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Tawny Eagle - Aquila rapax


General Information


Aquila rapax

Common Name : Tawny Eagle
Scientific Name : Aquila rapax (Temminck, 1828)

Order : Falconiformes
Family : Accipitridae
Taxonomic Group : Falconiformes - Accipitridae ( Hawks, Kites and Eagles )
Vernacular Name : Sindh: Parmar, Hindi: Okaab, Ragar, Jumiz, Lepcha (Sikkim): Cong au, Gujarat: Deshi jummas, Wagri: Dholva, Tamil: Ali, Telugu: Alawa, Salawa, Yerkali: Bursawul



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Taxonomy



Common Name : Tawny Eagle
Scientific Name : Aquila rapax
Order : Falconiformes Family : Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles, and Kites)
Number of SubSpecies : 3

Taxon Category Sub Species / Race Range
subspeciesAquila rapax belisariusMorocco and Algeria; s Arabia and w Africa to n Kenya
subspeciesAquila rapax rapaxS Kenya and Zaire to Angola, Namibia and South Africa
subspeciesAquila rapax vindhianaLocally in Pakistan, India and s Nepal



3rd Edition, 2003. Revised and Corrected per Corrigenda to December 31, 2006

Common Name : Tawny Eagle
Scientific Name : Aquila rapax
SubFamily : Accipitrinae

Number of SubSpecies : 3

Sub Species / Race
Aquila rapax vindhiana
Aquila rapax belisarius
Aquila rapax rapax



IOC Common Name : Tawny Eagle
IOC Scientific Name : Aquila rapax

Distribution :
Region : AF Range : widespread, also India
Order : ACCIPITRIFORMES Family : Accipitridae
Category : Kites, Hawks & Eagles
Note: Raptor families Cathartidae, Accipitridae, Sagittariidae, and Pandiondae are in the Order "Accipitriformes" because falcons (Falconidae) are separated as the Order Falconiformes (Hackett et al. 2008)


SYNOPIS NO : 168- 169

Scientific Name: Aquila rapax
Common Name: Tawny Eagle/Eastern Steppe Eagle



Common Name : Tawny Eagle
Scientific Name : Aquila rapax ((Temminck, 1828))
Birdlife Synonym : Tawny Eagle and Steppe Eagle (6)

BirdLife Redlist Status Year 2010: LC
BirdLife Species FactSheet for Tawny Eagle ( Aquila rapax )

Taxonomy Treatment : R




IUCN Common Name (Eng) : Tawny Eagle, Tawny Eagle And Steppe Eagle
Scientific Name : Aquila rapax (Temminck, 1828)
French Name : Aigle Ravisseur
IUCN Redlist Species FactSheet for Tawny Eagle, Tawny Eagle And Steppe Eagle ( Aquila rapax )

Species : rapax
Genus : Aquila
Family : Accipitridae Order : Falconiformes

IUCN RedList Status : LC

IUCN RedList Criteria Version : 3.1
IUCN RedList Year Assessed : 2008
IUCN RedList Petitioned : N



Family : ACCIPITRIDAE

Scientific Name : Aquila rapax
Common Name : Tawny Eagle



Bibliography


Bibliography of Tawny Eagle ( Aquila rapax )
Number of Results found : 100

This is latest 100 Papers. To see Complete Bibliography of Tawny Eagle ( Aquila rapax ) Use Species Bibliography Module

1. Lewis G. Halsey, Steven J. Portugal, Jennifer. A. Smith, Campbell P. Murn, Rory P. Wilson , (2009), Recording raptor behavior on the wing via accelerometry, Journal of Field Ornithology, 80:2: 171 - 177.


2. Clouet M;Goar JL;Bousquet JF; , (2009 ), [Note on the birds of the Hombori-Douentza massifs, Mali], Malimbus, 31:1: 47 - 54.


3. Bergier P;Franchimont J;Th venot M;Moroccan Rare Birds C; , (2009 ), Rare birds in Morocoo: report of the Moroccan Rare Birds Committee (2004-2006), Bulletin of the African Bird Club, 18:1: 23 - 36.


4. Knobel J; , (2008 ), Pirates of the Kalahari: Tawny Eagles, , : 50.


5. Duckworth JW;Inskipp TP;Pasquet E;Rasmussen PC;Rice NH;Robson CR;Russell DGD; , (2008 ), A re-evaluation of the status of Tawny Eagle Aquila rapax in South-east Asia, Forktail, 24: 127 - 129.


6. Dowsett-Lemaire F;Dowsett RJ; , (2008 ), The avifauna of Mole National Park, Ghana, Malimbus, 30:2: 93 - 133.


7. Chhangani AK;Mohnot SM; , (2008 ), Demography of migratory vultures in and around Jodhpur, India, Vulture News, 50: 23 - 34.


8. Botha A; , (2008 ), Against the odds: raptor conservation in southern Africa, Africa -- Birds & Birding, 13:5: 59 - 60.


9. J. W. DUCKWORTH, T. P. INSKIPP, E. PASQUET, P. C. RASMUSSEN, N. H. RICE, C. R. ROBSON and D. G. D. RUSSELL , (2008), A re-evaluation of the status of Tawny Eagle Aquila rapax in South-East Asia, Forktail, 24: 127.


10. Hancock P;Tyler SJ;Brewster CA; , (2007 ), Breeding records, Babbler, 49: 83 - 85.


11. Collinson M; , (2006 ), Splitting headaches? Recent taxonomic changes affecting the British and Western Palearctic lists, British Birds, 99:6: 306 - 323.


12. Anon; , (2006 ), Top of the heap: eagle perspectives on farming practices in the Karoo, Africa -- Birds & Birding, 10:6: 28 - 30.


13. Badmaev VB;Kurochkin EN; , (2006 ), [Influence of steppe fires on the breeding of the Tawny Eagle and Long-legged Buzzard in 'Chernye Zemli' Nature Reserve], Ornithological studies in Northern Eurasia. Abstracts of XII International Ornithological Conference of Northern Eurasia Stavropol Stavropol University Press;, : 61 - 62.


14. Craig Robson , (2005), Indian Tawny Eagle (Aquila vindhiana), BIRDS OF SOUTH-EAST ASIA; New Holland Publishers Ltd, : 63.


15. Craig Robson , (2005), Tawny Eagle (Aquila rapax), BIRDS OF SOUTH-EAST ASIA; New Holland Publishers Ltd, : 63.


16. Hockey PAR;Dean WRJ;Ryan PG; , (2005 ), Roberts Birds of Southern Africa, Cape Town John Voelcker BIrd Book Fund, : .


17. Helbig A;Kocum A;Seibold I;Braun MJ; , (2005 ), A multi-gene phylogeny of aquiline eagles (Aves: Accipitriformes) reveals extensive paraphyly at the genus level, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 35: 147 - 164.


18. Hartley RR;Bramford D;Fenn T; , (2005 ), Diversity and ecology of raptors in the Save Conservancy, Honeyguide, 48:2: 153 - 166.


19. Hartley R;Hulme G; , (2005 ), Scavenging raptors inadvertently poisoned near southern boundary of Save Conservancy, Honeyguide, 51:2: 22 - 23.


20. Esterhuizen J; , (2005 ), Acetylcholinesterase activity in raptor blood as indicator for organophosphate poisoning, Gabar, 16:1: 17 - 21.


21. Dean WRJ;Milton SJ; , (2005 ), Stomach contents of birds (Aves) in the Natural History Museum, Tring, United Kingdom, Durban Museum Novitates, 30: 15 - 23.


22. Clark WS; , (2005 ), Steppe Eagle Aquila nipalensis is monotypic, Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club, 125:2: 149 - 153.


23. Bergier P;Franchimont J;Th venot M;Moroccan Rare Birds C; , (2005 ), Rare birds in Morocco: report of the Moroccan Rare Birds Committee (2001-2003), Bulletin of the African Bird Club, 12:2: 106 - 118.


24. Tipper R , (2005), The gape- line of Steppe Eagle, British Birds, 98: 147 - 149.


25. Machange RW; Jenkins AR; Navarro RA , (2005), Eagles as indicators of ecosystem health: Is the distribution of Martial Eagle nests in the Karoo, South Africa, influenced by variations in land-use and rangeland quality?, Journal of Arid Environments, 63: 223 - 243.


