for Slaty-breasted Rail ( Gallirallus striatus )

Zoonomen for Slaty-breasted Rail ( Gallirallus striatus )



Cite this website along with its URL as:
Anonymous. 2014 Gallirallus striatus - Linnaeus, 1766 (Slaty-breasted Rail ) in Deomurari, A.N. (Compiler), 2010. AVIS-IBIS (Avian Information System - Indian BioDiversity Information System) v. 1.0. Foundation For Ecological Security, India retrieved on 12/20/2014
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