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Common Name : Red Junglefowl
Scientific Name : Gallus gallus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Order : Galliformes
Family : Phasianidae
Taxonomic Group : Galliformes - Phasianidae ( Pheasants and Partridges )
Vernacular Name : Hindi: Jungli Murgha, Ban Murgha, M: Laal murgha, F: Jungli murghi, Ban murghi, Punjab: Jungli murga, Bengal: Jungli Murgha, Ban Murgha, M: Laal murgha, F: Jungli murghi, Ban murghi, Assam: Ban kukura, Telugu: Yerra adavi kodi, Gujarat: Laal jungli kukdo,
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Common Name : Red Junglefowl
Scientific Name : Gallus gallus
Order : Galliformes Family : Phasianidae: Phasianinae (Pheasants and Partridges)
Number of SubSpecies : 5
|Taxon Category||Sub Species / Race||Range||subspecies||Gallus gallus murghi||N India and adjacent Nepal and Bangladesh|
|subspecies||Gallus gallus spadiceus||Myanmar to sw Yunnan, Malay Peninsula and n Sumatra|
|subspecies||Gallus gallus jabouillei||N Vietnam to s China (se Yunnan, Guangxi and Hainan I.)|
|subspecies||Gallus gallus gallus||N Indochina to e Thailand|
|subspecies||Gallus gallus bankiva||S Sumatra, Java and Bali|
3rd Edition, 2003. Revised and Corrected per Corrigenda to December 31, 2006
Common Name : Red Junglefowl
Scientific Name : Gallus gallus
SubFamily : Phasianinae
Number of SubSpecies : 5
|Sub Species / Race||Gallus gallus murghi|
|Gallus gallus spadiceus|
|Gallus gallus jabouillei|
|Gallus gallus gallus|
|Gallus gallus bankiva|
IOC Common Name : Red Junglefowl
IOC Scientific Name : Gallus gallus
Region : OR Range : India, Southeast Asia
Order : GALLIFORMES Family : Phasianidae
Category : Pheasants, Fowl & Allies
SYNOPIS NO : 299- 300
Scientific Name: Gallus gallus
Common Name: Red Junglefowl
Common Name : Red Junglefowl
Scientific Name : Gallus gallus ((Linnaeus, 1758))
Birdlife Synonym :
BirdLife Redlist Status Year 2010: LC
BirdLife Species FactSheet for Red Junglefowl ( Gallus gallus )
Taxonomy Treatment : R
IUCN Common Name (Eng) : Red Junglefowl
Scientific Name : Gallus gallus (Linnaeus, 1758)
IUCN Redlist Species FactSheet for Red Junglefowl ( Gallus gallus )
Species : gallus
Genus : Gallus
Family : Phasianidae Order : Galliformes
IUCN RedList Status : LC
IUCN RedList Criteria Version : 3.1
IUCN RedList Year Assessed : 2008
IUCN RedList Petitioned : N
Family : PHASIANIDAE
Scientific Name : Gallus gallus
Common Name : Red Junglefowl
Bibliography of Red Junglefowl ( Gallus gallus )
Number of Results found : 100
This is latest 100 Papers. To see Complete Bibliography of Red Junglefowl ( Gallus gallus ) Use Species Bibliography Module
1. Sharp CM;Abraham KF;Burness G; , (2009), Embryo Development Influences the Isotopic Signatures of Egg Components in Incubated Eggs, The Condor, 111:2: 361 - 365.
2. Ajayi OL;Antia RE;Omotainse SO; , (2008), Oviductal volvulus in a Nera black chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) in Nigeria, Avian Pathology, 37:2: 139 - 140.
3. Mutinelli F;Corro M;Catania S;Melchiotti E; , (2008), Multiple Feather Follicle Cysts In a Moroseta Hen (Gallus gallus), Avian Diseases Digest, 3:2: e23 - e23.
4. Mutinelli F;Corro M;Catania S;Melchiotti E; , (2008), Multiple Feather Follicle Cysts in a Moroseta Hen (Gallus Gallus), Avian Diseases, 52:2: 345 - 347.
5. Soos C;Padilla L;Iglesias A;Gottdenker N;Bacdon MC;Rios A;Parker PG; , (2008), Comparison of Pathogens in Broiler and Backyard Chickens on the GalA-pagos Islands: Implications for Transmission to Wildlife, The Auk, 125:2: 445 - 455.
6. Dubey JP; Huong LTT; Lawson BWL; Subekti DT; Tassi P; Cabaj W; Sundar N; Velmurugan GV; Kwok OCH; Su C , (2008), Seroprevalence and isolation of Toxoplasma gondii from free-range chickens in Ghana, Indonesia, Italy, Poland, and Vietnam., Journal of Parasitology, 94: 68 - 71.
7. Papp Z; Smits JEG , (2007), Validation and novel applications of the whole-blood chemiluminescence assy of innate immune function in wild vertebrates and domestic chickens., Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 43: 623 - 634.
8. Wiley FE; Wilde SB; Birrenkott AH; Williams SK; Murphy TM; Hope CP; Bowerman WW; Fischer JR , (2007), Investigation of the link between avian vacuolar myelinopathy and a novel species of cyanobacteria through laboratory feeding trials., Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 43: 337 - 344.
9. Chakrabarti S; King DJ; Afonso C; Swayne D; Cardona CJ; Kuney DR; Gerry AC , (2007), Detection and isolation of exotic Newcastle disease virus from field-collected flies., Journal of Medical Entomology, 44: 840 - 844.
10. Watson DW; Nino EL; Rochon K; Denning S; Smith S; Guy JS , (2007), Experimental evaluation of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) as a vector of Newcastle disease virus., Journal of Medical Entomology, 44: 666 - 671.
11. Latta, Rimmer, Keith, Wiley, Raffaele, McFarland, Fernandez , (2006), Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus), HELM FIELD GUIDES - BIRDS of the Dominican Republic & Haiti; Christopher Helm Publishers Ltd, : 57 / 32.
12. Shawkey MD;Hussain MJ;Strong AL;Hagelin JC;Vollmer AC;Hill GE; , (2006), Use of Culture-Independent Methods to Compare Bacterial Assemblages on Feathers of Crested and Least Auklets (Aethia cristatella and Aethia pusilla) with Those of Passerines, Waterbirds, 29:4: 507 - 511.
13. Antarasena C;Sirimujalin R;Prommuang P;Blacksell SD;Promkuntod N;Prommuang P; , (2006), Tissue tropism of a Thailand strain of high-pathogenicity avian influenza virus (H5N1) in tissues of naturally infected native chickens (Gallus gallus), Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) and ducks (Anas spp.), Avian Pathology, 35:3: 250 - 253.
14. McGraw KJ;Klasing KC;Dufty Jr AM; , (2006), CAROTENOIDS, IMMUNITY, AND INTEGUMENTARY COLORATION IN RED JUNGLEFOWL (GALLUS GALLUS), The Auk, 123:4: 1161 - 1171.
15. Atsuyuki Okabe, Toshiaki Satoh, Kayo Okabe, Takayuki Nakagawa, Eiji Imamura, Kazuhiro Matsushita, Kazuhiro Nagano, Yoshitsugu Ishiwatari, Koji Amemoto, Yoshihiro Hayashi and Fumihito Akishinonomiya , (2006), Applicability of a Wireless Fidelity Positioning System to Tracking Free-range Domestic Fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus) and Helmeted Guineafowl (Numida meleagris galeata), Journal of the Yamashina Institute for Ornithology, 38:1: 30 - 39.
16. Boughton RK; Atwell JW; Schoech SJ , (2006), An introduced generalist parasite, the sticktight flea (Echidnophaga gallinacae), and its pathology in the threatened Florida Scrub-jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens)., Journal of Parasitology, 92: 941 - 948.
17. Meireles MV; Soares RM; dos Santos MMAB; Gennari SM , (2006), Biological studies and molecular characterization of a Cryptosporidium isolate from Ostriches (Struthio camelus)., Journal of Parasitology, 92: 623 - 626.
18. Turell MJ; Mores CN; Dohm DJ; Lee W-J; Heung-Chui K; Klein TA , (2006), Laboratory transmission of Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, and Getah viruses by mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) collected near Camp Greaves, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2003., Journal of Medical Entomology, 43: 1076 - 1081.
19. Erickson SM; Platt KB; Tucker BJ; Evans R; Tiawsirisup S; Rowley WA , (2006), The potential of Aedes triseriatus (Diptera: Culicidae) as an enzootic vector of West Nile virus., Journal of Medical Entomology, 43: 966 - 970.
20. Dubey JP; Vianna MCB; Sousa S; Canada N; Meireles S; Correia da Costa JM; Marcet PL; Lehmann T; Darde ML; Thulliez P , (2006), Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates in free-ranging chickens from Portugal., Journal ofÂ Parasitology, 92: 184 - 186.
21. Darbro JM; Harrington LC , (2006), Bird-baited traps for surveillance of West Nile mosquito vectors: effect of bird species, trap height, and mosquito escape rates., Journal of Medical Entomology, 43: 83 - 92.
22. Craig Robson , (2005), Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus), BIRDS OF SOUTH-EAST ASIA; New Holland Publishers Ltd, : 3.
23. Federico C;Cantarella CD;Scavo C;Sacone S;Bed'Hom B;Bernardi G; , (2005 ), Avian genomes: different karyotypes but a similar distribution of the GC-richest chromosome regions at interphase, Chromosome Research, 13:8: 785 - 793.
24. Ian A.W. McAllan and Dion Hobcroft , (2005), The further spread of introduced birds in Samoa, Notornis, 52:1: 16 - 20.
25. Cavanagh D; , (2005), Coronaviruses in poultry and other birds, Avian Pathology, 34:6: 439 - 448.
26. Parker TH;Winker K; , (2005), NO EVIDENCE FOR ADAPTIVE DIFFERENTIAL SEX ALLOCATION IN RED JUNGLEFOWL (GALLUS GALLUS), The Auk, 122:4: 1161 - 1168.
27. PETERSON, A. T. & BRISBIN JR., I. L. , (2005), Phenotypic status of Red Junglefowl Gallus gallus populations introduced on Pacific islands, Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club, 125: 59.
28. Hiroshi Kaneda ; Satoshi Yamagishi , (2005), Video Analysis of Hodgson's Hawk-eagle Spizaetus nipalensis Predation on Live Chicken, Journal of the Yamashina Institute for Ornithology, 36:2: 145 - 149.
29. Bezuidenhout AJ , (2005), Light and electron microscopic study of the thoracic respiratory air sacs of the fowl., Anatomia Histologia Embryologia, 34: 185 - 191.
30. Tedesco RC; Da Silva Calabrese K; Smith RL , (2005), Architecture of the ciliary muscle of Gallus domesticus., Anatomy Record, 284A: 544 - 549.
31. Croes SA; Bartheld CS von , (2005), Development of the neuromuscular junction in extraocular muscles of white leghorn chicks., Anatomy Record, 282A: 110 - 119.
32. Dubey JP; Rajapakse RPVJ; Ekanayake DK; Sreekumar C; Lehmann T , (2005), Isolation and molecular characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from chickens from Sri Lanka., Journal of Parasitology, 91: 1480 - 1481.
33. Dubey JP; Lenhart A; Castillo CE; Alvarez L; Marcet P; Sreekumar C; Lehmann T , (2005), Toxoplasma gondii infections in chickens from Venezuela: Isolation, tissue distribution, and molecular characterization., Journal of Parasitology, 91: 1332 - 1339.
34. Thiel T; Whiteman NK; Tirape A; Baquero MI; Cedeno V; Walsh T; Uzcategul GJ; Parker PG , (2005), Characterization of canarypox-like viruses infecting endemic birds in the Galapagos Islands., Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 41: 342 - 353.
35. Lillehoj HS; Ding X; Dalloul RA; Sato T; Yasuda A; Lillehoj EP , (2005), Embryo vaccination against Eimeria tenella and E. acervulina infections using recombinant proteins and cytokine adjuvants., Journal of Parasitology, 91: 666 - 673.
36. Dubey JP; Bhaiyat MI; De Allie C; Macpherson CNL; Sharma RN; Sreekumar C; Vianna MCB; Shen SK; Kwok OCH; Miska KB; Hill DE; Lehmann T , (2005), Isolation, tissue distribution, and molecular characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from chickens in Grenada, West Indies., Journal of Parasitology, 91: 557 - 560.
37. Dubey JP; Lopez B; Mendoza C; Lehmann T , (2005), Isolation, tissue distribution, and molecular characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from free-ranging chickens from Guatemala., Journal of Parasitology, 91: 955 - 957.
38. Shaman J; Day JF; Stieglitz , (2005), Drought-induced amplification and epidemic transmission of West Nile virus in southern Florida., Journal of Medical Entomology, 42: 134 - 141.
39. Turell MJ; Dohm DJ; Sardelis MR; O'Guinn ML; Andreadis TG; Blow JA , (2005), An update on the potential of North American mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit West Nile virus., Journal of Medical Entomology, 42: 57 - 62.
40. Reisen Wk; Fang Y; Martinez VM , (2005), Avian host and mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) vector competence determine the efficiency of West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis virus transmission., Journal of Medical Entomology, 42: 367 - 375.
41. Miska KB; Fetterer RH; Min W; Lilleho HS , (2005), Heat shock protein 90 genes of two species of poultry Eimeria: expression and evolutionary analysis., Journal of Parasitology, 91: 300 - 306.
42. Tsuihiji T , (2005), Homologies of the transversospinalis muscles in the anterior presacral region of Sauria (Crown Diapsida)., Journal of Morphology, 263: 151 - 178.
43. Dick Watling , (2004), Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus), A GUIDE TO THE BIRDS OF FIJI & WESTERN POLYNESIA; Environmental Consultants (Fiji) Ltd, : 106 / 1.
44. Simpson; Day , (2004), Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus), FIELD GUIDE to the BIRDS of AUSTRALIA; Princeton University Press, 7th Edition: 22.
45. van Nie G; , (2004 ), [Male Eurasian Sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus catches chicken Gallus gallus , or small bird performs great deed], De Takkeling, 12:3: 220.
46. Takao Oka ; Takashi Amano ; Yoshihiro Hayashi ; Fumihito Akishinonomiya , (2004), Philological Studies on Subspecific Recognition and Distribution of Red Junglefowl, Journal of the Yamashina Institute for Ornithology, 35:2: 77 - 87.