26. Wichmann MC;Dean WJR;Jeltsch F; , (2004), Global change challenges the Tawny Eagle (Aquila rapax): modelling extinction risk with respect to predicted climate and land use changes, Ostrich: Journal of African Ornithology, 75:4: 204 - 210.


27. RF Porter; S.Christensen; P.Schiermacker-Hansen , (2004), Tawny Eagle (Aquila rapax), BIRDS OF THE MIDDLE EAST; Poyser, : 44.


28. Zachos FE; , (2004 ), [Critical remarks on taxonomy and species delineation, the Aquila ( Accipitridae ) taxon as an example - or: how many species of eagles are there?], Ornithologische Mitteilungen, 56:5: 166 - 172.


29. Wichmann MC;Dean RJ;Jeltsch F; , (2004 ), Global change challenges the Tawny Eagle ( Aquila rapax ): modelling extinction risk with respect to predicted climate and land use changes, Ostrich, 75: - 210.


30. Ouweneel GL; , (2004 ), [Birds of prey observed in Ethiopia in autumn 2003], De Takkeling, 12 :-: 02: - 167.


31. Borello WD;Borello RM; , (2004 ), Two incidents of talon-grappling and cartwheeling in the Tawny Eagle Aquila rapax, Ostrich, 75:4: 320 - 321.


32. Baker CT; , (2004 ), Additions to the 1731 C1 (Domboshawa) QDS List of species, Honeyguide, 50:1: 72 - 76.


33. Guk VI;Ostapenko VA; , (2004 ), [Sexual dimorphism in the Tawny Eagle (Aquila rapax) in behavioural reactions of subadult bird], Yearbook: birds of prey and owls in zoos and breeding stations. Issue nr. 12-13 Moscow, Russia Moscow Zoo;, : 13.


34. Guk VI;Ostapenko VA; , (2004 ), [Role of distribution in a pair of the Tawny Eagles], Yearbook: birds of prey and owls in zoos and breeding stations. Issue nr. 12-13 Moscow, Russia Moscow Zoo;, : 19.


35. Borello WD; Borello RM , (2004), Two incidents of talon-grappling and cartwheeling in the Tawny Eagle Aquila rapax., Ostrich, 75(4): 320 - 321.


36. Wichmann MC; Dean WRJ; Jeltsch F , (2004), Global change challenges the Tawny Eagle (Aquila rapax): modelling extinction risk with respect to predicted climate and land use changes., Ostrich, 75(4): 204 - 210.


37. Hartley R; , (2003 ), News: Ron Hartley reports from Zimbabwe, International Falconer, 2003(November): 4.


38. Ceccolini G;Fabbrizzi F; , (2003 ), [Check-list degli Accipitrifomi e Falconiformi delle province de Sienna e Grosseto], Avocetta, 27:1: 27.


39. Blount JD;Houston DC;Moller AP;Wright J; , (2003 ), Do individual branches of immune defence correlate? A comparative case study of scavenging and non-scavenging birds, Oikos, 102: 340 - 350.


40. Hartley RR; , (2002 ), Raptor diversity in the Siabuwa communal land, Honeyguide, 48:2: 167 - 174.


41. Hartley RR; , (2002 ), Raptors and Marabou Storks at Quelea colonies at West Nicholson and Mazunga Ranch, Honeyguide, 48:2: 240 - 241.


42. Hartley RR; , (2002 ), First Taita Falcon record in Matabeleland south, Honeyguide, 48:2: 241 - 242.


43. Gauggel KF; , (2002 ), [Which eagle is that?], Falke, 49: 78 - 82.


44. Dean WRJ;Dowsett RJ;Sakko A;Simmons RE; , (2002 ), New records and amendments to the birds of Angola, Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club, 123: 180 - 165.


45. de Bont M; , (2002 ), Avifauna of the Hwimo area, Nigeria, Bulletin of the African Bird Club, 9: 101 - 106.


46. Bergier P;Franchmont J;Th venot M;Moroccan Rare Birds C; , (2002 ), Rare birds in Morocco: report of the Moroccan Rare Birds Committee (1998-2000), Bulletin of the African Bird Club, 9: 122 - 133.


47. Dale A.Zimmerman; Donald A.Turner; David J.Pearson , (2001), Tawny Eagle (Aquila rapax rapax; A.r.belisarius), BIRDS of KENYA & NORTHERN TANZANIA; Princeton University Press, : 32 / 306.


48. Zinner D; , (2001 ), Ornithological notes from a primate survey in Eritrea, Bulletin of the African Bird Club, 8: 95 - 106.


49. Hung LM;Anh DQ; , (2001 ), A preliminary survey of resident and migrant raptors' sites in North Vietnam, October 2000 and 28 February-15 March 2001, Asian Raptors Bulletin, 2: 20 - 21.


50. Harcourt-Brown N; , (2001 ), Radiographic morphology of the pelvic limb of Falconiformes and its taxonomic implications, Netherlands Journal of Zoology, 51: 155 - 178.


51. Biggs D; , (2001 ), Eagles feast at quelea colony in Kruger, Africa -- Birds & Birding, 6:2: 16 - 17.


52. Biggs D; , (2001 ), Observations of eagle congregations at a Red-billed Quelea colony in the Kruger National Park, Bird Numbers, 10: 25 - 28.


53. Kemp AC; Begg KS , (2001), Comparison of time-activity budgets and population structure for 18 large-bird species in the Kruger National Park, South Africa., Ostrich, 72(3&4): 179 - 184.


54. Krys Kazmierczak; Ber van Perlo , (2000), Indian Tawny Eagle (Aquila vindhiana), A FIELD GUIDE TO THE BIRDS OF THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT; Yale University Press, : 72.


55. Runo M; , (2000 ), Tawny Eagle feeding on Red-billed Hornbill, Honeyguide, 46: 17.


56. Helbig AJ; , (2000 ), Contributions of molecular studies to the phylogeny and systematics of African birds, Ostrich, 71: 40.


57. Cocker M; , (2000 ), African birds in traditional magico-medicinal use -- a preliminary survey, Bulletin of the African Bird Club, 7: 60 - 65.


58. Clouet M;Barrau C;Goar JL; , (2000 ), The diurnal Afro-alpine raptor community of the Ethiopian Bal Highlands, Ostrich, 71: 380 - 384.


59. Bradshaw CG;Kirwan GM; , (2000 ), Around the region, Sandgrouse, 22: 156 - 160.


60. Bergier P;Franchmont J;Th venot M;Moroccan Rare Birds C; , (2000 ), Rare birds in Morocco: report of the Moroccan Rare Birds Committee (1995-1997), Bulletin of the African Bird Club, 7: 18 - 28.


61. Anderson MD; , (2000 ), Raptor conservation in the Northern Cape Province, South Africa, Ostrich, 71: 25 - 32.


62. Clark WS;Davies RAG;Chancellor RD;Meyburg BU; , (2000 ), Taxonomic problems in African diurnal raptors, Raptors at risk Berlin/Blaine, WA World Working Group on Birds of Prey/Hancock house;, : 121 - 133.


63. Barnes KN; , (2000 ), Tawny Eagle Aquila rapax, The Eskom Red Data Book of birds of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland Johannesburg, South Africa BirdLife South Africa;, : 81 - 83.


64. Clouet M; Barrau C; Goar J-L , (2000), The diurnal Afro-alpine raptor community of the Ethiopian Balé Highlands., Ostrich, 71(3&4): 380 - 384.


65. Anderson MD , (2000), Raptor conservation in the Northern Cape Province, South Africa., Ostrich, 71(1&2): 25 - 32.


66. K.Mullarney; L.Svensson; D.Zetterstrom; P.J.Grant , (1999), Tawny Eagle (Aquila rapax), COLLINS BIRD GUIDE - BRITAIN & EUROPE; Collins, : 081.


67. Boudreau D; , (1999 ), Extinction on the steppes, ASU Research E-Magazine, 12: 38 - 41.


68. Baidavletov RJ; , (1999 ), [Data on Ovis ammon L. mortality and its relationship with predators in the hills of Kazakhstan], Selevinia, 1998-1999: 141 - 146.