47. Oka T; Amano T; Hayashi Y; Akishinonomiya F , (2004), Philological studies on subspecific recognition and distribution of Red Junglefowl., Journal of theÂ Yamashina InstituteÂ forÂ Ornithology, 35: 77 - 87.
48. Yildiz H; Cavusoglu K , (2004), The chordae tendineae of the heart in chicken., Anatomia Histologia Embryologia, 33: 189 - 191.
49. Sylla M; Thonnon J , (2004), Argasidae (Acari: Ixodida) parasites of wild and domestic animal in Senegal. 2---Arbovirus isolation and epidemiological implications., Acarologia, 44: 151 - 156.
50. Dubey JP; Levy MZ; Sreekumar C; Kwok OCH; Shen SK; Dahl E; Thulliez P; Lehmann T , (2004), Tissue distribution and molecular characterization of chicken isolates of Toxoplasma gondii., Journal of Parasitology, 90: 1015 - 1018.
51. Alibardi L , (2004), Immunocytochemical and autoradiographic studies on the process of keratinization in avian epidermis suggests absence of keratohyalin., Journal of Morphology, 259: 238 - 253.
52. Lewis-Weis LA; Gerhold RW; Fischer JR , (2004), Attempts to reproduce vacuolar myelinopathy in domestic swine and chickens., Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 40: 476 - 484.
53. Gessaman JA; Newgrain K; Green B , (2004), Validation of the doubly-labeled water (DLW) method for estimating CO2 production and water flux in growing poultry chicks., Journal ofÂ Avian Biology, 35: 71 - 96.
54. H.Raffaele; J.Wiley; O.Garrido; A.Keith; J.Raffaele , (2003), Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus), BIRDS of the WEST INDIES; Princeton University Press, : 84.
55. Kiyoshi IMAI , (2003), Egg production and its physiological regulation in domestic fowl, Japanese Journal of Ornithology, 52.1: 1 - 12.
56. Davis MF;Ebako GM;Morishita TY; , (2003), A Golden Comet Hen (Gallus gallus forma domestica) With an Impacted Oviduct and Associated Colibacillosis, Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, 17:2: 91 - 95.
57. Cavanagh D; , (2003), Severe acute respiratory syndrome vaccine development: experiences of vaccination against avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus, Avian Pathology, 32:6: 567 - 582.
58. Kuder T; Nowak E; Szczurkowski A; Kuchinka J , (2003), The comparative analysis of the myenteric plexus in the pigeon and hen., Anatomia Histologia Embryologia, 32: 1 - 5.
59. Imai K , (2003), Egg production and its physiological regulation in domestic fowl., Japanese Journal of Ornithology, 52: 1 - 12.
60. Giannessi; F; Giambelluca MA; Scavuzzo MC; Fattori B; Ruffoli R , (2003), Ultrastructural and ultracytochemical study of the middle ear epithelium in the chicken, Gallus gallus domesticus., Journal ofÂ Morphology, 256: 371 - 378.
61. Dubey JP; Graham DH; da Silva DS; Lehmann T; Bahia-Oliveira LMG , (2003), Toxoplasma gondii isolates of free-ranging chickens from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: mouse mortality, genotype, and oocyst shedding by cats., Journal of Parasitology, 89: 851 - 853.
62. Ryan UM; Xiao L; Sulaiman IM; Monis P; Lai AA; Fayer R; Pavlasek I , (2003), A redescription of Cryptosporidium galli Pavlasek, 1999 (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) from birds., Journal of Parasitology, 89: 809 - 813.
63. Parker TH;Loiselle B; , (2002), Maternal Condition, Reproductive Investment, and Offspring Sex Ratio in Captive Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus), The Auk, 119:3: 840 - 845.
64. Ratcliffe CS; Gouws RM; Swatson HK; Crowe TM , (2002), The digestibility of raw and processed soybeans by Helmeted Guineafowl, Numida meleagris., Ostrich, 73(3&4): 135 - 137.
65. Aire TA , (2002), Cyclical reproductive changes in the non-ciliated epithelia of the epididymis of birds., Anatomia Histologia Embryologia, 31: 113 - 118.
66. Kundrat M; Seichert V; Russell AP; Smetana, Jr K , (2002), Rapid Communication: Pentadactyl pattern of the avian wing autopodium and Pyramid Reduction Hypothesis., Journal of Experimental Zoology (Molecular Developmental Evolutionary), 294: 152 - 159.
67. Larsson HC; Wagner GP , (2002), Rapid Communication: Pentadactyl ground state of the avian wing., Journal of Experimental Zoology (Molecular Developmental Evolutionary), 294: 146 - 151.
68. Yasuda, S; Tanaka H; Arakawa Y; Taura Y; Yokomizo Y; Ekino S , (2002), A comparative study of gut-associated lymphoid tissue in calf and chicken., Anatomy Record, 266: 207 - 217.
69. Parker, T. H. , (2002), Maternal condition, reproductive investment, and offspring sex ratio in captive Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus)., Auk, 119: 840 - 845.
70. Kiama SG;Maina JN;Bhattacharjee J;Weyrauch KD; , (2001 ), Functional morphology of the pecten oculi in the nocturnal Spotted Eagle Owl ( Bubo bubo africanus ), and the diurnal Black Kite ( Milvus migrans ) and domestic fowl ( Gallus gallus var domesticus ): a comparative study, , : 521.
71. Nakamura, K., M. Ogiso, T. Shibahara, H. Kasuga, T. Isobe. , (2001), Pathogenicity of Leucocytozoon caulleryi for specific pathogen-free laying hens., Journal of Parasitology, 87: 1202 - 1204.
72. Pizzari T; Birkhead TR , (2001), For whom does the hen cackle? The function of postoviposition cackling., Animal Behaviour, 61: 601 - 607.
73. Yngvesson J; Keeling LJ , (2001), Body size and fluctuating asymmetry in relation to cannibalistic behaviour in laying hens., Animal Behaviour, 61: 609 - 615.
74. RS Kennedy; PC Gozales; EC Dickinson; HC Miranda Jr; TH Fisher , (2000), Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus), A GUIDE TO THE BIRDS OF THE PHILIPPINES; Oxford University Press, USA, : 11.
75. Krys Kazmierczak; Ber van Perlo , (2000), Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus), A FIELD GUIDE TO THE BIRDS OF THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT; Yale University Press, : 102.
76. Pinceel L; , (2000), Research on Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus L.), Mor, 3:August: 11.
77. Javed S;Rahmani AR; , (2000), Flocking and habitat use pattern of Red Junglefowl in Dudwa National Park, India, Tropical Ecology, 41:1: 11 - 15.
78. Fitzpatrick DM;Ahmed K;Kennedy S;Sterling B; , (2000), Red roving fowlSri Lanka and Maldives. 26th January to 14th February 2000Eastern Nepal. February-March 1999, Down To Earth, 9:14: 28 - 37.
79. Datta A; , (2000), Pheasant abundance in selectively logged and unlogged forests of western Arunachal Pradesh, northeast India, Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 97:2: 177 - 183.
80. Aire TA , (2000), Aspects of the functional morphology of the ductus epididymis in domestic anseriform and galliform birds., Anatomia Histologia Embryologia, 29: 179 - 191.
81. Konarzewski, M., A. Gavin, R. McDevitt, I. R. Wallis. , (2000), Metabolic and organ mass responses to selection for high growth rates in the domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus)., Physiological & Biochemical Zoology, 73: 237 - 248.
82. Reisen, W. K., et al. , (2000), Method of infection does not alter response of chicks and House Finches to western equine encephalomyelitis and St. Louis encephalitis viruses., JournalÂ of MedicalÂ Entomology, 37: 250 - 258.
83. El-Massry, A., et al. , (2000), Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in sera of turkeys, chickens and ducks from Egypt., Journal ofÂ Parasitology, 86: 627 - 628.
84. Chris Doughty; Nicolas Day; Andrew Plant , (1999), Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus), BIRDS OF THE SOLOMONS, VANUATU & NEW CALEDONIA; A&C Black, : 68.
85. Carol Inskipp; Tim Inskipp; Richard Grimmett , (1999), Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus), HELM FIELD GUIDES - BIRDS of BHUTAN; A&C Black, : 46.
86. Munechika, I., K. Nozawa, H. Suzuki. , (1999), Relationships of Syrmaticus and Phasianus by Cyt-b gene array comparison., Japanese Journal of Ornithology, 47: 133 - 138.
87. Arshad MI; Zakaria M , (1999), Breeding Ecology of Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus spadiceus) in Malaysia., Malayan Nat. J., 53: 355 - 364.
88. Holm L; , (1999), A comparative study of avian oviducal sperm storage with special reference to factors which regulate sperm motility., Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Suecia:, 141: .
89. Kirby, Y. K., et al. , (1999), Electrocardiographic and genetic evaluation of Giant Jungle Fowl, broilers, and their reciprocal crosses following unilateral bronchus occlusion., Poultry Sci., 78: 125 - 134.
90. Marjoniemi, K., E. Hohtola. , (1999), Shivering thermogenesis in leg and breast muscles of galliform chicks and nestlings of the domestic pigeon., Physiological & Biochemical Zoology, 72: 484 - 492.
91. Regolin, L., S. P. R. Rose. , (1999), Long-term memory for a spatial task in young chicks., Animal Behaviour, 57: 1185 - 1191.
92. Nicol, C. J., S. J. Pope. , (1999), The effects of demonstrator social status and prior foraging success on social learning in laying hens., Animal Behaviour, 57: 163 - 171.
93. Hoffman, D. J., et al. , (1998), Comparative developmental toxicity of planar polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in chickens, American Kestrels and Common Terns., Environ. Toxicol. & Chem., 17: 747 - 757.
94. Wideman, R. F., Jr., et al. , (1998), Flow-dependent pulmonary vasodilation during acute unilateral pulmonary artery occlusion in jungle fowl., Poultry Sci., 77: 615 - 626.
95. Ligon, J.. D., R. Kimball, M. Merola-Zwartjes. , (1998), Mate choice by female red junglefowl: the issues of multiple ornaments and fluctuating asymmetry., Animal Behaviour, 55: 41 - 50.
96. Zuk, M., et al. , (1998), Parasites influence social rank and morphology, but not mate choice, in female Red Junglefowl, Gallus gallus., Animal Behaviour, 56: 493 - 499.
97. Furlow, B., R. T. Kimball, M. C. Marshall. , (1998), Are rooster crows honest signals of fighting ability?, Auk, 115: 763 - 766.
98. Johnston, A. N. B., T. H. J. Burne, S. P. R. Rose. , (1998), Observation learning in day-old chicks using a one-trial passive avoidance learning paradigm., Animal Behaviour, 56: 1347 - 1353.
99. Johnsen, T. S., M. Zuk. , (1998), Parasites, morphology, and blood characters in male Red Jungle Fowl during development., Condor, 100: 749 - 752.
100. Reynolds DJ;Davies RH;Richards M;Wray C; , (1997), Evaluation of combined antibiotic and competitive exclusion treatment in broiler breeder flocks infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, Avian Pathology, 26:1: 83 - 95.
Tetrao, apud Gmelin- figured by Latham as the Hackled Partridge-Blyth, Cat. 1462-G. bankiva, Temminck (in part) -Hardwicke III. J. Z. 1 pl. 43 f 3 the hen,-Jerdon, Cat. 267 -Ban murgh, or Jangli-murgh, H.-Bankokra of the Sontals and in Central India-Gera gogor of the Gonds (the male), Kuru (the hen)-Natsu-pia, Bhot.- Pazok-tshi, Lepch.
The Red Jungle-fowl.
Descr.- Male, colors as in the typical Barn-door fowl, viz., rich golden hackles on the head, neck, throat and breast, paler on the sides of the neck and posteriorly ; ear-coverts white ; back purplish brown in the middle, rich orange brown on the sides ; upper tail- coverts lengthened, also bright orange ; wings with the lesser and greater-coverts black, glossed with green ; median-coverts rich dull maronne; primaries dusky with pale edges; secondaries chesnut externally, dusky within; tertiaries glossy black; tail with the central feathers rich glossy green-black, the gloss diminishing on the lateral feathers ; beneath, from the breast, unglossed black ; thigh-coverts the same.
Bill slaty brown ; irides orange red; face, comb, and wattles red; legs slaty black. Length about 26 inches ; wing 9; tail 15 ; tarsus 2 3/4. Weight about 2 ¼ lbs.
The Jungle-hen has the general colour yellowish brown, minutely mottled with dark brown ; and some of the feathers, especially of the upper back and wing coverts having conspicuously pale shafts; the head dusky above, passing into short hackles of dark brown, edged with bright yellow on the neck and sides of the breast; quills and tail dark brown; the central rectrices edged with mottled brown; ear-coverts yellowish; a line down the throat deep bright red-brown ending in a point below, and passing up in a line behind the ears to join a small supercilium of the same hue; breast pale rufous brown, with central pale streaks, lighter on the middle of the belly and becoming dull brown on the flanks, vent, thigh-coverts, and under tail-coverts. She wants the comb and wattles, and has only a small nude red space. Length 16 or 17 inches; tail 7.
The well known Jungle-fowl is found from the Himalayas southwards, on the west of India, as far at all events, as the range of Vindhian hills; and as I have been informed by Mr. W. Blanford since the above remarks were penned, also south of the Nerbudda on the Raj-peepla hills. Col. Sykes’ variety found in the Western Ghats with much red in its plumage must be this species, but it is to be wished he had noted the particular locality. On the east, it occurs through Central India and the Northern Circars to near the north Bank of the Godavery. I have heard of its having been killed even south of this, at Cummum, but I cannot speak positively on this head. I have not seen it myself further south than the banks of the Indrawutty, not far from its junction with the Godavery, and there both this species and the next were heard crowing a few yards from each other. I shot one bird, an undoubted hybrid between the two races.