69. Herremans M; , (1998 ), Conservation status of birds in Botswana in relation to land use, Biological Conservation, 86: 139 - 160.


70. Herholdt JJ;Boshoff AF;Anderson MD;Borello WD; , (1998 ), Attitudes and ignorance, Vultures in the 21st century: proceedings of a workshop on vulture research and conservation in southern Africa Johannesburg, South Africa Vulture Study Group;, : 162.


71. Cygan JP;Chancellor RD;Meyburg BU;Ferrero JJ; , (1998 ), Present status and protection of the most endangered birds of prey in Poland, Holarctic birds of prey Merida, Spain, and Berlin ADENEX and World Working Group on Birds of Prey;, : 363 - 367.


72. Ian Sinclair; Phil Hockey; Warwick Tarboton , (1997), Tawny Eagle (Aquila rapax rapax; A.r.belisarius), BIRDS of SOUTHERN AFRICA; 2nd edition, Princeton University Press, : 96.


73. Robson C; , (1997), Bhutan, Oriental Bird Club Bulletin, 24:: 59 - 60.


74. Savinetsky AB;Shilova SA; , (1996 ), [The dynamics of the abundance of Steppe Eagle ( Aquila rapax ) in Kalmykia], Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 75: 139.


75. Herholdt JJ;Kemp AC;du-Plessis D; , (1996 ), Aspects of the breeding status and ecology of the Bateleur and Tawny Eagle in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park, South Africa, Ostrich, 67: 126 - 137.


76. Butchart D; , (1996 ), Eagles & farmers, Parkview, South Africa Endangered Wildlife Trust and the Southern African Ornithological Society, : .


77. Bold A;Sumjaa D;Tseveenmjadag N;Samjaa R; , (1996 ), [Birds of prey in Mongolia], Populations kologie Greifvogel- und Eulenarten, 3: 331 - 336.


78. Andrews IJ; , (1996 ), Preliminary data on raptor passage in Jordan, Sandgrouse, 18: 1 - 9.


79. Herholdt, J. J., A. C. Kemp, D. du Plessis. , (1996), Aspects of the breeding status and ecology of the Bateleur and Tawny Eagle in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park, South Africa., Ostrich, 67: 126 - 137.


80. Savinetsky, A. B., S. A. Shilova. , (1996), [The dynamics of the abundance of Tawny Eagle (Aquila rapax) in Kalmykia (Kazakhstan).], Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 75: 796 - 798.


81. Mason IK; , (1995 ), Cataract extraction in the Tawny Eagle (Aquila rapax bellisimus), Veterinary Record, 136: 396.


82. Naoroji R; , (1995), The raptors of India, Ornithological Society of India Bangalore, : 62 - 70.


83. Hartley RR; Smith JN , (1995), Eagles hunting in the Batoka Gorges, Zimbabwe., Journal of African Raptor Biology, 10: 30 - 32.


84. Shirihai H; , (1994 ), Separation of Tawny Eagle from Steppe Eagle in Israel, British Birds, 87: .


85. Olson SL; , (1994 ), Cranial osteology of Tawny and Steppe Eagles Aquila rapax and A. nipalensis, Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club, 114: .


86. OLSON, S. L. , (1994), Cranial osteology of Tawny and Steppe Eagles Aquila rapax and Aquila nipalensis, Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club, 114: 264.


87. Olson, S. L. , (1994), Cranial osteology of Tawny and Steppe Eagles Aquila rapax and A. nipalensis., Bulletin of British Ornithology Club, 114: 264 - 267.


88. Eadson T; , (1993 ), [Observations on a nesting pair of Tawny Eagles ( Aquila rapax ) in the Sous Valley], Porphyrio, 5: 52 - 53.


89. Akhtar SA;Tiwari JK; , (1993 ), Contents of a nest of the Tawny Eagle Aquila rapax vindhiana Franklin, Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 90: 91.


90. Akhtar SA;Tiwari JK; , (1993), Contents of a nest of the Tawny Eagle Aquila rapax vindhiana Franklin, Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 90:1: 91.


91. Herholdt JJ , (1993), Dimensions of raptors from the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park, South Africa., GABAR. (Growth and Biology of African Raptors.), 8: 24 - 28.


92. Boshoff A; Basson B , (1993), Large raptor fatalities by powerlines in the Karoo, South Africa., GABAR. (Growth and Biology of African Raptors.), 8: 10 - 13.


93. McGowan G; , (1992 ), Tawny Eagle pair raise two chicks, Babbler, 23: 50.


94. Clark WS; , (1992 ), The taxonomy of Steppe and Tawny Eagles, with criteria for separation of museum specimens and live eagles, Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club, 112: 150 - 157.


95. Alagar Rajan S;Balasubramanian P;Natarajan V; , (1992 ), Eastern Steppe Eagle Aquila rapax nipalensis Hodgson killing mobbing Brahminy Kite Haliastur indus (Boddaert) at Pt. Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary, Tamil Nadu, Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 89: 247 - 248.


96. Rajan SA;Balasubramanian P;Natarajan V; , (1992), Eastern Steppe Eagle Aquila rapax nipalensis Hodgson killing mobbing Brahminy Kite Haliastur indus (Boddaert) at Pt. Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary, Tamil Nadu, Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 89:2: 247 - 248.


97. Clark WS; , (1992), The taxonomy of Steppe and Tawny Eagles, with criteria for separation of museum specimens and live eagles, Bulletin of the British Ornithologists Club, 112:: 150 - 156.


98. Brand D , (1992), The use of lithium-chloride as a predation aversion agent for problem eagles in the Cape province and Orange Free State, South Africa., GABAR. (Growth and Biology of African Raptors.), 7: 51 - 55.


99. Clark, W. S. , (1992), The taxonomy of Steppe and Tawny eagles with criteria for separation of museum specimens and live eagles., Bulletin of British Ornithology Club, 112: 150 - 157.


100. McGowan, G. , (1992), Tawny Eagle pair raise two chicks., Babbler, 23: 50.



Book Excerpts



Aquila vindhiana, Frankl.

 

29. :- A. fulvescens, Gray. :- Jerdon's Birds of India, Vol. I, p. 60; Butler, Guzerat; Stray Feathers, Vol. III, p. 446 ; Deccan, Stray Feathers, Vol. IX, p. 372 ; Murray's Vertebrate Zoology of Sind, p. 76 ; Swinhoe and Barnes, Central India; Ibis, p. 57 ; Hume's Scrap Book, p. 173

The Tawny Eagle.

Wokhab, Hin. Dholwa, Wagree.

Length, 24 to 26 ; expanse, 60 to 66.5; wing, 18 to 21; tail, 10 to 11; bill at gape, 2 to 2.25.

Length, 27 to 28.5; expanse, 69 to 73.5; wing, 20 to 22.5 ; tail, 11 to 12 ; bill from gape, 2.25 to 2.5.

Cere deep yellow ; irides hazel-brown; feet yellow.

Young bird, light fulvous, brightest on the head and throat, changing to pale dingy-brown on the back and scapulars, and to whitish-yellow beneath, with dark shafts; shoulders and lesser-coverts pale whity-brown; quills black; tail dusky, with faint dark bars.

At a later stage the bird is uniform fulvous-brown throughout. In an intermediate state, the abdomen is marked with fulvous streaks, and there are many specks and streaks of the same on the head and back of the neck. The adult bird is tawny-brown, with the head and throat dusky, or almost black; the feathers of the crown, and the neck-hackles, tipped with pale brown ; the wings, breast, and lower parts deep fuscous brown; the breast slightly speckled, and the belly and wings spotted more or less with light tawny-brown; two wing bars, and the tip of the tail also light.

The Tawny Eagle is very common everywhere, and is frequently to be seen soaring with Kites, or perched on the top of a tree, even within cantonments. They breed from December to March, or even later; the nest, composed of sticks, is placed rather high up in a lofty tree, as a rule, near a village ; the eggs, two in number (very rarely three) are broad greyish-white ovals, thinly spotted with yellowish-brown; unspotted varieties frequently occur.

They average 2.63 inches in Length, by 2.1 in breadth.