In Central India, this Jungle-fowl is rare, especially towards the Western portion, at Jubbulpore, Saugor, Mhow, &c., but it is very abundant to the East, and particularly so in the Northern Circars. It is not uncommon, too, in the Rajmahal hills, extending to the south bank of the Ganges. Towards the North-west it occurs in the range of hills South of Cashmere, and to the West of Jummoo, but is rare there, though common in the lower ranges near Simla, and thence along the Himalayas to Assam, Sylhet, Chittagong and Burmah. Malayan specimens are decidedly darker in tint, and have the ear-coverts rufous, and perhaps may be considered to be a distinct race or species, which, in that case, would bear Temminck’s name, Bankiva. This race appears to extend over many of the Malayan islands, as far as Timor, at all events; and Mr. Blyth drew my attention to the statement of Jungle-fowl occurring in the Benin islands. Certain pale-colored birds from the lower Himalayan ranges were noticed in the Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., Vol. XX., p. 389.
The Jungle-fowl is very partial to Bamboo jungle, but is found as well in lofty forests and in dense thickets. When cultivated land is near their haunts, they may, during the harvest season and after the grain is cut, be seen morning and evening In the fields, often in straggling parties of ten to twenty. Their crow which they give utterance to morning and evening, all the year round, but especially at the pairing season, is quite like that of a Bantam cock, but shorter, and never prolonged as in our domestic cocks. The hen breeds from January to July, according to the locality, laying eight to twelve eggs, of a creamy white color, often under a bamboo clump, or in some dense thicket, occasionally scraping a few leaves or dried grass together to form a nest. Sooner or later after the breeding season is over, the neck hackles of the male sometimes fall off, and are replaced by short blackish grey feathers.
Where detached clumps of Jungle or small hills occur in a jungly district where these Fowl abound, very pretty shooting can be had by driving them by means of dogs and beaters; and in travelling through a forest country, many will always be found near the roads, to which they resort to pick up grain from the droppings of cattle, &c.; dogs will often put them up when they at once fly on to the nearest trees. Young birds, if ‘kept for a few days, are very excellent eating, having a considerable game flavour.
Vernacular Names.— [Jungli moorghi, Bun moorghi, Upper India; Bunkokra, Bunkukra, Bun-kookoor, (Bengali, &c.), Sundarbans, Sonthal Country, Assam, & c. ; Natsu-pia (Bhutia), Pazok-tchi (Lepcha), Sikhim, Duars ; Beer-seem (Koles); Gera-gogor (Gonds); Lall, Chanda District Tanquet, Tanghet, Burmah; Ayam-ootan, Malay Peninsula;
THE Red Jungle-Fowl is, as the latter portion of its name imports, a true denizen of the jungle, and most especially of jungle in the vicinity of scattered cultivation, at or near the bases of hills, which keep it comparatively well watered throughout the year.
It is entirely wanting in the dry, level, alluvial plains and semi-deserts of Upper India, and even in better watered localities is absent from the more richly cultivated tracts, and only straggles into cultivation which is in the neighbourhood of jungle.
It is more or less abundant throughout the lower ranges of the Himalayas, the Dhuns, Tarais, and submontane districts, and the Siwaliks from the southern outer ranges of Kashmir to the extreme head of the Assam Valley beyond Sadiya.
Throughout the whole of Assam, including the less elevated portions of the Garo, Khasi and Naga Hills, Cachar and Sylhet, the whole of Eastern Bengal, including the Sunderbans, Arakan, Pegu and Tenasserim, it is in all suitable localities common. Again, in all the hilly portions of Western Bengal, from the Rajmehal hills, through Midnapore, and westward of this, through the whole of Chota Nagpore, and the northern and eastern portions of the Central Provinces, it is the only Jungle-Fowl that is found. It is common along the Kymore range, and extends northwards to the neighbourhood of Punnah and Chair khari, and southwards on to the Maikal or Amarkantak ranges.
It extends in places far into the interior of the hills along the valleys of rivers. Thus Colonel Fisher writes :— "Last year, to my surprise, I came across several of them in a low valley on the banks of the Nayar river in almost Central Gaihwal, and at a distance of some 30 or 40 miles from the foot of these hills !" Southwards and eastwards of these latter it occupies the whole country north of the God&vari, Orissa, the Tributary Mahals, Ganjam, Vizagapatam, and part of the Godavari District, Joonagurh, Kareall, Nowagurh, Jeypore and other Feuda- tory States. It occurs also immediately below Pachmarhi, but the exact line of definition of this species and the Grey Jungle-Fowl between Pachmarhi and the Amarkantak range is uncertain, as I have as yet been unable to learn what species, if any, occurs in the hills about Seoni, Kooraiia, Deogarh and Chhindwara. Captain Temple and Mr. Ellison, the Deputy Commissioners of Seoni and Chhindwara, are of opinion that neither species occurs in their districts.
As bearing on the distribution of this species in the Central Provinces, I may note that Forsyth, the well-known sportsman, stated that its range was " precisely conterminous in the hills south of the Nerbudda with that of the Swamp Deer (Rucervus duvauceli) and the sal-tree (Shorea robusta). The western limits of the great belt of sal forests which covers so large a portion of Eastern India is in the Mandla District, and there the Swamp Deer and Red Jungle-Fowl also occur. The sal is not found in Western India; but there is one spot in the Deinwa Valley, just under Pachmarhi, where a patch of sal forest occurs, and there, and there only, the Red Jungle-Fowl and the Swamp Deer are met with, although the nearest spot to the eastward where the three again recur is 150 miles distant." Forsyth added that the two kinds of Jungle-Fowl met on the plateau at Pachmarhi and that he had shot both there.
As further illustrating this much-disputed question, I may quote what my friend Mr. R. Thompson, Deputy Conservator of Forests, Central Provinces, writes :—
" The Red Jungle-Fowl is found nowhere in the Chanda District proper as far as my personal observations have extended, nor have I heard of its existence from native shikaris and others. It is found in the Godavari Valley as low down as the hills north of Rajmandhry, but not above Dumagudium, which is now just beyond the limits of the Central Provinces and within the Madras Presidency. In Central Bastar, between 18° and 190 N. Lat., it was common on the Baila Dila Plateau. I met with it in the valley of the Savery river which drains a part of Jeypore, and it may probably extend westwards to as far as the Indrivati river, but I have no certainty as to this last point. Dr. Jerdon describes its existence in the valley of the Indravati, where I have certainly not met with it, and must therefore conclude that his description refers to some point very much higher up, and eastward of any place in the valley that I have visited."
Again he writes :—
"I was in the Eastern Zemindaris of the Chanda District a very short time ago, and met with the Red Jungle-Fowl in great abundance in the Zemindaris of Pana0baras, Kotgal, Koracha, &c. ; in fact, everywhere on the high table-land east of the Wainganga river. Just below the Ghats, the Grey Jungle-Fowl was met with, but not a single specimen was to be found on the high ground already in the possession of the other species. I traced the occurrence of the Red Jungle-Fowl down as far south as the Zemindaris of Omdhee ; south of that, it was again replaced by the other species. But note that the Swamp Deer occurs in Bahawalpur and Sind, where neit er sal trees nor Red Jungle-Fowl occur.
It is unknown in Kathiawar, Cutch, Sind, Rajputana, and the Punjab except in the immediate neighbourhood of the Himalayas and the Siwaliks, and equally so, except in similar situations, in the greater portions of the level fully cultivated North-West Provinces, though it occurs in the hilly southern portions of the Mirzapore District. Further, it is wanting throughout the major portion of the deltaic districts of Lower Bengal, and in Behar except in the northern submontane tracts.
Outside our limits, the Red Jungle-Fowl occurs throughout the western half of the Malay Peninsula, right down to Johore at its southernmost extremity, and it is also common to this day in all suitable localities in the jungles of Sumatra.It does not occur in Borneo, and I very much doubt whether its natural range extends beyond Sumatra in this direction. But it is claimed as an inhabitant of all kinds of other localities, Java, Timor, Lombok, Celebes, the Philippines, and Hainan, those from the latter belonging to the Indian, from all the former to the Malayan and Burmese race. My belief is that into all these localities they have been imported. All over the Malay Peninsula and India, domestic fowls are to be seen barely distinguishable from the Red Jungle-Fowl of these countries, and there can be no doubt that any such which ran wild would very soon, in the face of an environment similar to that of their original habitat, revert to the wild type. Nothing can be more certain than that the fowls on the Great and Little Cocos must have been introduced, yet they are now perfect Gallus ferrugineus. Similar Jungle-Fowl occur at Tahiti, and it is said other islands in the South Seas, and the Bonin Isles, which no one can accept as being within the possible natural range of this species.
Then again Severtsov enumerates them as occurring throughout Western Turkestan. I cannot ascertain, from the abstract translation of his work which appeared in the Ibis, whether he means that they are wild there ; but if so, they have certainly run wild. They do not cross the Himalayas ; they do not occur in Yarkand, in Kabul or Persia, and Turkestan cannot possibly be included within their natural range. On the other hand, they do occur in the westernmost portions of Siam, and not improbably spread throughout this latter country into Cochin-China.
I have referred to the Indian and Burmo-Malayan races of this bird. The plumage of the latter is said to be redder, and taking a large series, there seems some truth in this, though individual birds from Dehra Dun and Johore, for instance, can be entirely matched as regards plumage, but in the Burmese and Malayan birds, the small ear lappet is invariably red, whereas in the Indian it is almost equally invariably white or pinky white.
VERTICALLY THIS species ranges from sea level to 5,000 feet elevation, but like many other species they are generally to be found lower down in the cold season, and are rarely to be met with above 3,000 feet, except during the hot season.
Their habits have been so often and so well described that there is really nothing new to be said about them. Jerdon tells us that "the Jungle-Fowl is very partial to bamboo jungle, but is found as well in lofty forests and in dense thickets. When cultivated land is near their haunts, they may, during the harvest season, and after the grain is cut, be seen morning and evening in the fields, often in straggling parties of ten to twenty. Their crow, which they give utterance to morning and evening all the year round, but especially at the pairing season, is quite like that of a Bantam Cock, but shorter and never prolonged as in our domestic cocks.
" When detached clumps of jungle or small hills occur in a jungly district where these Fowls abound, very pretty shooting can be had by driving them by means of dogs and beaters ; and in travelling through a forest country, many will always be found near the roads, to which they resort to pick up grain from the droppings of cattle, &c; dogs will often put them up, when they at once fly on to the nearest trees. Young birds, if kept for a few days, are very excellent eating, having a considerable game flavour."
Sometimes when thus beating for Jungle-Fowl you meet with odd surprises. It was in April 1853, in the good old days of palki dak from Meerut to Mussooree. Three nights we used to make of it when ladies were of the party, and the close of the second night brought us to the Kheree Dak Bungalow, in broken jungly ground just south of the Siwaliks. After breakfast I went out to look for Jungle-Fowl, luckily with a rifle (a heavy 2 oz. band spherical ball) in case of seeing Cheetul. We beat a lot of low jungle grass and scattered bushes, and I had got a Partridge and a Jungle Hen, when I turned into a very likely looking nalla, about 80 feet deep, with sloping well-grassed sides, and at the bottom a narrow perpendicular-sided water channel about four feet deep and three feet wide, cut through the boulder clay. In this channel I walked with one or two men along the slopes on either side, and one or two above, all a little behind me ; suddenly there was a shout on my left, and instantly a tremendous grunting ; as I seized my rifle from the shikari behind me, four black heads showed through the grass immediately above me. I could not get out of the wretched water-course, which was nearly up to my armpits, and without one second's hesitation one of the bears (the old female as it proved) came down upon me like a thunderbolt. I got my first barrel off when she was about ten yards from me ; the second let itself off as her chest struck the muzzle, and then I was knocked over, half stunned and nearly crushed to death. I don't know exactly how it all happened, but I found myself on my face, hardly able to breathe ; my head, arms and body pinned down by the massive motionless (luckily for me) corpse of lady Bruin. Seeing that the bear was quite dead, my shikari and a good pahari bearer I had soon pulled her off and released me, a mass of blood, a good deal cut and bruised, but not really hurt; my first bullet had gone straight through her from stem to stern (2 oz. hardened bullet and six drams of powder), the other had gone right through the heart and come out behind the ribs on the left side.
It will be well for griffs (as I then was) to bear in mind that, in the Sub-Himalayan ranges at any rate, where Jungle-Fowl are common, there bears and tigers are not unlikely to be met with, and that they should never beat for Jungle-Fowl in such situations on foot, without a rifle in trustworthy hands behind them, and never allow themselves to be caught in such a trap as that in which I had stupidly placed myself.
" The best shooting I ever got at this species was at Jalpaiguri, where the nallas, or beds of streams, in the neighbourhood, which are common in that country, and filled with jungle, gave cover to very many of these birds. When put up by beaters they fly out at a considerable pace, and require a good knockdown blow to bag them. They run, too, a great deal. In the Manbhoom district the native shikaris used to get many of them by placing corn near some water in the half-dried-up beds of streams, and then shooting them when they came there both in the early morning and evening to eat and drink."
Colonel Tickell remarks :—
" It is off the alluvion, in the dry, stony jungles between Midnapore and Chota Nagpore, that the Jungle-Fowl are met with in the greatest numbers. In favourable situations, such as narrow strips of cultivation in the woods after the crops have been reaped, I have seen as many as twenty or thirty together gleaning about in the stubble ; and where the country is thinly inhabited they will, in twos and threes, advance pretty boldly into the open. On such occasions they do not appear to plant sentries like the Crane and Wild Goose, but are at all times excessively timid and wary. When approached in open spots, far from covert, they take wing as readily as Partridges, springing with a loud flutter, and flying steadily and strongly to the jungle, with rapid beats and alternate sailings of their wings. They alight generally within the edge of the covert, and then run so long and swiftly as to render it quite hopeless to follow them. There is no bird more difficult to approach, or even to see, when in the jungle. The cocks may be heard of a morning or evening crowing all round, but the utmost precaution will not, in most cases, enable the sportsman to creep within shot or sight of the bird. The hen, too, announces the important fact of having laid an egg with the same vociferation as in the domestic state, but is silent ere the stealthiest footstep can approach her hiding-place, and, gliding with stealthy feet under the dense foliage, is soon far away in the deep recesses of the jungle. To a stranger it is not a little curious to hear the familiar sounds of our farmyards issuing from the depths of the wild forest.
" This bird must be sought in all jungly country which is partly cultivated ; and where paddy fields extend in long strips into the forest, two sportsmen walking one on each side just within the cover, with a line of beaters between them, can enjoy very pretty shooting. The fowls rise from the stubble and fly into the wood, passing over head, and the sport resembles Pheasant-shooting in England, the flight and size of the birds being pretty similar. When the fields have been cleared of the fowls, the shooting may be continued with success in the woods if they be pretty open and the sportsman furnished with spaniels the sight of which forces the birds to tree, from whence very pretty snap shots may be obtained, as they will often rest on a high branch till the sportsman has arrived underneath before taking wing again. Both cocks and hens make a desperate cackling and flutter when thus roused up by dogs, and I know of no shooting which requires greater nerve and steadiness. If there are no dogs the birds will not tree, but run slyly and silently along and are seen no more, unless you be mounted on an elephant, when it is easy enough to pot them, should you be so minded, as they skulk under the brushwood. Like the Phasianidae, wild poultry are omnivorous. They are not subject to migrations, even to the extent to which Pea-Fowl shift their quarters ; but in the hot season and the rains they retire deeper into the woods, the cultivated tracts no longer affording food, while the sylvan recesses provide seclusion and shelter for breeding."
To a certain extent the Jungle-Fowl is omnivorous, and will eat not only grass and young shoots and flower buds, and seeds and grain of all kinds, but worms and grasshoppers and beetles and small land shells, but they are preferentially gram nivorous, and I have examined scores which had eaten absolutely nothing but grain.
In the autumn, after the millet fields have ripened, they grow very fat on this grain, and the birds of the year are then really good eating, but, as a rule, the birds one shoots (be it confessed with shame, for it ought to be a close season) from March to June, tiger-shooting in the Tarai, when, the day's sport over, one turns homeward towards the tents, are no whit better than ordinary village fowls.
Captain Baldwin, the well-known author of the " Game of Bengal," tells us that—
"The Jungle-Fowl is generally found in very thick jungle bordering rivers like the Sarda in Pilibhit, specially when the banks of streams are much cut up and intersected by ravines with thick patches of overhanging bushes ; wooded islands in rivers, near the foot of the hills, are also likely spots.
" In the early morning, or towards evening, the birds come out from the dense thicket, where they retire during the heat of the day to feed near the edge of the forest. They like to scratch about at the back of old cattle-sheds, and where crops grow close to the jungle side will enter the corn fields to feed. In some places, where the borders of the forest are much broken and irregular, and the villagers have cultivation here and there between patches of wood and bushes, I have seen capital bags made by a couple of guns, three or four beaters, and a few bustling spaniels. The plan is this : to beat out strips and patches separately, and make a corner here and there, placing the guns in the first instance between the patch of standing crop about to be beaten, and the forest towards which the Jungle-Fowl when flushed are certain to make. The birds finding their retreat cut off, and pushed hard by men and dogs, are forced to take flight, and when well on the wing offer as fine a shot as a sportsman could desire."
Col. Williamson, Inspector-General of Police in Assam, remarks :—
" The Red Jungle-Fowl is found in the Garo Hills, and in all the Assam plains districts. I shot the bird beyond Sadiya the other day. It is a permanent resident in Assam ; it is found in bamboo and tree jungle, and is very often numerous near villages. In the low hills near Susung in the Mymensing District of Bengal, I have had excellent sport with these birds. I had the hills thoroughly beaten by beaters, the guns being carefully posted across the line of flight of the birds. I have shot 1o to 12 couple in an hour's shooting in this way. The best time for this sport is just at the season when the cold weather rice crop is ready for the sickle; say, during the month of December and early in January."
From Khoolna, Mr. Rainey writes :—
" I have found this species here and there in small numbers, in that tract of swampy forest country lying between the estuaries of the Hooghly and Megna, and known as the Sundarbans.
" I have never found them in the dense grass or reed jungle. They appear to stick to the forest, where they roost on the branches, selecting the most horizontal ones they can find.
" The cackling of the female, though it is slightly sharper, much resembles that of the common domestic hen of Lower Bengal ; and she appears to be always similarly noisy after depositing her egg. The male gives forth his cock-a-doodle-do quite as lustily, but in somewhat shriller tones than his representative of the village poultry-yards, and where human habitations at which fowls are reared exist adjoining the forest, it is most difficult to distinguish between the crows of tame and wild Chanticleers as they ' proclaim the coming morn.'
" Their principal food in the Sundarbans is insects, especially, I should say, the larvce of termites or white ants, which abound there. Grass seeds also doubtless afford them some subsistence. The majority rarely have an opportunity of feeding on grain only such few of them as chance to dwell near one of the rare and isolated patches of cultivation ' Rari nantes in gurgite vasto' ever see grain In these virgin wildernesses. It must, however, be admitted that those which do thus get a chance of partaking the luxuries of civilization evince the greatest partiality for them, and regularly every morning and evening make a raid on the rice fields near harvest time.
" The best way of shooting these birds here is by proceeding morning and evening along the edge of the forest between it and the rice fields. The sportsman will thus flush two or three coveys of them, and secure a few brace. The largest bag that could be obtained by a single gun would hardly be more than three or four brace.
" Very few cultivators— there are no professional bird-catchers in the Sundarbans— attempt to snare the Jungle-Fowl, and they do so only occasionally. They catch them in nooses, using a tame decoy bird to allure the wild ones. The decoy bird is tethered in an open space close to the forest, with the nooses placed round it and grain strewn about. The call of the decoy bird— and it is always in a defiant tone— attracts the wild fowl, and generally the males come forth to do battle and are snared, or the hens to eat the grain, and are similarly secured. I have never seen birds thus captured when mature, tamed or even kept alive in confinement for any time, as they obstinately refuse to eat, and pine away and die.
" I may add that the Jungle- Fowls in the Sundarbans appear to be descended immediately from domestic fowls, which used to be let out there in considerable numbers by superstitious wood-cutters to propitiate the sylvan deities— a practice still prevailing to some extent— and I have shot these birds there in different stages of transition. This is interesting, as we evidently thus find the domestic fowl reverting to its pristine condition, for the Red Jungle-Fowl is undoubtedly the origin of our tame varieties of fowl. I had a couple of chicks, produced from eggs of wild birds set under the domestic fowl, and they remained contentedly in the poultry-yard, and freely bred— they were both hens— with the tame fowl. The progeny were in appearance midway between their parents, and exactly similar to some I had shot in the Sundarbans. About that time the cyclone of 1867 swept over the place I was residing at, and of course put a premature end to the varied denizens of the poultry-yard, hybrids included. I soon afterwards left my abode in the wilds of the Sundarbans, and have had no opportunity since of continuing the experiment."
I am not going to discuss the problem, on which so much has been written, as to whether all our domestic poultry really spring exclusively from the Red Jungle-Fowl or whether other wild stocks have contributed a strain. The discussion is perfectly profitless, because the problem is perfectly insoluble, since every trait or detail of plumage or of colour or shape of soft parts which may be adduced as proving the intermixture of other wild species (and there are many breeds in which such appear) may be equally explained on the assumption that they are instances of attavism, and are derived through the Red Jungle-Fowl from the common stock out of which all existing species of Jungle-Fowl diverged.
But looking to the geographical position of the Sundarbans, at the apex of the Delta, and its very recent origin, I should not be surprised if Mr. Rainey were right, and all the Jungle-Fowl there found were really, as a great number undoubtedly are, the progeny of tame races ; in which case these Sundarbans birds furnish another illustration of the readiness with which the tame fowls revert, under favourable conditions, to the wild ancestral type.
No one specially notices the extreme pugnacity of these birds in the wild state, or the fact that where they are numerous they select regular fighting grounds much like Ruffs. Going through the forests of the Siwaliks in the northeastern portion of the Saharanpur district, I chanced one afternoon, late in March, on a tiny open grassy knoll, perhaps ten yards in diameter and a yard in height. It was covered with close turf, scratched in many places into holes, and covered over with Jungle-Fowl feathers to such an extent that I thought some Bonelli's Eagle, a great enemy of this species, must have caught and devoured one. Whilst I was looking round, one of my dogs brought me from somewhere in the jungle round a freshly-killed Jungle-Cock, in splendid plumage, but with the base of the skull on one side pierced by what I at once concluded must have been the spur of another cock. I put up for the day at a Bunjara Perow, some two miles distant, and on speaking to the men found that they knew the place well, and one of them said that he had repeatedly watched the cocks fighting there, and that he would take me to a tree close by whence I could see it for myself. Long before daylight he guided me to the tree, telling me to climb to the 4th fork, whence, quite concealed, I could look down on the mound. When I got up it was too dark to see anything, but a glimmer of dawn soon stole into the eastern sky, which I faced ; soon after crowing began all round, then I made out the mound dimly, perhaps 30 yards from the base of the tree and 40 from my perch ; then it got quite light and in a few minutes later, a Jungle-Cock ran out on to the top of the mound and crowed (for a wild bird) vociferously, clapping his wings, and strutting round and round, with his tail raised almost like a domestic fowl.
And here I should notice that although, as has often been noticed, the wild cocks always droop their tails when running away or feeding— in fact almost whenever you see them— yet I believe from what I then and once subsequently saw, that, when challenging rivals, they probably always erect the tail, and I know (having twice so surprised them before they saw me when watching for Cheetul and Sambhur from a machan, near water in the early morning) that when paying their addresses to their mates, they do the same during the preliminary struts round them. I learnt so much and no more ; there was a rush, a yelp ; the Jungle-Cock had vanished, and I found that one of my wretched dogs had got loose, tracked me, and was now careering wildly about the foot of the tree. Next day I tried again, but without success. I suppose the birds about had been too much scared by the dog, and I had to leave the place without seeing a fight there ; but putting all the facts together, I have not the smallest doubt that this was a real fighting arena, and that, as the Bunjara averred, many of the innumerable cocks in the neighbourhood did systematically fight there. Only a week later I shot two cocks, who were tumbling head over heels, a confused mass, with wings and legs interlaced in an incredible manner, and on several other occasions, when watching and waiting, concealed and in silence, for larger game, I have witnessed desperate battles between cocks who happened to meet, attracted by each other's crows and flappings of wings, near my tree ambush.
THE Red jungle Fowl breeds alike in hills and plains, from almost sea level up to three, four, or even five thousand feet elevation according to locality.
According to my personal experience in the Himalayas and sub-Himalayan tracts, its eggs are normally only to be found between the 1st April and the end of June, and the higher the nest the later they lay, but others talk of finding the nests in January, February, or March, and I therefore suppose that they lay earlier further south. The hen makes her nest in any dense thicket, bamboo clumps, it is said by preference, though I have not noticed this to be the case, composed of dry leaves, grass, and stems of soft herbaceous plants. Sometimes the nest is large and comfortable ; sometimes it looks as if the bird had made no nest and merely laid on a heap of dry leaves that it found handy, hollowing a receptacle for the eggs by the pressure of its body. Sometimes, again, the bird has clearly scraped a hollow in which to place the nest, and sometimes it has scraped up the earth all round, so as to make a sort of rim to the nest and keep the materials firm.
Many years ago, shooting in May for a month in the Siwaliks, chiefly along the southern side, my people and dogs between them used to find me a nest almost every day, and once we found six within a circle of 200 yards near the Bhinj-ka-khol. A large lota of water was carried, and one or two eggs out of every batch were tested to. see if they would lie flat at the bottom, stand on end, or float; of course we took only the former, and these I used to eat boiled, roast, and in omelettes, until I got perfectly sick of them. In those days, (I say it with pain and humiliation) the only use I ever put eggs to was to eat them, and in this particular case I was punished, for since I took to collecting eggs fate has so willed it that I have never seen a single nest, and have only quite recently succeeded in obtaining a good series from different localities. Well, in all the many nests I have seen, I never found more than nine eggs, and as well as I can remember five or six were the usual complement, even where the eggs were hard-set and floated. Other people speak of finding many more eggs in a nest. Wardlaw Ramsay, for instance, took a nest in Karenee on the 14th March containing eleven eggs !
Captain Hutton says :—" The Common Jungle-Fowl is abundant in some parts of the Dun, and in summer ascends the outer hills to 5,000 feet elevation. It lays its eggs on the ground with little preparation of nest, contenting itself with scraping together a few dry leaves and grass ; the eggs being from four to six generally, though often more, of a dull white, and very similar to those of Common Bantam Fowls, with which it will readily breed if domesticated from the egg.
" I have often reared the chicks under a domestic hen and turned them loose, but after staying about the house for several days, they always eventually betook themselves to the jungles and disappeared. If kept confined with other fowls, however, they readily interbreed, and the broods will then remain quiet under domestication, and always exhibit, both in plumage and marner, much more of the wild than of the tame stock, preferring at night to roost on the branches of trees. Mr. Blyth has remarked that his cross-breed eggs never produced chicks, but I have never found any difficulty in this respect. The crowing of the cock birds is very shrill and like that of the Frizzled Bantams. In the wild state it is monogamous."
Dr. Jerdon states that " the hen breeds from January to July, according to the locality, laying eight to twelve eggs, of a creamy white colour, often under a bamboo clump or in some dense thicket, occasionally scraping a few leaves or a little dried grass together to form a nest."
In the FIELD, " Ornithognomon" writes : " The period of incubation varies, according to locality, but is generally at the beginning of the rains, i. e., June. I have seen eggs, however, in March. The hen selects for the purpose of nidification some secret thicket in the most retired and dense part of the jungle, scraping together a few leaves on the ground by way of nest. She remains as part of the cock's seraglio until some seven to ten or a dozen eggs have been deposited in the above spot, to which she stealthily repairs every day, and finally quits her party and retires alone and unseen to perform the duties of incubation. The chicks are hatched as usual in about twenty days, and run about, following the mother, as soon as they have emerged from the egg-shell ; and she leads them about, teaching them how to find their own sustenance, till they are big enough to shift for themselves, by which time the young cocks, finding that they cannot in honour come within a few yards of each other without a battle, separate, each one taking some of his sisters with him. These particulars I have gathered from native informants ; but I can add from my own experience that either the season of incubation is uncertain, or that the hens lay in the cold season with no more ulterior views than the domestic birds, for both in February and March I have heard them emit that peculiar cackle tuk-tuk-tuk-tuk-tukauk ! by which every one knows a hen in a farmyard proclaims to the good housewife a fresh acquisition to her larder."