29. Aquila vindhiana,

Frankl. P. Z. S. 1831, p. 114; Strickl,Orn. Syn. p. 59 ; Sharpe, Cat. Acc. p. 244. Aquila punctata. Gray, in Gr. & Hard. III. Ind. Zool. i. pi. 16. Aquila fusca, id. Op. Cit. ii. pi. 26. Aquila fulvescens, id. Op. Cit. ii. pi. 29 ; Jerd. B. of Ind. i. p. 60, No. 29 ; Hume, Rough Notes, i. p. 173; Stray Feathers, i. p. 158; Murray, Hdbk. Zool. &c. Sind, p. 109; id. Vert. Zool. Sind, p. 76. Wokhab, Hind; Ukab Sind.-

The Tawny Eagle,

Young.-Above glossy purplish brown with distinct fulvous tips to the feathers, broader on lower back, rump and upper tail coverts ; head and neck all round and entire under parts greyish mouse colour, with distinct points to all the feathers of the head and neck, absent on the under surface, excepting a few remains on the tips of the abdominal and lower throat feathers; lores and chin whitish, with narrow black shaft lines, the latter also apparent on the cheeks and ear coverts, which are mouse grey, like the breast; tarsal feathers and under tail coverts more fulvescent; under wing coverts mouse grey with pale fulvous tips ; upper wing coverts ashy brown, with a very slight purplish gloss, but not so dark as the back, nor so grey as the head, though tipped like the latter with fulvous; greater and primary coverts, as well as the secondaries, deep brown, with whitish ends ; primaries black, slightly shaded with brown near the base ; lower surface of wing ashy brown, blackish towards tips of primaries ; the inner webs of all slightly mottled with greyish. Tail purplish brown, tipped with buffy white ; all the feathers shaded with ashy grey, forming indistinct bars on the centre feathers, on which remains of eleven or twelve can be counted.

Length.-28 inches; wing 20.75 ; tail II ; tarsus 3.2.

Adult Female.-General colour fulvous or tawny brown, most of the fea­thers with lighter margins, especially on the least wing coverts; the median coverts darker brown, but not so glossy as the back, with fulvous margins; greater and primary coverts, as well as secondaries, tipped with fulvous ; 5 primaries blackish, externally shaded with ashy grey, forming distinct bands on both webs, these bands more vermiculated on the lower surface, the inner webs of the quills being ashy brown, shading into deep brown towards the tips of the primaries ; tail dark brown, tipped with fulvous, the feathers shaded with ashy grey, forming 8-9 distinct bars on centre feathers ; head and neck rather paler than the back, the feathers of the latter part margined with fulvous, giving a very mealy appearance; sides of face also light fulvous; under surface of body pale fulvous brown, lighter on the throat, thighs, and under tail coverts ; under wing coverts with many of the feathers whitey brown on their margins, and near the base, the lower series ashy brown like the inner lining of the wing. Cere and gape deep yellow; feet yellow. Iris hazel brown.   (Sharpe, Cat. Acc.)

Length.-27-28 inches; expanse 67-69 inches ; wing 19.75-21.75; 4th and 5th primaries longest; tail 11.25-11.5 ; tarsus 3.8.

Adult Male.-28 inches; wing 20.5 ; tail 11 ; tarsus 3.4. (Sharpe, Cat. Acc.)

Hab.-Sind, Punjab, N.-W. Provinces, Bengal, Rajpootana, Kattiawar, the Deccan, Concan, Behar, the Carnatic, Central and Southern India, Nepal and Darjeeling.

A permanent resident in Sind and most parts of India. In Sind it breeds in January, making a large nest of sticks lined with straw, leaves, &c., on high trees, laying normally 2 broad oval or spherical eggs; the ground colour is greyish white, either unspotted or with blotches and patches of yellowish brown. In upper India it breeds from the middle of November to the middle of June, but the majority, according to Hume, lay in January. In size the eggs vary from 2.35 to 3.25 inches X 1.8 to 2.25.




Aquila vindhiana, Franklin.
The Indian Tawny Eagle.


Aquila fulvescens, Gray, Jerd. B. Ind. i, p. 60.
Aquila vindhiana, Frankl., Hume, Rough Draft N. &  E. no. 20.

The Indian Tawny Eagle breeds throughout the drier portions of Continental India. Here and there this species and the Spotted Eagle may be found breeding in close proximity; but this is only on the borders of their respective territories, and as a rule it is just in those well-drained, open, dry districts, where A. clanga never breeds, that the Tawny Eagle most delights to rear its young.

In different parts of Upper India it lays from the middle of November to the middle of June; but the great majority, I think, lay in January. Out of one hundred and fifty-nine eggs, of which I have a record, eighty-three were taken in January, thirty-eight in December, twenty-eight in February, the rest in November, March, April, and June. Only one in this latter month, and none at all in May. The very hot dry weather puts a stop to the laying of most species belonging to the raptorial and insessorial groups. The nest is always, as far as my experience goes, placed on trees. I have never met with one placed on rocky ledges, although I have found them on trees at the foot of, or near to, precipices, which contained apparently most " eligible sites."

They build a large flat nest of sticks, between 2 and 3 1/2 feet in diameter, and from 4 inches to 1 foot in thickness, according to situation. The nests are generally lined with green leaves, sometimes with straw or grass intermingled with a few feathers, and sometimes have no lining at all. They are generally placed at the very top of the tree, and though I have found them occasionally on peepul and tamarind trees, the great majority were on moderate-sized, but dense babool-trees, standing apart in the midst of fields Or low jungles.

Mr. William Blewitt remarks that he found great numbers of the nests of this bird in the neighbourhood of Hansie during January, February, March, and April, 1868. None contained more than two eggs, and many of these latter were considerably incubated. The nests were without exception in dense keekur-trees (Acacia arabica), at heights of from 16 to 24 feet from the ground. The nests, sometimes loosely and at others densely constructed, were composed of twigs and small branches of keekur, ber (Z.jujuba), and similar thorny trees ; more than one had a thin lining of grass or leaves, bnt the majority had no lining. In diameter (excluding straggling ends) the nests varied from 16 inches to nearly 2 feet, and in depth from barely 4 to nearly 9 inches.

During the latter part of 1868 great scarcity prevailed in Hansie and the whole neighbouring country, owing to the failure of the rains. Fodder, especially, was unprocurable, and throughout vast tracts all the babool, ber, and peepul trees were entirely denuded of their foliage, in order to feed the cattle. The result was that A. vindhiana entirely deserted the neighbourhood, and where in 1868 with but little trouble Mr. Blewitt met with scores of nests, he during 1869 only succeeded in finding two.

My friend. Colonel G. F. L. Marshall, writing of this species, says; - " Very common in the Saharunpoor district. Is said to catch fish by all the natives; but I do not believe it. The native name is Machopa or Machoka. It builds on trees a nest of sticks, and lays two white eggs, sometimes pure, sometimes blotched with dusky and brownish. It commences building in the end of March, but the eggs are not laid till the end of May; and I have taken fresh eggs up to the middle of June, and at Shamlee, in the Mozuffernugger district, I took five nests early in June, all with fresh eggs."

" In the Central Provinces," writes Mr. R. Thompson, " this is a common bird in the upland forests. It lays here in November and December."

Most birds, when they have eggs, even before they begin to sit, watch their nests closely. I have, however, repeatedly found nests of this Eagle, containing one or more eggs, with no parent bird anywhere near.   I have several notes of this.   I quote one:-

" On the Western Jumna Canal, near Hissar, on the 15th December, I found a large nest on the top of a babool-tree. The nest seemed rather fresh, and therefore, though there was no bird near, I sent up a man to examine it. It proved to contain two large eggs. Whilst the man was near the nest, no bird made its appearance ; only after we had waited about a quarter of an hour, a large A. vindhiana in dark plumage soared slowly past, at a great height overhead.   This was about 2 o'clock in the afternoon.   We did not touch the eggs, called the man down, and withdrew to watch the nest; hiding ourselves carefully some little distance off. It was not till the sun was setting that this same A. vindhiana suddenly made its appearance, and descended to the nest, where it was shot. It was a female, and from first to last we saw nothing of the male."

Colonel E. A. Butler writes ; - " The Tawny Eagle breeds in the neighbourhood of Deesa, principally in the months of January and February."

" I also found it breeding in Sind and have the following note on the subject :- Sukkur, 3rd February, 1879, two slightly incubated eggs. The nest, which was of the usual stick type, but not very large, was placed at the very top of a low rundee-tree in a grass ' Beerh' resting on the low outside twigs about 20 feet from the ground and commanding a good view of the surrounding country. The old birds hung about the spot for several days after the eggs were taken, and I saw the hen bird sitting on the nest constantly during that time, but she did not lay again."

Messrs. Davidson and Wenden, writing from the Deccan, say ; -  " Extremely abundant. Eggs taken from 28th October to 12th February. , Some single eggs were set. One nest had three, but the majority only two eggs. An Eagle's egg, almost certain to be that of this species, was brought to D. on the 30th September."

The late Mr. A. Anderson contributed the following account of this Eagle to the P. Z. S. ; - "I examined several nests during the season, and invariably found only two eggs (I have since taken three eggs, but this is an unusual number). They vary considerably in size, shape, and coloration; but on the whole they are poorly marked. January and February is the most general time for this Eagle to lay; but I came across some nests early in November. These birds had evidently built too soon, and used to sit mopingly close to their nest or on a neighbouring tree, as if watching their homestead, patiently waiting their appointed time.

"The Wokab is partial to certain trees for the site of its nest; but I have found its predilection in this respect to be regulated by the abundance or scarcity of the trees in question. In the Cawnpore district they almost invariably build on solitary peepul-trees (Ficus religiosa). In the Futtehgurh and Mynpoory districts, where the seesoo (Dalbergia seesoo) grows to so gigantic a size, the preference is apparently given to them. Higher up the Doab, where the country assumes  somewhat of a desert character, I found them building on thorny acacias. On one occasion I found a nest on a babool, which was certainly not more than fifteen feet high -  a mere apology for a tree."

In November, 1867, I got a pair of abnormally small eggs, without the faintest indication of any colouring-matter (the contents of an unusually small nest, which was situated at the very top of a perpendicular branch of a mango), shooting one of the parent birds. This tree was one of a straggling group, close to the Martiniere College at Lucknow ; and, in proof of the boldness of this Eagle, I may mention that an enormous camp was formed under these very trees, awaiting the triumphal entry of the Viceroy into the capital of Oudh, I have since thought that this nest belonged rightfully either to Milvus govinda or Haliastur indus, both of which species were very abundant there. When encamped at the pretty little station of Mynpoory in January last, a pair of Wokabs became excessively troublesome, carrying off everything they could find and robbing the more legitimate camp-scavengers, Kites and Crows, of every morsel they picked up. I was not long in finding their nest, an enormous structure, on the topmost branches of a seesoo, which was visible nearly a mile off, as at this season of the year the tree was devoid of every green leaf." The nest contained two half-grown Eaglets, which were most tenderly nurtured by their parents, judging from the frequency of their visits and the pugnacious way in which they attacked every bird that unconsciously approached within sight, no matter how far off.

" During one of my visits to the tree, I saw both the birds in hot pursuit of a Jugger Falcon that was flying away with a pigeon. Another day I wounded a Poliornis teesa, which flew away dangling both legs. Simultaneously with my shot out flew one of these Wokabs, and pursued the wounded Buzzard, in the vain hope of becoming possessed of its prey ! The Eagle very soon overtook the unfortunate bird, flying round it several times by way of inspection, and when satisfied that no booty was forthcoming, it returned to the nest after two or three rapid gyrations."

Mr. Benjamin Aitken sends me the following notes :- " These notes were all made at Akola in Berar. 1st January, 1871. Nest on the very top of a small tamarind-tree in a garden : contained one half-fledged bird and a dead cat. - 19th January. The same pair of birds began a nest in a tree, not a tamarind, in the same garden. -  3rd February. To-day I sent a man up; he frightened off the old bird out of the nest (now complete) and slightly disarranged the nest, but found nothing. - 10th February. Sent up a man again, and got One egg."

The normal number of eggs seems to be two, but it is by no means uncommon to find three. The eggs of this species appear to me to vary prodigiously in size and shape ; but it is not improbable that this excessive apparent variation is due to the enormous series I have before me. I have taken more than a hundred of this bird's eggs myself, and from first to last have had more than double this number sent me by other observers. Normally this bird's egg is a somewhat broad oval, slightly pointed towards one end, some are very long and pointed. A pair which I took in the Goorgaon district are long and narrow ; the cubic contents of these must be fully twice that of some of the smaller specimens ; they each contained a fully developed chick, ready to hatch off. A few of the eggs are nearly spherical, but the broad oval greatly predominates. The ground-colour of the eggs is the usual greyish white, unspotted in about half the specimens, and exhibiting more or less conspicuous markings in others.   Of the markings, the most common are a few large blotches and splashes of yellowish brown, accompanied by pretty numerous specks or spots of the same colour, distributed pretty evenly over the whole egg. In some, the blotches are more extensive and numerous, and exhibit a tendency to cluster towards one end more than the other, and the colour becomes a reddish brown, or in some a purplish brown, while in others all three colours are mingled. In no egg that I possess is more than one-third of the surface covered with markings, and, as a rule, even the richest coloured eggs (and these are comparatively rare) have not above a seventh or eighth of the surface of the egg covered with markings.

Elsewhere I have remarked; - " The eggs vary extraordinarily both in size and shape from a very long oval, much pointed at one end, to almost a sphere ; but the ordinary type is a rather broad oval, slightly narrower at one end. In colour, they are most commonly white, with a very faint tinge of bluish green ; but many of them are more or less streaked, spotted, or blotched with different shades of brown or reddish brown, and occasionally purple of varying intensity, and here and there one may be found richly marked with sharply defined spots and blotches of bright, though slightly brownish, red. Many of the eggs, when taken from the nest, have a faint gloss on them ; but they lose this by washing, and the eggs become so soiled during incubation that it usually is necessary to wash them. The texture is generally close and compact; the egg-lining is a pure sea-green."

In size the eggs vary from 2.35 to 3.25 inches in length, and from 1.8 to 2.25 inches in breadth ; but the average of one hundred and fifty-nine eggs measured was 2.63 by 2.11 inches.





1203. Aquila vindhiana.

 

The Indian Tawny Eagle.

Aquila vindhiana, Franklin, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 114 ; Jerdon, Madr. Jour. L. S. x, p. 67; Hume, N. & E. p. 29; Brooks, P. A. S. B. 1873, p. 174; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. i, p. 243; Anderson, P. Z. S. 1875, p. 22; Butler, S. F. iii, p. 446; ix, p. 372; Gurney, Ibis, 1877, pp. 225, 234; Davidson & Wend. S. F. vii, p. 74; Ball, ibid. p. 197; Hume, Cat. no. 29 ; Doig, S. F. viii, p. 370; Reid, S. F. x, p. 7; Davidson, ibid. p. 287; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 29; id. Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. i, p. 40; Oates in Hume's N. & E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 132. Aquilla punctata, J. E. Gray in Hardw. Ill. Ind. Zool. i, pl. 16 (1830-32). Aquila fusca, J. E. Gray, op. cit. ii, pl. 27 (1833-34). Aquila naevioides, apud Blyth, Cat. p. 27; Horsf. & M. Cat. i, p. 44; nec Cuv. Aquila fulvescens, apud Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 60; Blyth, Ibis, 1860,, p. 241; Hume, Rough Notes, p. 173; Blanford, J. A. S. B. xxxviii, pt. 2, p. 166; Jerdon, Ibis, 1871, p. 245 ; Hume, S. F. i, p. 158; nec Gray.

The Tawny Eagle, Jerdon; Wokhab, Ragar, H.; Dholwa, Wagri; Bursawul, Yerkli; Alawa or Salwa, Tel.; Ali, Tam.
 

Coloration very variable. Adults are almost uniform brown, varying from dark umber to pale brown, sometimes whity brown or whitish on the head and body. Very pale birds are generally in worn plumage, and the light tint is probably caused by bleaching. The quills are dark brown or nearly black at the end, mottled and barred towards the base; the tail is dark grey, with more or less distinct cross-bars. Occasionally the head is greyer or paler than the back, and in some birds (not, I think, fully adult) the head is almost black and the nape pale.