A good deal of this is purely " native." In the first place, the nests are not really generally so very carefully hidden ; they are in thickets no doubt, but fully half of them are so far open that no one given to bird-nesting could possibly pass them. In the second, go near the nest when you like,— morning, noon, or evening,— be there one egg or six in the nest, your dogs are certain to put the hen up quite close. In the third place, how each young cock is to go away taking some of his sisters with him I do not know. Certainly, to judge from the young birds one kills in October and November (when they are fat as butter and most delicious), fully as many young cocks as hens are reared. Lastly, I am quite certain that they are not always polygamous. I do not agree with Hutton that they are always monogamous, because I have constantly found several hens in company with a single cock, but I have also repeatedly shot pairs without finding a single other hen in the neighbourhood, and if you have good dogs (and you can do nothing in jungle with either these or Pheasants without dogs) you are sure to see and hear, even if you get no shot at them, all the birds there are.
" In the Sundarbans," says Mr. Rainey, " their breeding season lasts generally from March to May. The hen lays her eggs on the ground, usually in a shallow hole scraped for that purpose and lined with a few scattered leaves. The nest is made in the centre of some dense thicket or underwood in the midst or edge of the forest. She lays from six to eight eggs ; at least I have never found more than that number in any single nest. The eggs are rather smaller than those of tame fowls in the same parts of the country, and of a slightly reddish brown colour. Many eggs are destroyed, I am told, by the so-called ' Iguana', properly Monitor Lizard ( Varanus dracaena.)"
From Upper Pegu, where they are quite as common in the hills as in the plains, Mr. Oates sent me eggs taken by him on the 20th March and 25th May.
He says : " In Pegu this species appears to breed throughout the first six months of the year, but more frequently in April, May, and June. Nests at all elevations from 1oo to 2,000 feet above sea level."
The eggs vary much in size and shape, but typically they are miniature hens' eggs ; considerably elongated varieties are, however, common. The shell is, as a rule, very fine and smooth, and has a tolerable gloss ; but specimens occur in which the pores are much more marked than usual, the shell coarser and rougher, and the gloss very faint As to colour they are normally a pale yellowish cafe au lait colour, but occasionally a redder and deeper-coloured egg is met with.
In length the eggs vary from 1.6 to 2.03, and in breadth from 1.27 to 1.5 ; but the average of thirty is 1.78 by 1 .36.
AS TO DIMENSIONS—
Males, measured.— Length, 25.0 to 28.2; expanse, 27.0 to 29.5 ; wing, 8.12 to 9.5 ; tail from vent, 11.25 to 14.3 ; tarsus, 3.0 to 3.12 : bill from gape, 1.19 to 1.37 ; spur, very sharp and curved, 1.o to 1.7 in length. Weight, 1 lb. 12 ozs. to 2 lbs. 4 ozs.
Females.— Length, 16.5 to 18.25 ; expanse, 23.0 to 25.0 ; wing, 7.1 to 7.5 ; tail from vent, 5.5 to 6.5 ; tarsus, 2.3 to 2.55 ; bill from gape, 0.9 to 1.02. Weight, 1 lb. 2 ozs to 1 lb. 10 ozs.
The legs and feet are plumbeous or slaty, sometimes browner and purpler, sometimes darker and with a greenish tinge, sometimes paler, a kind of slaty grey. The comb, thin and deeply notched above, which is much reduced in the females, and wattles, which (though Blyth contradicts Dr. Jerdon on this point) have been wanting in all females that I have examined, vary from a deep dull red to bright crimson ; the skin of sides of head, chin, throat and upper part of neck in front, smooth and red also, but usually somewhat paler, bluer and more fleshy; car lappets, as a rule, white or pinky white in Indian birds, red like the comb in Burmese and Malayan ones; irides light red to orange red; bill dark brown to blackish dusky, paler towards tip of lower mandible, often reddish in the male towards the base; in the female horny brown above, fleshy grey below.
In a young male the naked skin of head and neck was fleshy grey mixed with dull blue ; the legs dark pure slaty grey.
THE plate, as already noticed, is not unnatural in the position in which the male is shown, although it is but rarely that the tail is thus raised. The face is never quite uniform in colour with comb and wattles as here shown. Of course the plate is idiotically mislettered.
The chicks are the prettiest little things imaginable, with fawn-coloured heads, with a broad coronal maroon stripe framed in black, and maroon backs, with a broad creamy buff stripe on either side also framed in black. The bills yellow; legs and feet greenish. It may be useful to notice that very odd nondescript birds may be shot of this species, which seem to be neither males nor females. I know I was much puzzled with the first of these I shot, and thought I had secured at least a hermaphrodite, but these queer looking birds are really nothing but males, who at the close of the breeding season have dropped part or the whole of the neck hackles, which have been replaced by short dusky brown feathers.
Mr. H. Fasson says : "Jungle-Fowl, which the people call Kura, afford very fine sport here in Chittagong. The low hills which fringe the bases of the various ranges are divided by numerous narrow valleys, which have been now converted into long winding strips of paddy cultivation, while the hills themselves still remain clothed with scrub jungle and forest. The birds attracted to the cover these more or less isolated hills afford, by the rice in the intervening valleys, may be flushed, in great numbers, by coolies beating through the scrub, and afford fine shooting to sportsmen posted in the valleys, as the birds cross these, seeking new cover in the next of these low hills. They fly under these conditions very fast, and take hard hitting to bring them down."
812. :- Jerdon's Birds of India, Vol. II, p 537 ; Game Birds of India, Vol, I, p. 217.
The Red Jungle Fowl.
Length, 25.0 to 28.2 ; expanse, 27 to 29.5 ; wing, 8.12 to 9.5 ; tail, 11.25 to 14.3 ; tarsus, 3 to 3.12; bill from gape, 1.19 to 1.37 ; weight, 1 3/4 lbs. to 2 1/4 lbs.
Length. 16.5 to 18.25 ; expanse, 23 to 25 ; wing, 7.1 to 7.5 ; tail, 5.5 to 6.5 ; tarsus, 2.3 to 2.55 ; bill from gape, 1.9 to 1.02 ; weight, 1 2/16 lbs. to 1 10/16 lbs.
Bill slaty-brown; irides orange-red ; face, comb, and wattles red; legs slaty-black.
Male, rich golden hackles on the head, neck, throat and breast, paler on the sides of the neck and posteriorly ; ear-coverts white ; back purplish-brown in the middle, rich orange-brown on the sides; upper tail-coverts lengthened, also bright orange ; wings with the lesser and greater-coverts black, glossed with green; median-coverts rich dull maroon ; primaries dusky, with pale edges; secondaries chestnut externally, dusky within ;tertiaries glossy black; tail with the central feathers rich glossy green-black, the gloss diminishing on the lateral feathers; beneath from the breast unglossed black ; thigh-coverts the same.
The Jungle Hen has the general color yellowish-brown, minutely mottled with dark brown; and some of the feathers, especially of the upper back and wing-coverts, having conspicuously pale shafts ; the head dusky above, passing into short hackles of dark brown, edged with bright yellow on the neck and sides of the breast; quills and tail dark brown ; the central rectrices edged with mottled-brown ; ear-coverts yellowish ; a line down the throat deep bright red-brown, ending in a point below and passing up in a line behind the ears to join a small supercilium of the same hue; breast pale rufous-brown, with central pale streaks, lighter on the middle of the belly and becoming dull brown on the flanks, vent, thigh-coverts, and under tail-coverts.
I have been assured by a well known sportsman that the Red Jungle Fowl occurs in Central India, but it must be very rare as no one else seems ever to have met with it.
Jerd., B. Ind. ii. p. 236; Elliot, Mon. Phas. ii. pl. 32; Hume, Nests and Eggs Ind. B. p. 528; id., Str. F. iii. p. 171; Blyth, B. Burm. p. 148 ; Oates, Str. F. v. p. 104 ; Hume and Dav., Str. F. vi. p. 442; Hume, Str. F. viii. p, III; Hume and Marsh., Game Birds i. p. 217, pl.; Bingham, Str. F. x. p. 195 ; Oates. Str. F. x. p. 236; id., B. Br. Burm. ii. p. 322; Murray, Avif. Brit. Ind. ii. p. 545, No. 1207. Tetrao ferrugineus, Gm., Syst. Nat. i. p. 761. :-
The Common Jungle Fowl.
Head and neck rich golden, becoming yellow on the longer hackles which cover the back ; back, lesser wing coverts, and lower plumage black ; tertiaries black, the greater coverts also black with a bluish tinge; median wing coverts glistening maroon chestnut, also a band connecting them with the lower back, which is followed by a broad band of rich purplish brown; lower rump and upper tail coverts rich golden; tail black, glossed with greenish.
The female has the crown rufous, the shafts darker; hackles of the neck dark brown edged with yellow; upper plumage and wing coverts yellowish brown mottled with black, and the shafts yellowish ; primaries and secondaries dark brown, the outer webs of the latter and both webs of the tertiaries mottled with yellowish brown; under surface of the body reddish brown with paler shaft streaks, and most of the feathers stippled with blackish, (Oates.) Bill dark brown, reddish towards the base; under parts dull red; irides orange red ; legs and feet purpurescent.
Length. :- 25 to 28 inches; wing 8.12 to 9.5; tail 11.25 to 14.3; tarsus 3 to 3.12; bill from gape 1.19 to 1.37. Females do not exceed 18.5 in length, and have a wing of from 7.1 to 7.5.
Hab. :- Himalayas, in the lower ranges, the Dhoons, Terais, and sub-montane districts. The whole of Assam, Oudh, Central and N.-W. Provinces, Eastern Bengal, including the Sunderbuns, Arracan, Pegu, Tenasserim ; all the hilly portions of Western Bengal and Northern and Central Provinces. Southwards and eastwards, it occurs north of the Godavery, Orissa, the Tributary Mehals, Ganjam, Vizagapatam, Joonaghur, Nowagur, Jeypore. There is no description of jungle from which it is absent. In the dry, level, alluvial plains and semi-deserts of Upper India it is absent. It is very partial to bamboo jungle, broken ground and ravines with dense vegetation. It breeds from January to July, according to locality. Eggs, a pale yellowish, cafe au lait colour, 8 to 12 in number.
The Bed Jungle-fowl.
Galius ferrugineus, Gm., Jerd. B. Ind. ii, p. 536; Hume, Rough Draft N. & E. no. 812.
The Red Jungle-fowl is, as Its name imports, a true denizen of the jungle, and most especially of jungle in the vicinity of scattered cultivation, at or near the bases of hills, which keep it comparatively well watered throughout the year.
It breeds within our limits in suitable localities throughout Burma, Assam, Bengal, Oudh, the North-West Provinces, and the eastern portion of the Punjab, although in this latter locality it is much rarer than in the other provinces above named. In the Central Provinces it is only found in the northern and eastern portions. It is common in the Kymore Range and extends on to the Maikle or Ammurkuntuk Ranges. It is the only Jungle-fowl in Sumbulpoor, Raipore, Balaghat, Mandlah, and Jubbulpoor. I have been unable to ascertain which Jungle-fowl occurs in the hills about Seoni, Kooraiie, Deoghur, and Chundwara, but I suspect that the Kunhun Valley here divides the two species. In Bustar and Puchmurree both it and the next species meet. In Madras it occurs on the Eastern Ghats in Ganjam and Vizagapatam ; in fact, as far south as the Godavery.
It is not confined to the plains; in summer at any rate it is to be found at elevations of from 3000 to 4000 feet in the hills, about whose bases it is most commonly found in winter. It breeds both in the low country and in the hills, laying, according to my experience, from April to June.
The hen makes her nest in any dense thicket - bamboo-clumps, it is said, by preference, though I have not noticed this to be the case, - composed of dry leaves, grass, and stems of soft herbaceous plants. Sometimes the nest is large and comfortable ; sometimes it looks as if the bird had made no nest, and merely laid on a heap of dry leaves that it found handy, hollowing a receptacle for the eggs by the pressure of its body. Sometimes, again, the bird has clearly scraped a hollow in which to place the nest; and sometimes it has scraped up the earth all round, so as to make a sort of rim to the nest and keep the materials firm.
Many years ago, shooting in May for a month along the southern side, chiefly, of the Sewaliks, my people and dogs between them used to find me a nest almost every day, and once we found six within a circle of 200 yards near the Bhinj-ka-khol. A large lota of water was carried, and one or two eggs out of every batch were tested to see if they would lie flat at the bottom, stand on end, or float; of course we took only the former, and these I used to eat boiled and in omelettes, until I got perfectly sick of them. In those days (I say it with pain and humiliation) the only use I ever put eggs to was to eat them ; and in this particular case I was punished, for since I took to collecting eggs, fate has so willed it that I have never seen a single nest, and have only quite recently succeeded in obtaining a very few from different localities. Well, in all the many nests I have seen I never found more than nine eggs, and, as well as I can remember, five or six were the usual complement, even where the eggs were hard-set and floated.
Captain Hutton says :- " The Common Jungle-fowl is abundant in some parts of the Dhoon, and in summer ascends the outer hills to 5000 feet elevation. It lays its eggs on the ground with little preparation of nest, contenting itself with scraping together a few dry leaves and grass; the eggs being from four to six generally, though often more, of a dull white and very similar to those of common Bantam Fowls, with which it will readily breed if domesticated from the egg.
" I have often reared the chicks under a domestic hen and turned them loose, but after staying about the house for several days they always eventually betook themselves to the jungles and disappeared. If kept confined with other fowls, however, they readily interbreed, and the broods will then remain quiet under domestication, and always exhibit both in plumage and manner much more of the wild than of the tame stock, preferring at night to roost on the branches of trees. Mr. Blyth has remarked that his cross-bred eggs never produced chicks, but I have never found any difficulty in this respect. The crowing of the cock birds is very shrill and like that of the Frizzled Bantams. In the wild state it is monogamous."
Dr. Jerdon states that " the hen breeds from January to July, according to the locality, laying eight to twelve eggs, of a creamy-white colour, often under a bamboo clump or in some dense thicket. Occasionally scraping a few leaves or a little dry grass together to form a nest."
In the' Field,' ' Ornithognomon' writes :- " The period of incubation varies according to locality, but is generally at the beginning of the rains, i. e. June. I have seen eggs, however, in March. She selects for the purpose of nidification some secret thicket in the most retired and dense part of the jungle, scraping together a few leaves on the ground by way of nest. She remains as part of the cock's seraglio until some seven to ten or a dozen eggs have been deposited in the above spot, to which she stealthily repairs every day, and finally quits her party and retires alone and unseen to perform the duties of incubation. The chicks are hatched as usual in about twenty days, and run about, following the mother, as soon as they have emerged from the egg-shell; and she leads them about, teaching them how to find their own sustenance, till they are big enough to shift for themselves, by which time the young cocks, finding that they cannot in honour come within a few yards of each other without a battle, separate, each one taking some of his sisters with him. These particulars I have gathered from native informants; but I can add from my own experience that either the season of incubation is uncertain, or that the hens lay in the cold season with no more ulterior views than the domestic birds, for both in February and March I have heard them emit that peculiar cackle tuk-tuk-tuk-tuk-tukauh, by which every one knows a hen in a farmyard proclaims to the good housewife a fresh acquisition to her larder."
A good deal of this is purely "native." In the first place, the nests are not really generally so very carefully hidden; they are in thickets no doubt, but fully half of them are so far open that no one given to bird-nesting could possibly pass them. In the second, go near the nest when you like, - morning, noon, or evening, - be there One egg or six in the nest, your dogs are certain to put the hen up quite close. In the third place, how each young cock is to go away taking some of his sisters with him I do not know. Certainly to judge from the young birds one kills in October and November (when they are as fat as butter and most delicious), fully as many young cocks as hens are reared. Lastly, I am quite certain that they are not always polygamous. I do not agree with Hutton that they are monogamous, because I have constantly found several hens in company with a single cock; but I have also repeately shot pairs without finding a single other hen in the neighbourhood, and if you have good dogs (and you can do nothing in jungle with either these or Pheasants without dogs) you are sure to see and hear, even if you get no shot at them, all the birds there are.
Major Wardlaw Ramsay writes :- " I took eleven eggs from a nest in Karen-nee on the 14th March. The eggs were simply laid in a small hollow scratched out by the bird under a fallen branch."
Major Bingham, writing from Tenasserim, says :- " In the Zinzaway reserve, near the Yonzaleen river, I found several nests with eggs of Jungle-ft)wl, but as I was hard up for provisions I generally ate them. I preserved, however, four which I send you; they were found on the 13th April in a scratched-out pan of a nest in thick bamboo-jungle."
From Upper Pegu, where they are quite as common in the hills as in the plains, Mr; Oates sent me eggs taken by him on the 20th March and 25th May. He says ; - " In Pegu this species appears to breed throughout the first six months of the year, but more frequently in April, May, and June. Nests at all elevations from 100 to 2000 feet above sea-level."
The eggs vary a good deal in size and shape, but typically they are miniature hen's eggs; considerably elongated varieties are, however, common. The shell is, as a rule, very fine and smooth, and has a tolerable gloss, but specimens occur in which the pores are much more marked than usual, the shell coarser and rougher, and the gloss very faint. As to colour they are normally a pale yellowish cafe-au-lait colour, but occasionally a redder and deeper-coloured egg is met with.
In length the eggs vary from 1.6 to 2.03 and in breadth from 1.27 to 1.5 : but the average of thirty eggs is 1.78 by 1.36.
Jerd., B. Ind. ii. p. 236; Elliot, Mon. Phas. ii. pl. 32 ; Hume, Nests and Eggs Ind. B. p. 528; id., Str. F. iii. p. 171; Blyth, B. Burm. p. 148 ; Oates, Str. F. v. p. 1O4 ; Hume and Dav., Str. F. vi. p. 442; Hume, Str. F. viii. p. III ; Hume and Marsh., Game Birds i. p. 217, pl.; Bingham, Str. F. x. p. 195 ; Oates, Str. F. x. p. 236 ; id., B. Br. Burm. ii. p. 322. Tetrao ferrugineus, Gm., Syst. Nat. i. p. 761. -
The Common Jungle Fowl.
Head and neck rich golden, becoming yellow on the longer hackles which cover the back ; back, lesser wing coverts, and lower plumage black ; tertiaries black, the greater coverts also black with a bluish tinge ; median wing coverts glistening maroon chestnut, also a band connecting them with the lower back, which is followed by a broad band of rich purplish brown; lower rump and upper tail coverts rich golden ; tail black, glossed with greenish.
The female has the crown rufous, the shafts darker; hackles of the neck dark brown edged with yellow ; upper plumage and wing coverts yellowish brown mottled with black, and the shafts yellowish ; primaries and secondaries dark brown, the outer webs of the latter and both webs of the tertiaries mottled with yellowish brown; under surface of the body reddish brown with paler shaft streaks, and most of the feathers stippled with blackish. (Oates.) Bill dark brown, reddish towards the base; under parts dull red; irides orange red ; legs and feet purpurescent.
Length. - 25 to 28 inches; wing 8.12 to 9.5 ; tail 11.25 to 14.3; tarsus 3 to 312; bill from gape 1.19 to 1.37. Females do not exceed 18.5 in length, and have a wing of from 7.1 to 7.5.
Hab. - Himalayas, in the lower ranges, the Dhoons, Terais, and sub-montane districts. The whole of Assam, Oudh, Central and N. W. Provinces, Eastern Bengal, including the Sunderbuns, Arracan, Pegu, Tenasserim ; all the hilly portions of Western Bengal and Northern and Central Provinces. Southwards and eastwards, it occurs north of the Godavery, Orissa, the Tributary Mehals, Ganjam, Vizagapatam, Joonaghur, Nowagur, Jeypore. There is no description of jungle from which it is absent. In the dry, level, alluvial plains and semi-deserts of Upper India it is absent. It is very partial to bamboo jungle, broken ground and ravines with dense vegetation. It breeds from January to July, according to locality. Eggs, a pale yellowish, cafe, au lait colour, 8 to 12 in number.
The Red Jungle-fowl.
Phasianus gallus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p., 270 (1706). Tetrao ferrugineus, Gm. Syst. Nat. i, 2, p. 761 (1788). Gallus bankiva, Temm. Pig. et Gall, ii, p. 87 (1813); Gray in Hardw. Ill Ind. Zool. i, pl. 43, tig. 3 . Gallus ferrugineus, Blyth, Cat. p. 242; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 536; Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 154; Blanford, J. A. S. B. xxxvi, pt. 2, p. 199; Beavan, Ibis, 1868, p. 381; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 272; xiv, pt. 2, p. 83; Hume, N. & E. p. 528 ; Ball, S. F. ii, p. 426 ; vii, p. 225 ; Blyth & Wald. Birds Burm. p. 148 ; Hume Marsh. Game B. i, p. 217, pl.; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 669; Hume & Dav. S. F. vi, pp. 442, 521 ; Hume, Cat. no. 812 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 348 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 322; Marshall, Ibis, 1884, p. 423 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 304; Oates in Hume's N. & E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 417. Gallus gallus, Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. M. xxii, p. 344.
Jangal-murgh , Jangli-murghi , Ban murghi, H.; Kukar, Kukra Bankukar, Bengali, &c.; Ganja, Uriya; Tang-kling, Lepcha ; Nag-tse-ja, Bhot.; Bir-sim, Kol.; Gera gogor , Kuru , Gond. ; Tau-kyet, Burm.
Coloration. Male. Crown and long hackles at back and sides of neck and on lower throat golden brown to orange-red, pale-shafted, passing on the longer neck-hackles into straw-yellow, generally with lanceolate dark brown shaft-stripes; upper back with the smaller and greater secondary-coverts black, glossed green or purple ; scapulars and median coverts glossy chestnut-red; quills and primary-coverts blackish brown, with metallic gloss on the tertiaries; narrow outer edges of primaries pale, and broad outer borders of secondaries and tertiaries dull cinnamon; lower back and rump very dark chestnut, shading into golden red or orange on the ends of the long lanceolate feathers at the sides of the rump; long upper tail-coverts and tail black with green or purple gloss ; lower parts from neck brownish black with little or no gloss.
After the breeding-season, about June, the long hackles and tail-feathers are replaced by short black feathers, but are resumed by a second moult in September.
Female. Crown dull rufous, dark-shafted; forehead and super-cilia, continued as a band round the fore neck, bright chestnut; back and sides of neck blackish, the feathers edged with dirty yellow ; upper parts finely vermiculated black and brown, with narrow yellowish-white shaft-lines ; quills and tail dark brown, the outer webs of the secondaries and of the inner tail-feathers, and both webs of the median rectrices, finely mottled with pale yellow ; lower plumage light rufous brown, with paler shaft-stripes; chin and throat light brownish grey.
Chicks have a fawn-coloured head, with a deep rufous black-edged triangular patch on the nape, pointed in front; a black stripe from behind each eye ; a chestnut back, bordered by creamy and black stripes ; and grey wings, spotted with white.
Bill dark brown, reddish towards the base in males, horny brown in females ; irides light red to orange-red ; comb and wattles crimson ; sides of face paler red. There is in this species a second pair of lappets, one beneath each ear, white or pinky white in Indian, red like the comb in Burmese and Malayan birds. Legs and feet plumbeous or slaty.
Length of male about 26; tail 11 to 13; wing 9; tarsus 3; bill from gape T25. Length of female about 17; tail 6; wing 7.25; tarsus 2.4 ; bill from gape 1.
Distribution. Throughout the Lower Himalayas from Assam to Kashmir, also throughout Bengal, Orissa, the Northern Circars, Assam, and the countries to the southward, all Burma and the Malay Peninsula, with Sumatra, Siam, and Cochin China. In the Peninsula of India, south of the Gangetic plain, the limit of this species, as Capt. Forsyth showed, is approximately the same as that of the sal-tree (Shorea robusta), the Red Jungle-fowl being found as far west as Mandla, Raipur, and Bastar, and south to the Godavari above Rajahmundry. An isolated wood of sal-trees in the Denwa valley, close to Pachmarhi, is inhabited by Gallus ferrugineus, though G. sonnerati occurs all around and for 150 miles to the eastward. G. ferrugineus occurs in Java and in many of the other Malay islands besides Sumatra, but it has probably been introduced. No Jungle-fowl are known to occur on the Andamans or Nicobars, but some wild birds, doubtless descended from tame progenitors, are met with on the Great and Little Cocos.
The Burmese race has a red ear-lappet, as have most domestic birds; its crow, too, is more like that of tame cocks, and it is said to be more easily domesticated than the Indian form with a white ear-lappet.
Habits, &c. Though essentially a forest bird this Jungle-fowl is often found feeding in cultivated ground near forest in the mornings and evenings. It ascends the Himalayas and breeds up to an elevation of about 5000 feet, keeping much to the valleys. The calls of both sexes resemble those of tame birds, but the cock's crow is shorter, especially the concluding note. The cocks are highly pugnacious, especially in the breeding-season, which lasts from the end of March to July in the Himalayas, but commences rather earlier to the southward. The hens lay usually 5 to 6 pale buff eggs, sometimes more (9 and even 11 have been found in one nest), in a hollow on the ground, sometimes well lined with grass and dead leaves, but often with little or no lining. The eggs measure about 1.78 by 1.36. Jungle-fowl afford fair shooting when they can be driven by men or elephants and made to fly, and young birds in the cold season are excellent to eat.
Gallus gallus, (Linnaeus).
MALE :—The inner quills of the wing broadly margined on the outer web with chestnut; lower plumage black.
FEMALE :—Lower plumage rufous ; feathers of the mantle black edged with yellow.
Vernacular Names :—Jangli-murghi, Ban-murghi, Hind.; Bunkokra, Bengal, Assam ; Natsu-pia, Bhutia ; Pazok-tchi, Lepcha; Tau-gyet, Burmese; Kura, Chittagong.
There are but few specimens of the Red Jungle-Fowl from India proper in the Hume Collection, and it is difficult to give the western limit of its range with any degree of accuracy. This species certainly occurs in Chamba, probably the most western locality in the Himalayas where it is found. The British Museum contains skins of this bird from Umballa and Saharunpur. Proceeding south we reach Chairkhari and Punnah. According to Messrs. Hume and Marshall the Red Jungle-Fowl is met with in both these localities. Following the range farther south we are informed by the same authors that this species occurs near Pachmarhi. The next point is Raipur in the Central Provinces, whence there are several skins of this species in the British Museum. South of Raipur there are numerous localities from which this Jungle-Fowl has been recorded, and the line of western limit would appear to run from Raipur to the junction of the Godaveri and Indrawati rivers, and thence along the former river to the coast.
East of the line thus roughly indicated, and south of the Himalayas from Chamba to the extreme eastern portion of Assam, and thence down to the extreme southern point of Tenasserim, the Red Jungle-Fowl would appear to be found in all suitable localities. It occurs up to an elevation of about 5000 feet.
To the east this species extends through the Shan States to Siam, Cochin China and Hainan, and to the south through the Malay peninsula to many of the islands.
Jungle-Fowl are very generally distributed, but they are much more abundant on the hills than elsewhere. They are very partial to localities where cultivation and thick cover are found together, and bamboo jungle has particular attractions for them. Notwithstanding the general shyness of Jungle-Fowl, they may frequently be met with quite close to villages which are surrounded by jungle, and in such cases it is not always easy to distinguish the wild birds from the village poultry.
Although Jungle-Fowl may sometimes be seen in large flocks, they are usually in small parties, one cock being accompanied by two or three hens. The crow of the cock, which resembles that of the domestic cock, may be heard at all times of the year, and usually at all hours of the day, but more frequently of course in the morning than at any other time. The hen cackles like the domestic hen, both when alarmed and after laying an egg.
The Red Jungle-Fowl appears to lay from March up to June. There are probably two broods a year. The nest is made on the ground, of dry leaves and grass, and is placed at the foot of a bush or clump of bamboos. The eggs, which vary from five to eleven in number, have a fair amount of gloss and are of a pale yellowish buff colour. They vary in length from1.6 to 2.03 and in breadth from 1.27 to 1.5.
The male has the crown and the hackles of the upper part of the mantle rich orange-red with blackish shaft-streaks; the hackles of the lower part of the mantle golden yellow with black shaft-streaks. The back is black, generally hidden by the longer hackles. The rump is rich glossy maroon, the feathers terminating in rich orange-red tips as they approach the tail. The tail is black, glossed with green. The small coverts near the bend of the wing are glossy black, the next series rich maroon, and the third series glossy black. The first ten quills of the wing are black, the remainder black with the outer half of the outer web chestnut. The hackles at the base of the throat are orange-red and the whole lower plumage deep black.