A nestling, obtained by Mr. Brooks from the nest, has the feathers brown, without shaft-stripes, but with broad rufous-buff edges, and pale tips to the quills and tail-feathers ; but, according -to Hume, in the nestling (N. & E. p. 30) " the whole plumage is rufous-brown, purer on the head, more earthy on the mantle, and paler below, each feather with a narrow black central stripe or line." Hume (Rough Notes, p. 176) says that the paler-coloured birds are young, and the plumage grows darker with age ; but Brooks (P. A. S. B. 1873, p. 174) declares that the pale plumage is that of adult birds, and is due to fading from exposure. I am disposed to think Brooks right. Apparently there are two young plumages— one tawny, with dark shaft-stripes below and on the upper tail-coverts; the other darker brown, without shaft-stripes: but whether these plumages are successive or alternative it is difficult to say.

Many specimens have the breast dark brown, and the abdomen paler greyish brown with dark shaft-stripes. In the dark plumage many of the feathers have pale tips; in some cases, even in freshly-moulted adult birds, there are pale buffy terminal spots to the nape and breast-feathers (as in Gray's figure of A. punctata). In the nestling plumage the tail appears to be unbarred, but in the next plumage, probably after the first moult, it becomes closely barred, the barring becoming less marked again in the adult.

There are other variations still. Some birds have a brownish-rufous head, some a pale whitish one, some a black one with a whitish nape; some have particoloured feathers on the lower -breast and abdomen. In this, as in other Eagles, the changes are probably irregular and vary in different individuals.

Cere deep yellow; irides hazel-brown; feet yellow (Jerdon). Bill pale bluish grey near the cere, tip black; cere dirty cream-colour; legs and feet dirty greenish white (Hume). Nostrils elliptical or ear-shaped; plumage harsh.

Length of male about 25.5; tail 10; wing 20; tarsus 2.75; mid-toe 2; bill from gape 2.25: in females—length 28; tail 11; wing 21.5.

Distribution. Throughout the greater part of India, chiefly in the drier districts, where this is by far the commonest Eagle; wanting on the Malabar coast and in Ceylon, and apparently in Lower Bengal and Assam, but occurring in Upper Burma near Thayet Myo, as there are specimens collected by Oates in the British Museum. This species is not known to occur outside of India and Upper Burma, but is represented by a nearly allied form, A. albicans, in N. & E. Africa.

Habits, &c. This common Eagle is usually seen either seated on a tree or beating over fields and woods. It is, like most Eagles, not particular about its food, and will pounce on a small mammal, bird, lizard, snake, or frog, or share the carcase of a dead bullock with vultures; but it also subsists to a great extent by robbing smaller Accipitrine birds, such as kites and falcons, of their captures ; and Elliot long since called attention to its troublesome habit of pursuing tame falcons, owing to its mistaking the jesses for prey. It breeds from November to June, chiefly in January in Northern India, rather earlier in the Central Provinces; it builds a nest of sticks, usually lined with green leaves, generally on the top of a high tree, but often, where no high trees are at hand, on a low babul (Acacia arabica), and lays usually two eggs, greyish white, more or less spotted or blotched with yellowish brown, and measuring about 2.63 by 2.11.





(1749) Aquila rapax vindhiana.

 

The Indian Tawny Eagle.

Aquila vindhiana Frank., P. Z. S., 1831, p. 114 (Vindhya Hills) Blanf. & Oates, iii, p. 337.

Vernacular names. Wokhab, Ragar (Hind.); Dholwa(Wagri); Bursawul (Yerkli); Alawa, Salwa (Tel.); Alt (Tam.).

Description. - Adult. General plumage brown, in most cases more or less tinged with fulvous but never with rusty-reddish as in A. r. rapax. Many adults have the head and shoulders very fulvous, this colour spreading and deepening on the back and wing-coverts; the rump and upper tail-coverts paler again than the back; tail light grey-brown tipped paler; in very old birds only a little mottling on the inner webs near the tips is to be seen on the outer tail-feathers but in young adult birds a certain amount of cross-barring is nearly always visible on the central tail-feathers ; median wing-coverts dark brown, with pale tips and much white on the inner webs; greater coverts dark brown ; primaries blackish-brown, pale-tipped and increasingly paler brown on the bases towards the secondaries, which are dark brown with white tips and grey bars on the inner webs; the lower plumage varies from dull fulvous to fulvous- or golden-brown ; the chin and throat are nearly always paler and many birds have the breast or upper breast much darker, the feathers sometimes with pale tips ; in the majority of adult or semi-adult specimens the feathers below have dark shaft-lines.

Colours of soft parts. Iris bright hazel; bill slaty or bluish-grey on the basal half, black on the terminal half; the extreme base of the lower mandible tinged horny-yellow ; cere dull yellow-cream to bright deep yellow in the breeding-season ; legs and feet dull greenish-yellow, horny-yellow to yellow, rarely greenish-white, claws black.

Measurements. Wing, 525 to 535 mm., 536 to 560 mm.; tail, 242 to 254 mm., 260 to 285 mm.; tarsus about 63 to 71 mm.; culmen 48 to 54 mm.

Young birds are darker than adults as a rule and have more conspicuous streaking below and more barring on the tail; some young birds are practically entirely dull brown, earthy-brown or rufous-brown. Many birds have the feathers of the nape tipped pale, this extending on to the feathers at the side of the neck and breast much like a ruff:. A few birds, especially those in a fulvous plumage, have odd narrow bars of black on the feathers of the mantle.

Nestling. " Brown,' without shaft-stripes but with broad rufous-bun: edges and pale tips to the quills and tail-feathers " (Brooks).

Whole plumage rufous-brown, purer on the head, more earthy on the mantle, and paler below, each feather with a narrow black central stripe or line" (Hume).

Distribution. The greater part of India, excluding the wetter parts such as Travancore and the Malabar coast; Eastern Bengal and Assam. It also occurs in the drier region of North Central Burma near Thayetmyo.

Nidification. Hume gives the breeding-season as November to the middle of June but it is very rare to find any eggs after February, whilst December and January are the two principal months. The nest is built on the tops of trees, generally on trees of moderate size, often on very low ones, rarely on high trees. Whatever the height, however, it is nearly always a tree standing quite in the open. The nest varies greatly in size ; sometimes it is a neat compact affair barely two feet in diameter by less than one in depth, neatly finished off and lined with green leaves ; at other times it is double this size in breadth and depth and very untidv, with a lining of grass or rubbish. The normal clutch of eggs is two, often one and exceptionally three. They are generally white or nearly so, just faintly speckled or smeared with pale yellowish- or reddish-brown, but here and there one meets with a well-marked almost handsome egg. Sixty eggs average 66.0x 52.8 mm.: maxima 75.1 x 55.4 and 70.3 x 57.6 mm.; minima 58.0 x 47.3 and 60.0 x 46.4 mm.

Aquila rapax rapax is said to make its nest on the ground.

Habits. This Tawny Eagle is much the most common and most widely-distributed Eagle in India but it is confined to the drier areas and is practically never found in forest or heavily-wooded country, nor does it ascend the hills to any height. It hunts over fields and plains in a very methodical and rather Buzzard-like manner and does not seem to care much what it eats. All small mammals, birds, reptiles, etc., are captured and eaten and it freely devours dead animals even when putrid. It is a great bully though a poor sportsman and is well known as a robber of other and smaller birds of prey and is a nuisance when hawking both because it steals the quarry when killed and because it pursues the falcons, mistaking the jesses for small birds. When forced by hunger it is quite capable of killing game for itself of considerable size ; Jerdon saw it kill a Lesser Florikin and it has been known to strike down the larger duck, hares, etc., whilst a dead cat was once found in a nest of this Eagle. Its cry is a very loud raucous cackle and it also utters shrill screams.





Aquila rapax Temm. & Laug.

 

(Falco rapax Temm. & Laug., Planch. Color. d'Ois., livr. 76, pl. 455, Mch. 1, 1828: South Africa.)





Aquila rapax vindhiana Franklin.

 

Aquila vindhiana Franklin, P. Z. S., 1830-31, p. 114, Oct. 25, 1831: Vindhya Hills, Central India.