The female has the crown mixed rufous and brown. The mantle is black, each feather margined with pale straw-yellow. The whole upper plumage and the visible portions of the closed wings are yellowish brown or buff, much freckled and marked with black and with white shafts. The tail is dark brown, mottled at the edge of the feathers with buff. The whole lower plumage is rufous, brightest on the breast, and all the feathers with pale shafts.
Length of male up to 28; wing about 9 ; tail up to nearly 15. Length of female about 17; wing about 7 1/2; tail about 6. Legs bluish; comb and naked skin of the head, red; irides red; bill dusky. Weight up to 2 lb. 4 oz.
The Red Jungle-Fowl.
Ferrugineus = of the colour of iron-dust, dusky, jungli-moorghi, Ban-moorghi, Upper India; Bunkokra, Sundarbans; Natsu-pia (Bhutia); Pazoktchi, Sikkim; Gera-gogor, Gondwara; Lall, Chanda; Taugyet, Burma; Ayamootan, Malay; Kura, Chittagong.
Male 25" to 28", tail from vent 11" to 14"; 1 3/4 to 2 1/4 lbs. Female 16" to 18", tail from vent 5 1/2" to 6 1/2"; 1 1/8. to 1 5/8 lbs. Tail of fourteen feathers. Bill and legs slaty brown.— Male: Flesh comb with serrated margin and wattles red. Gold hackles on head, neck, and breast, with black shaft streaks. Ear-coverts white. Back purple. Sides and upper tail-coverts orange. Inner quills of wing margined chestnut on outer web. Tail and wing-coverts black, glossed green. Below black. —Female: Yellow, minutely mottled dark brown, with white shaft streaks. Red throat line passing up behind ear. No comb or wattles. Tail dark brown, mottled at edges with buff. Below rufous, with pale shafts. In June hackles and long tail-feathers are moulted, and replaced by short black feathers, to be renewed again in the second moult in September. The natural range is throughout the Himalayas, from Assam to Kashmir, Malay, Sumatra, Siam, and Cochin China. Forsyth shows that their limit coincides with that of the sal tree. Five or six eggs (1.78 x 1.36), yellowish brown (see illustration of foot, p. 29). (J. 812. B. 1328, 0. 78. O.G. ii. 48, H. & M. i. 217.)
Jungli moorghi, Hindustani.
"Just like a bantam " is the verdict generally passed on the appearance of honest chanticleer in his wild state, whether the observer be an Anglo-Indian shikari or a lady visiting the London Zoo; and the comparison is apt enough on the whole, for red jungle- fowl, which are simply wild common fowls, have the red-and-black colour in the cock and partridge-brown in the hen, so familiar in many bantams, and are of noticeably small size compared with most tame breeds.
They are over bantam weight, however, cocks averaging about two pounds and hens about half that; and the tail, which is very long in the cock, is carried trailing, not cocked up as in tame fowls. This applies to all kinds of jungle-fowl, none of which strut like the tame bird, and this familiar species has, at any rate in Indian specimens, a particularly slinking gait. Burmese birds have much more the appearance of tame poultry than the Western ones, and are said to be easier to tame; so, unless they are domestic birds run wild, it is probably this particular subspecies that was the ancestor of our farmyard fowls.
To anyone who wants jungle-fowl alive, and wishes to make sure of getting the absolutely real thing, however, I recommend the Indian race, which is characterized by having the ear-lobe (the little skinny flap below the ear) white, and the face flesh-colour, contrasting with the scarlet comb and wattles; the slate-coloured legs are also peculiarly fine. Burmese birds have all the bare skin of the head of the same red, and are certainly not so scared-looking or wild in behaviour, while slightly coarser in form. Of course wherever tame fowls are kept there is a great liability to intermixture with their wild ancestors, so that ill-bred "jungle- fowl " may be expected to turn up anywhere. The fowl also runs wild very readily in the tropics, so that it is really uncertain what its eastern limits are. It does not occur west of India, nor in the south of India itself, neither does it ascend the hills for more than 5,000 feet, and only goes to that level in summer. In the foot-hills it is particularly common, and, generally speaking, it affects hilly country, so long as water is accessible and there is plenty of bamboo or tree-jungle, for it is essentially a woodland bird, though it will come out into the open where there is cultivation in order to feed on the grain. Many of course never see grain all their lives, and live entirely on wild seeds, herbage, insects, &c.
In Burma jungle-fowl are common both in the hills and plains, and extend into Tenasserim and Sumatra. Even if the Burmese and Malayan birds are truly wild, I quite agree with Hume that the genuine aboriginal wildness of the red jungle-fowl found in the East Indies beyond Sumatra is very doubtful. The very distinct green jungle-fowl (Gallus varius) ranges from Java to Flores, and looking to the distribution of jungle-fowl and similar birds generally, it is very unlikely that the red species originally lived alongside this bird.
However, to consider more practical matters. This jungle-fowl may be looked for anywhere in the limits above specified if the country is suitable; it avoids alike deserts and high cultivation, and is generally absent from alluvial land, though quite common in the Sundarbans. Here, however, it is suspected of being an introduced bird, as it certainly is on the Cocos.
The fowl since its domestication by man has added no new note to its vocabulary : cackle, cluck and crow were its original language. But whereas the tame cock is always credited with saying " cock-a-doodle-doo," the wild bird's call is better rendered " cock-a-doodle-don't," given in a shrill, aggressive falsetto. Anyone who has heard a bantam crow knows exactly what I mean for the notes of bantam and wild cock are indistinguishable. Like a bantam-cock, also, the wild bird will live quite happily with a single hen, though this is not universal, and harems are often found ; no doubt, as too often with his betters, polygamy is simply a matter of opportunity with chanticleer, though even in the tame state it is often obvious that he has a particular affection for one hen, as was noticed by Chaucer in his "Nonnes Priestes Tale." Jungle-fowl of this species particularly affect sal jungle where it exists, and in India are seldom found away from it; they roost on trees at night, and take to them in any case rather more readily than pheasants. Their flight is also much like that of pheasants, so that they afford very similar shooting if they can be driven; but they will not rise if they can help it, and in thick cover you cannot even see them as a rale without a dog to put them up. They will readily answer an imitation of their crow— at least I found it so the only time I tried ; and anyone can practise on a bantam-cock, which will probably attack them when he understands the insult !
Jungle-fowl themselves are exceedingly pugnacious, and have regular fighting-places in the jungle; the duels are sometimes to the death, for the birds have enormous spurs. When challenging, or courting a hen, the wild cock erects his tail like a tame one. After the breeding-season, which may be at any time during the first half of the year, but in the north at any rate only during the second quarter, the cock goes into undress, his flaming frill of hackles giving place to a sober short collar of black, and, as he loses his long tail " sickles " at the same time, he hardly looks like the same bird. Young cocks begin to show the male feathering long before they are full sized, and so are easily distinguishable from their sisters. In the autumn these yearling young birds are fat and particularly good eating.
The jungle-hen lays on the ground in thickets, the nest being a mere scrape among dead leaves as a rule, but some make up a nest of hay and stalks, &c. About half a dozen eggs are the usual clutch, and they are cream-coloured and of course smaller than a tame hen's. The chicks are striped with chocolate and cream on a brown ground; the mother looks after them with the greatest care and devoted courage.
Naturally so widespread a bird as this has many names, mostly signifying the same as the English—wild fowl; Bon-kokra in Bengali; Ayam-utan in the Malay States; Tau-kyet in Burma; Natsu-pia among the Bhutias; Pazok-tchi with the Lepchas ; and Beer-seem among the Kols.
The Common Red Jungle-fowl.
Gallus ferrugineus murghi Robinson & Kloss, Rec. Ind. Mus.. xix, p. 14 (1920) (Behar). Gallus ferrugineus. Blanf. & Oates, iv, p. 75 (part.).
Vernacular names. Jungli Murgha, Bun Murgha Jungli Murghi, Bun Murghi (Hin., Upper India); Bun-kokra, Bun-kukra (Beng.) ; Bun-kukur (Assam); Natsa-pia, Nagseya (Bhut.) ; Paz-ok-chi Tankling (Lepcha) ; Bir-sim (Koles) ; Gera-gogur, Kuru (Gond.); Lall (Chunda Dist.); Ganga (Ooria); Daono (Cachari); Voh (Kuki); Inrui (Kacha Naga).
Description. - Adult male. Crown of head, nape, upper mantle and sides of neck deep bright orange-red changing to reddish -gold or orange on the longest hackles, which are marked with black down their centres; upper back black glossed with blue or green; lower back deep maroon-red, highly glossed and gradually changing into fiery-orange on the long hackles of the rump, the centres of these hackles black but concealed by those overlying them; upper tail-coverts and tail black, brilliantly glossed with green, blue-green or copper-green, the blue generally dominant on the coverts and all gloss absent or obsolete on the outermost tail-feathers; least wing-coverts and shoulder of wing black glossed like the back; median wing-coverts like the lower back ; greater coverts black; quills dark brown or blackish, the primaries edged on the outer web with light cinnamon, outer secondaries with much broader edges and the innermost glossy blue-green; under plumage blackish-brown faintly glossed with green.
Colours of soft parts. Iris reddish-brown, red or orange-red ; comb brick-red to scarlet-crimson ; wattles a rather more livid red; lappets white, sometimes touched with pink ; skin of head bluish or fleshy-red; bill dark horny-brown, the base and gonys reddish; legs and feet greenish-grey to deep slaty-brown. Breeding-birds have much brighter soft parts than in the non-breeding season.
Measurements. "Wing 203 to 244 mm.; tail between 300 and 380 mm.; tarsus about 70 to 80 mm.: oulmen 18 to 22 mm*; the spur generally about 25 mm., occasionally as much as 50 mm. Weight about 2 lb. up to 3 lb.
Post-nuptial plumage. The cock sheds the neck-hackles and long tail-feathers, the former being replaced with black feathers, which also often appear in patches in the body-plumage. This moult occurs in June or July normally and the full plumage is again assumed in October.
Immature males have the hackles less developed and their black centres more conspicuous; their colour also is paler, the cinnamon on the quills is darker and both these and the greater coverts are powdered with blackish.
Males in first plumage like the female.
Female. Top of the head blackish-brown, the feathers broadly edged with golden-yellow ; in most birds the forehead is more or less metallic crimson, this sheen being produced back as supercilia to behind the ear-coverts, where they widen and meet on the fore-neck as a broad gorget; feathers of nape orange-yellow with broad blackish centres, changing to pale golden-yellow on the longer hackles; upper plumage, wing-coverts and inner secondaries reddish-buff or reddish-brown with pale shafts and dark brown vermiculations; primaries dark brown edged with rufous ; tail dark brown, mottled with dull rufous, absent on the outer pairs; breast dull Indian red with pale shaft-lines shading to dull cinnamon on the abdomen, much vermiculated with brown ; under tail-coverts black or blackish-brown.
Colours of soft parts. Iris brown; comb and small wattles, sometimes absent, dull crimson ; bill horny-brown, base and gape plumbeous-fleshy.
Measurements. Wing 177 to 196 mm.; tail 140 to 165 mm. Small spurs are sometimes present.
Chick in down. A broad central streak from crown to tail plum-brown ; a streak of the same colour through the eye and down the sides of the neck; lateral bands of buff; sides of body rich warm reddish-buff changing to pale buff on chin, throat and centre of addomen ; bill fleshy-yellow, legs olive-green.
Distribution. The lower ranges of the Himalayas from Kashmir to East and South Assam ; North and East Central Provinces, Western Bengal, Chota Nagpore, Behar and Orissa; Mundla, Raipur, Bastar and South to the Godavery. The range of this Jungle-fowl coincides with the range of the Sal Tree (Shorea robusta) and the habitat of the Swamp-deer (Cervus duvauceli).
Nidification. The height of the breeding-season is from the end oil March to May but eggs may be found at odd times from January to October and many birds must breed twice. They breed throughout their plains habitat and in the Himalayas up to 7,000 feet but not often above 5,000. The eggs are laid on the ground, either on a mass of fallen leaves and rubbish in a hollow, scraped together by the birds, or just on the ground with no bed at all. Occasionally the nest is inside a clump of bamboos two to four feet from the ground. As a rule the site is selected in dense undergrowth, either forest or scrub, but I have seen the eggs quite in the open, lying on dead leaves in bamboo-jungle. One hundred and fifty eggs average 45.3 x 34.4 mm.: maxima 52.0 X 35.5 and 46.3 x 41.1 mm.; minima 39.6 x 33.2 and 44.0 x 32.0 mm. In appearance they are like small warmly-coloured eggs of the domestic fowl. The number of eggs laid is usually live to seven, occasionally as many as eight or nine and often only four. It is very doubtful if Jungle-fowl are always polygamous. I have often seen cock-birds with the hens when the latter are sitting and I have also often seen both cock and hen with the young, feeding and looking after them.
Habits. The Jungle-fowl lives in forest hut feeds whenever possible in cultivation round about the edges of it. During the heat of the day they sleep in the forest on some tree or clump of bamboos hut from dawn to about 9 a.m. and again from 3 or 4 p.m. until dusk they may be seen wandering about in the crops. They form good sport when driven, though they are inveterate runners and extremely wild and clever in eluding the guns. The call is a sharp quick-ending replica of the crow of the domestic fowl and they have the usual conversational notes of the genus but, though both sexes cackle wildly when frightened, the hens do not cackle after laying an egg. Their diet is principally grain, seeds and shoots of plants but they also eat insects, worms, lizards, frogs, small snakes, crabs, etc. Their flesh is much superior to that of the domestic fowl for the table, though rather dry.
The Burmese Jungle-Fowl.
Gallus gallus robinsoni Rothschild, Nov. Zool., xxxiii, p. 206 (1926) (Sumatra). Gallus ferrugineus. Blanf. & Oates, iii, p. 76 (part.).
Vernacular names. Taukyet (Burm.).
Description. Differs from the Indian bird in' having the plumage above a deeper red, the neck-hackles being less orange or yellow at the tips. These hackles are also less attenuated. The ear-lappets are always red or deep fleshy-pink, not white. This character, however, according to Robinson and Kloss, is not of much value.