Aquila punctata Gray in Hardwicke's Illustr. Ind. Zool., vol, i, pl. xvi, Dec. 2, 1831: Cawnpore.

Aquila fusca id., ibid., vol. ii, pl. 27, Apl. 10, 1834: no locality; not Aquila fusca Dumont, 1805, or Brehm, 1823.





THE TAWNY EAGLE
Aquila rapax (Temminck)


(Plate xviii, Fig. i, opposite page 374)

Description:-

Length : Male 25 inches, female 28 inches. Sexes alike. The coloration is very variable, but is generally uniform brown, varying from a dirty buffish-brown to deep rich umber-brown ; the quills are dark blackish-brown, mottled and barred with whitish about the base, and the tail is dark greyish-brown with more or less distinct cross-bands. In some specimens there is a very distinct dark mask on the front of the head and face, and parts of the plumage are often spotted with light brown.
Iris hazel-brown; bill pale bluish-grey, blackish at tip ; cere dull yellow ; feet yellow, claws black.

The nostril is ear-shaped ; bill strong, curved and sharply hooked ; top of the head very flat; legs feathered down to the toes. The plumage is coarse in texture.

Field Identification:-
A large brown or blackish-brown bird of rather fierce appearance with its flat head, sharply-hooked beak, and feathered legs armed with sharp claws, which sits heavily on the tops of trees or soars in great circles above the Kites, from which it is easily distinguished by the rounded tail. There are, however, several other common species of Eagle, and it requires some knowledge and practice to distinguish them from it. Of these the most easily recognisable is the very large Steppe-Eagle (Aquila nipalensis), which in flight exhibits two pale wing-bars. A winter visitor to India as far south as Seoni and Raipur.

A very black-looking Eagle, seen above tree-level in Baluchistan and the Himalayas, is usually the Golden Eagle {Aquila chrysaetus). A longish tail and often light patches in the wing and tail-quills assist recognition.

Distribution:-

A. rapax vindhiana, the common Eagle of India, is the Oriental race of A. rapax, which is found throughout the greater part of Africa. It is found throughout most of India from Baluchistan and the North-west Frontier Province to Lower Bengal and Upper Burma ; but it is wanting on the Malabar coast and in Ceylon. In the Himalayas it occurs and breeds up to about 4000 feet. It is a resident species.

Habits, etc:-

This Eagle avoids heavy forest and the damper portions of the country-side, being particularly a bird of those dry sandy plains with a moderate amount of tree growth which are such a feature of Northern India. It divides its time between soaring high in the air like the Vultures, and with them keeping watch for carcasses, or sitting lumpily on the summit of a tall tree watching the surrounding country-side. Although in being partial to carrion it offends against the traditional idea of an Eagle, it is a fine lordly-looking bird and has plenty of courage, taking hares and large birds, and in particular chasing and robbing falcons and hawks of their booty. This habit causes it to be a great nuisance to the falconer as it chases trained falcons mistaking their jesses for prey. At other times no quarry is too small for it. I have seen it robbing a Babbler's nest of young and a Plover's nest of eggs, and when locusts or termites swarm it always joins the feast; while frogs, lizards and snakes are readily devoured.

Eggs are laid from the middle of November until June, but the majority will be found in January.

The nest is a large flat structure of sticks and thorny twigs, lined as a rule with straw and coarse grass and often with green leaves. It is built not in a fork but on the extreme tops of trees so that the Eagle may settle in the nest without brushing its wings against the branches. The favourite tree is the dense thorny kikar or babool tree.

The clutch consists of one to three eggs.

The egg is normally a somewhat broad oval, slightly pointed at one end ; the texture of the shell is hard and fine, usually with a slight gloss. The ground-colour is dull greyish-white ; many eggs are unmarked ; others are marked, though generally sparingly, with Streaks, spots and blotches of brown, red and purple of varying tints.

The eggs average about 2.60 by 2.10 inches.