Colours of soft parts and Measurements. Except for the ear-lappets the same as in G. b. murghi.
Distribution. The whole of Burma, Yunnan, Siam, Cochin China, Annam and the Malay Peninsula to Sumatra.
Nidification. Similar to that of the preceding bird. In the plains the breeding-months are November to March and in the hills, higher up, March and April. Forty eggs average 43.2 x 33.9 mm.: maxima 47.0 x 34.2 and 43.5 x 36.0 mm.; minima 40.0 x 32.7 and 42.1 x 31.1 mm. As a series the eggs of the Burmese Jungle-fowl are much paler buff than those of the Indian bird.
Habits. Similar to those of the preceding bird.
(Gallus bankiva Temm., Pig. et Gall., vol. ii, p. 246, pi. 87, 1813: Java.)
Gallus ferrugineus murghi Rob. & Kloss, Bee. lad. Mas., vol. xix, p. 14, 1920 : Behar.
? Gallus pugnax Lina., Syst, Nat., 10th ed., vol. i, p. 158 (not used in a binomial sense).
? Phasianus gallus Linn, (form of domestic fowl), Svst. Nat., 10th ed., vol. i, p. 158, 1758.
Gallics gallus robinsoni Rothsch., Nov. Zool., vol. xxxiii, p. 206, 1926: Sumatra.
Gallus gallus (Linnaeus)
Length, male 26 to 28 inches, including tail 11 to 13 inches; female 17 inches. Adult male : Crown and neck hackles golden-brown to orange-red, passing into golden-yellow, generally with lanceolate dark brown shaft - streaks ; upper back. flourished in the Indus Valley about 2700-2500 b.c., and though it is commonly said not to have been figured in ancient Egyptian monuments, this is incorrect. There is a definite drawing of a cock's head in Rekhmara's tomb at Thebes (circ, 1500 b.c.) and Mr Howard Carter's discoveries at Tutankhamen's tomb (circ, 1400 b.c.) include a rough drawing of a cock on a flake of limestone in the talus slope below the tomb. It is also figured on Babylonian cylinders between the sixth and seventh centuries b.c., while the Greek tradition evidently was that it reached Greece by way of Persia as Aristophanes calls it the Persian bird. The cock is represented on the Lycian marbles (circa 600 b.c.) in the British Museum. Curiously enough the bird is not mentioned in the Old Testament nor directly by Homer, though one of his heroes is called Alektor, the Greek name for a cock.
The breeding season proper is from the end of March to May, but some nests may be found from January to October. The nest is made on the ground in any dense thicket and is composed of dry leaves, grass and stems, while there is a good deal of variation in the amount of care expended on its construction. The cocks appear to be monogamous.
The normal clutch consists of five or six eggs and probably never exceeds nine. Four eggs are sometimes found.
The eggs vary a good deal in size and shape, but typically are miniature hens' eggs. The shell is fine and smooth with a fair amount of gloss, though duller and coarser specimens with visible pores occur. They vary in colour from an almost pure white to a deep creamy-buff.
The egg measures about 1.78 by 1.36 inches.
Number of Museum Specimen Records Found : 65 for Gallus gallus
|No.||Museum||Species||Collection Deatils||Collector||Date of Collection||Record||Locality||GBIF Portal Link||1||Yale University Peabody Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||YPM ORN ORN.042223||A. M. Primrose||Specimen||Sylhet District Bangladesh Southern Asia||Link|
|2||Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University||Gallus gallus murghi||MCZ BIRDS 36608||Specimen||, Source: Brit. Mus.| Sikkim India Asia Southern Asia||Link|
|3||Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University||Gallus gallus murghi||MCZ BIRDS 97351||Specimen||India Asia Southern Asia||Link|
|4||Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University||Gallus gallus murghi||MCZ BIRDS 97352||Specimen||India Asia Southern Asia||Link|
|5||Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University||Gallus gallus murghi||MCZ BIRDS 97350||Elwes, H. J.||1870-10-16 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Nampok Sikkim India Asia Southern Asia||Link|
|6||Field Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||FMNH Birds 400745||1918-03-08 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Changchang River Mokokchung Nagaland India Southern Asia||Link|
|7||Yale University Peabody Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||YPM ORN ORN.042222||H. Whistler||1921-04-11 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Kangra Valley Mandi District Himachal Pradesh State India Southern Asia||Link|
|8||Yale University Peabody Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||YPM ORN ORN.042224||H. V. O'Donel||1926-04-13 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Jalpaiguri District West Bengal State India Southern Asia||Link|
|9||Field Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||FMNH Birds 84352||1931-01-07 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Sangsir West Bengal India Southern Asia||Link|
|10||Field Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||FMNH Birds 84353||1931-01-20 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Sangsir West Bengal India Southern Asia||Link|
|11||Field Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||FMNH Birds 84354||1931-01-21 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Sangsir West Bengal India Southern Asia||Link|
|12||Field Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||FMNH Birds 420745||1937-01-24 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Mahendra Ganjam Orissa India Southern Asia||Link|
|13||Field Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||FMNH Birds 414237||1939-02-15 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Naipalganj Rd, 3 mi W Bahraich Uttar Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|14||Field Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||FMNH Birds 414238||1939-02-17 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Naipalganj Rd, 3 mi W Bahraich Uttar Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|15||Field Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||FMNH Birds 414239||1939-02-23 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Naipalganj Rd Bahraich Uttar Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|16||Field Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||FMNH Birds 414240||1939-02-23 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Naipalganj Rd, 3 mi W Bahraich Uttar Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|17||University of Michigan Museum of Zoology||Gallus gallus murghi||UMMZ Bird 234313||Aldrich, H C||1941-10-24 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Amangarh Uttar Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|18||Field Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||FMNH Birds 416211||1941-12-09 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Kalsi Dehra Dun Uttar Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|19||Field Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||FMNH Birds 416212||1943-02-23 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Hardwar Uttar Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|20||Field Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||FMNH Birds 416213||1943-02-23 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Hardwar Uttar Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|21||Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History||Gallus gallus murghi||LACM Birds 20347||STAGER, K E||1944-10-15 00:00:00.0||Specimen||LEDO ASSAM India Southern Asia||Link|
|22||Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History||Gallus gallus murghi||LACM Birds 20348||STAGER, K E||1944-10-15 00:00:00.0||Specimen||LEDO ASSAM India Southern Asia||Link|
|23||Field Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||FMNH Birds 420740||1946-03-22 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Bheraghat Madhya Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|24||Field Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||FMNH Birds 420758||1946-03-26 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Bheraghat Jabalpur Madhya Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|25||Field Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||FMNH Birds 420739||1946-04-16 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Bheraghat Madhya Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|26||Field Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||FMNH Birds 420760||1946-04-16 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Bheraghat Jabalpur Madhya Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|27||Field Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||FMNH Birds 420741||1946-04-23 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Bheraghat Madhya Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|28||Field Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||FMNH Birds 420759||1946-04-24 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Bheraghat Jabalpur Madhya Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|29||Field Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||FMNH Birds 420761||1946-07-28 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Belwani-Kisli Madhya Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|30||Field Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||FMNH Birds 420743||1946-09-23 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Belwani-Kisli Madhya Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|31||Field Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||FMNH Birds 420742||1946-11-01 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Bheraghat Madhya Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|32||Field Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||FMNH Birds 420767||1947-02-09 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Kotla Kangra Himachal Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|33||Field Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||FMNH Birds 420754||1947-02-19 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Kalnahi Uttar Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|34||Field Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||FMNH Birds 420750||1947-02-20 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Kalnahi Uttar Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|35||Field Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||FMNH Birds 420753||1947-02-20 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Kalnahi Uttar Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|36||Field Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||FMNH Birds 420755||1947-02-21 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Kalnahi Uttar Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|37||Field Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||FMNH Birds 420776||1947-02-21 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Kalnahi Uttar Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|38||Field Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||FMNH Birds 420778||1947-02-21 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Kalnahi Uttar Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|39||Field Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||FMNH Birds 420777||1947-02-22 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Kalnahi Uttar Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|40||Field Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||FMNH Birds 420751||1947-02-24 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Kalnahi Uttar Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|41||Field Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||FMNH Birds 420772||1947-10-08 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Ramanujganj Surguja Madhya Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|42||Field Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||FMNH Birds 420774||1947-10-08 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Ramanujganj Surguja Madhya Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|43||Field Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||FMNH Birds 420744||1947-10-13 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Khuri Surguja Madhya Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|44||Field Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||FMNH Birds 420781||1947-10-16 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Khuri Surguja Madhya Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|45||Field Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||FMNH Birds 420773||1947-10-23 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Gargori Surguja Madhya Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|46||Field Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||FMNH Birds 420737||1948-04-28 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Nongpoh Khasi Hills Meghalaya India Southern Asia||Link|
|47||Field Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||FMNH Birds 420736||1948-05-07 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Nangpho Khasi Hills Meghalaya India Southern Asia||Link|
|48||Field Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||FMNH Birds 420749||1948-09-02 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Lechiwala Uttar Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|49||National Museum of Natural History||Gallus gallus murghi||USNM Vertebrate Zoology; Birds 408041.4086633||S. Ripley||1948-12-10 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Pakistan Southern Asia||Link|
|50||Field Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||FMNH Birds 417542||1949-02-14 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Baihar Balaghat Madhya Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|51||University of Michigan Museum of Zoology||Gallus gallus murghi||UMMZ Bird 234311||Fleming, Robert L||1949-02-15 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Baihar Balaghat Uttar Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|52||Yale University Peabody Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||YPM ORN ORN.010159||S. D. Ripley||1949-02-17 00:00:00.0||Specimen||India Southern Asia||Link|
|53||Yale University Peabody Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||YPM ORN ORN.010160||S. D. Ripley||1949-02-17 00:00:00.0||Specimen||India Southern Asia||Link|
|54||Field Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||FMNH Birds 420768||1949-04-27 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Nongpoh Khasi Hills Meghalaya India Southern Asia||Link|
|55||Field Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||FMNH Birds 420771||1949-04-27 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Nongpoh Khasi Hills Meghalaya India Southern Asia||Link|
|56||Field Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||FMNH Birds 420757||1949-05-03 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Nongpoh Khasi Hills Meghalaya India Southern Asia||Link|
|57||Field Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||FMNH Birds 420769||1949-05-06 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Nongpoh Khasi Hills Meghalaya India Southern Asia||Link|
|58||Field Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||FMNH Birds 420756||1949-05-07 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Nongpoh Khasi Hills Meghalaya India Southern Asia||Link|
|59||University of Michigan Museum of Zoology||Gallus gallus murghi||UMMZ Bird 234312||Bellou, Mr||1952-02-26 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Mussoorie, Oak Grove Uttar Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|60||Field Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||FMNH Birds 420770||1954-11-03 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Nongpoh, near Khasi Hills Meghalaya India Southern Asia||Link|
|61||Field Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||FMNH Birds 420738||1955-04-15 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Umran Khasi Hills Meghalaya India Southern Asia||Link|
|62||Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University||Gallus gallus||MCZ BIRDS 297433||Paynter, R.A.||1958-03-21 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Manimukh Bangladesh Southern Asia||Link|
|63||Field Museum||Gallus gallus murghi||FMNH Birds 422894||1958-03-25 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Raimona Goalpara Assam India Southern Asia||Link|
|64||Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University||Gallus gallus||MCZ BIRDS 297435||Paynter, R.A.||1958-08-13 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Tarkhola Bengal India Southern Asia||Link|
|65||Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History||Gallus gallus murghi||LACM Birds 32829||MACHRIS, M A||1959-03-19 00:00:00.0||Specimen||LOUGUR BALAGHAT FOREST DIST MADHYA PRADESH India Southern Asia||Link|
Biodiversity occurrence data provided by: (Accessed through GBIF Data Portal, 2009-08-06)
- Field Museum ( 47 Records )
- Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History ( 3 Records )
- Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University ( 6 Records )
- National Museum of Natural History ( 1 Records )
- University of Michigan Museum of Zoology ( 3 Records )
- Yale University Peabody Museum ( 5 Records )
12 calls found for Gallus gallus
Remarks: Just included for fun! Amusing to find this among forest birds. Presumably a farm bird in a nearby clearing.
Call Type: Song (D)
Call Type: song (A)
Call Type: Call (C)
Remarks: Ssp: spadiceus. male and then female flew across the road calling
Call Type: calls in flight (B)
Call Type: song (A)
Call Type: song (A)
Call Type: song (A)
Call Type: song (A)
Call Type: song (A)
Call Type: song (B)
Remarks: Ssp: spadiceus. calls from hidden birds after flying past. Unfortunately the end a bit spoiled by a truck.
Call Type: calls and song (C)
Call Type: song (A)
Avibase - The World Bird Database for Red Junglefowl ( Gallus gallus )
BirdLife Species FactSheet for Red Junglefowl ( Gallus gallus )
Biodiversity Heritage Library for Red Junglefowl ( Gallus gallus )
Discover Life Maps for Red Junglefowl ( Gallus gallus )
Entrez, The Life Sciences Search Engine for Red Junglefowl ( Gallus gallus )
GBIF, Global Biodiversity Information Facility for Red Junglefowl ( Gallus gallus )
Google Images for Red Junglefowl ( Gallus gallus )
Google Scholar for Red Junglefowl ( Gallus gallus )
Google Websites for Red Junglefowl ( Gallus gallus )
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) for Red Junglefowl ( Gallus gallus )
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) CANADA for Red Junglefowl ( Gallus gallus )
IUCN Redlist Species FactSheet for Red Junglefowl ( Gallus gallus )
NCBI Molecular Data for Red Junglefowl ( Gallus gallus )
Pubmed Literature for Red Junglefowl ( Gallus gallus )
Catalogue of Life : Annual Checklist for Red Junglefowl ( Gallus gallus )
Tree Of Life for Red Junglefowl ( Gallus gallus )
uBio Portal for Red Junglefowl ( Gallus gallus )
uBio for Red Junglefowl ( Gallus gallus )
Wikipedia for Red Junglefowl ( Gallus gallus )
Xeno - Canto for Red Junglefowl ( Gallus gallus )
Zoonomen for Red Junglefowl ( Gallus gallus )
Cite this website along with its URL as:
Anonymous. 2014 Gallus gallus - Linnaeus, 1758 (Red Junglefowl ) in Deomurari, A.N. (Compiler), 2010. AVIS-IBIS (Avian Information System - Indian BioDiversity Information System) v. 1.0. Foundation For Ecological Security, India retrieved on 03/06/2014