Museum Collections


Number of Museum Specimen Records Found : 69 for Aquila rapax

No. Museum Species Collection Deatils Collector Date of Collection Record Locality GBIF Portal Link
1Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard UniversityAquila rapax vindhianaMCZ BIRDS 24684Carleton, M. M.SpecimenAmbala India Asia Southern Asia Link
2Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard UniversityAquila rapax vindhianaMCZ BIRDS 24685Carleton, M. M.SpecimenAmbala India Asia Southern Asia Link
3Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard UniversityAquila rapax vindhianaMCZ BIRDS 24690Carleton, M. M.SpecimenAmbala India Asia Southern Asia Link
4Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard UniversityAquila rapax vindhianaMCZ BIRDS 24691Carleton, M. M.SpecimenAmbala India Asia Southern Asia Link
5Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard UniversityAquila rapax vindhianaMCZ BIRDS 24692Carleton, M. M.SpecimenAmbala India Asia Southern Asia Link
6Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard UniversityAquila rapax vindhianaMCZ BIRDS 24693Carleton, M. M.SpecimenAmbala India Asia Southern Asia Link
7Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard UniversityAquila rapax vindhianaMCZ BIRDS 24694Carleton, M. M.SpecimenAmbala India Asia Southern Asia Link
8Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard UniversityAquila rapax vindhianaMCZ BIRDS 25254Carleton, M. M.SpecimenAmbala India Asia Southern Asia Link
9Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard UniversityAquila rapax vindhianaMCZ BIRDS 25301Carleton, M. M.SpecimenAmbala India Asia Southern Asia Link
10Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard UniversityAquila rapax vindhianaMCZ BIRDS 25302Carleton, M. M.SpecimenAmbala India Asia Southern Asia Link
11Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard UniversityAquila rapax vindhianaMCZ BIRDS 25307Carleton, M. M.SpecimenAmbala India Asia Southern Asia Link
12Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard UniversityAquila rapax vindhianaMCZ BIRDS 25308Carleton, M. M.SpecimenAmbala India Asia Southern Asia Link
13Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard UniversityAquila rapax vindhianaMCZ BIRDS 25309Carleton, M. M.SpecimenAmbala India Asia Southern Asia Link
14Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard UniversityAquila rapax vindhianaMCZ BIRDS 25311Carleton, M. M.SpecimenAmbala India Asia Southern Asia Link
15Yale University Peabody MuseumAquila vindhiana vindhianaYPM ORN ORN.010584S. B. Fairbanks1868-11-25 00:00:00.0Specimen Western Ghats India Southern Asia Link
16Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard UniversityAquila rapax vindhianaMCZ BIRDS 152274Koelz, W.1931-02-02 00:00:00.0SpecimenSirsa Punjab India Asia Southern Asia Link
17Field MuseumAquila rapax vindhianaFMNH Birds 1007331931-02-03 00:00:00.0SpecimenSirsa Punjab India Southern Asia Link
18Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard UniversityAquila rapax vindhianaMCZ BIRDS 152275Koelz, W.1931-02-08 00:00:00.0SpecimenSirsa Punjab India Asia Southern Asia Link
19Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard UniversityAquila rapax vindhianaMCZ BIRDS 152273Koelz, W.1931-02-13 00:00:00.0SpecimenSirsa Punjab India Asia Southern Asia Link
20Field MuseumAquila rapax vindhianaFMNH Birds 1007341931-02-28 00:00:00.0SpecimenKeshapur Punjab India Southern Asia Link
21University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyAquila rapax vindhianaUMMZ Bird 78215Koelz, Walter N1933-01-19 00:00:00.0SpecimenSirsa Hissar [Sirsa] Punjab [Haryana] India Southern Asia Link
22University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyAquila rapax vindhianaUMMZ Bird 78216Koelz, Walter N1933-01-19 00:00:00.0SpecimenSirsa Hissar [Sirsa] Punjab [Haryana] India Southern Asia Link
23University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyAquila rapax vindhianaUMMZ Bird 78217Koelz, Walter N1933-01-19 00:00:00.0SpecimenSirsa Hissar [Sirsa] Punjab [Haryana] India Southern Asia Link
24University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyAquila rapax vindhianaUMMZ Bird 78218Koelz, Walter N1933-01-19 00:00:00.0SpecimenSirsa Hissar [Sirsa] Punjab [Haryana] India Southern Asia Link
25University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyAquila rapax vindhianaUMMZ Bird 78219Koelz, Walter N1933-01-19 00:00:00.0SpecimenSirsa Hissar [Sirsa] Punjab [Haryana] India Southern Asia Link
26University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyAquila rapax vindhianaUMMZ Bird 78220Koelz, Walter N1933-01-20 00:00:00.0SpecimenSirsa Hissar [Sirsa] Punjab [Haryana] India Southern Asia Link
27University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyAquila rapax vindhianaUMMZ Bird 78221Koelz, Walter N1933-01-20 00:00:00.0SpecimenSirsa Hissar [Sirsa] Punjab [Haryana] India Southern Asia Link
28University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyAquila rapax vindhianaUMMZ Bird 78222Koelz, Walter N1933-01-20 00:00:00.0SpecimenSirsa Hissar [Sirsa] Punjab [Haryana] India Southern Asia Link
29University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyAquila rapax vindhianaUMMZ Bird 78223Koelz, Walter N1933-01-20 00:00:00.0SpecimenSirsa Hissar [Sirsa] Punjab [Haryana] India Southern Asia Link
30University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyAquila rapax vindhianaUMMZ Bird 78224Koelz, Walter N1933-01-22 00:00:00.0SpecimenSirsa Hissar [Sirsa] Punjab [Haryana] India Southern Asia Link
31University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyAquila rapax vindhianaUMMZ Bird 78225Koelz, Walter N1933-01-22 00:00:00.0SpecimenSirsa Hissar [Sirsa] Punjab [Haryana] India Southern Asia Link
32University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyAquila rapax vindhianaUMMZ Bird 78226Koelz, Walter N1933-01-22 00:00:00.0SpecimenSirsa Hissar [Sirsa] Punjab [Haryana] India Southern Asia Link
33University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyAquila rapax vindhianaUMMZ Bird 78227Koelz, Walter N1933-01-24 00:00:00.0SpecimenSirsa Hissar [Sirsa] Punjab [Haryana] India Southern Asia Link
34University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyAquila rapax vindhianaUMMZ Bird 78228Koelz, Walter N1933-01-24 00:00:00.0SpecimenSirsa Hissar [Sirsa] Punjab [Haryana] India Southern Asia Link
35University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyAquila rapax vindhianaUMMZ Bird 78229Koelz, Walter N1933-01-24 00:00:00.0SpecimenSirsa Hissar [Sirsa] Punjab [Haryana] India Southern Asia Link
36University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyAquila rapax vindhianaUMMZ Bird 78230Koelz, Walter N1933-01-24 00:00:00.0SpecimenSirsa Hissar [Sirsa] Punjab [Haryana] India Southern Asia Link
37University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyAquila rapax vindhianaUMMZ Bird 78259Koelz, Walter N1933-01-24 00:00:00.0SpecimenSirsa Hissar [Sirsa] Punjab [Haryana] India Southern Asia Link
38University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyAquila rapax vindhianaUMMZ Bird 78231Koelz, Walter N1933-01-25 00:00:00.0SpecimenSirsa Hissar [Sirsa] Punjab [Haryana] India Southern Asia Link
39University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyAquila rapax vindhianaUMMZ Bird 78232Koelz, Walter N1933-01-25 00:00:00.0SpecimenSirsa Hissar [Sirsa] Punjab [Haryana] India Southern Asia Link
40University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyAquila rapax vindhianaUMMZ Bird 78233Koelz, Walter N1933-01-26 00:00:00.0SpecimenSirsa Hissar [Sirsa] Punjab [Haryana] India Southern Asia Link
41University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyAquila rapax vindhianaUMMZ Bird 78234Koelz, Walter N1933-01-27 00:00:00.0SpecimenSirsa Hissar [Sirsa] Punjab [Haryana] India Southern Asia Link
42University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyAquila rapax vindhianaUMMZ Bird 78235Koelz, Walter N1933-01-27 00:00:00.0SpecimenSirsa Hissar [Sirsa] Punjab [Haryana] India Southern Asia Link
43University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyAquila rapax vindhianaUMMZ Bird 78236Koelz, Walter N1933-01-29 00:00:00.0SpecimenSirsa Hissar [Sirsa] Punjab [Haryana] India Southern Asia Link
44University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyAquila rapax vindhianaUMMZ Bird 78237Koelz, Walter N1933-01-30 00:00:00.0SpecimenSirsa Hissar [Sirsa] Punjab [Haryana] India Southern Asia Link
45University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyAquila rapax vindhianaUMMZ Bird 78238Koelz, Walter N1933-01-31 00:00:00.0SpecimenSirsa Hissar [Sirsa] Punjab [Haryana] India Southern Asia Link
46University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyAquila rapax vindhianaUMMZ Bird 78239Koelz, Walter N1933-02-01 00:00:00.0SpecimenSirsa Hissar [Sirsa] Punjab [Haryana] India Southern Asia Link
47University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyAquila rapax vindhianaUMMZ Bird 78240Koelz, Walter N1933-02-02 00:00:00.0SpecimenSirsa Hissar [Sirsa] Punjab [Haryana] India Southern Asia Link
48University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyAquila rapax vindhianaUMMZ Bird 78242Koelz, Walter N1933-02-05 00:00:00.0SpecimenParwali Hissar Punjab [Haryana] India Southern Asia Link
49University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyAquila rapax vindhianaUMMZ Bird 78241Koelz, Walter N1933-02-23 00:00:00.0SpecimenSirsa Hissar [Sirsa] Punjab [Haryana] India Southern Asia Link
50University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyAquila rapax vindhianaUMMZ Bird 78243Koelz, Walter N1933-03-05 00:00:00.0SpecimenParwali Hissar Punjab [Haryana] India Southern Asia Link
51University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyAquila rapax vindhianaUMMZ Bird 78244Koelz, Walter N1933-03-06 00:00:00.0SpecimenParwali Hissar Punjab [Haryana] India Southern Asia Link
52University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyAquila rapax vindhianaUMMZ Bird 78245Koelz, Walter N1933-03-11 00:00:00.0SpecimenParwali Hissar Punjab [Haryana] India Southern Asia Link
53University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyAquila rapax vindhianaUMMZ Bird 78246Koelz, Walter N1933-05-04 00:00:00.0SpecimenBhadwar Kangra District Himachal Pradesh India Southern Asia Link
54University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyAquila rapax vindhianaUMMZ Bird 78247Koelz, Walter N1934-01-25 00:00:00.0SpecimenKhinjar Lake Sind Pakistan Southern Asia Link
55University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyAquila rapax vindhianaUMMZ Bird 78248Koelz, Walter N1934-01-30 00:00:00.0SpecimenKhinjar Lake Sind Pakistan Southern Asia Link
56University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyAquila rapax vindhianaUMMZ Bird 78249Koelz, Walter N1934-02-03 00:00:00.0SpecimenKhinjar Lake Sind Pakistan Southern Asia Link
57University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyAquila rapax vindhianaUMMZ Bird 78250Koelz, Walter N1934-02-08 00:00:00.0SpecimenKhinjar Lake Sind Pakistan Southern Asia Link
58University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyAquila rapax vindhianaUMMZ Bird 78251Koelz, Walter N1934-02-17 00:00:00.0SpecimenKhinjar Lake Sind Pakistan Southern Asia Link
59University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyAquila rapax vindhianaUMMZ Bird 78253Koelz, Walter N1934-02-21 00:00:00.0SpecimenKhinjar Lake Sind Pakistan Southern Asia Link
60University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyAquila rapax vindhianaUMMZ Bird 78254Koelz, Walter N1934-02-24 00:00:00.0SpecimenKhinjar Lake Sind Pakistan Southern Asia Link
61University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyAquila rapax vindhianaUMMZ Bird 78255Koelz, Walter N1934-02-24 00:00:00.0SpecimenKhinjar Lake Sind Pakistan Southern Asia Link
62University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyAquila rapax vindhianaUMMZ Bird 78256Koelz, Walter N1934-02-25 00:00:00.0SpecimenKhinjar Lake Sind Pakistan Southern Asia Link
63University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyAquila rapax vindhianaUMMZ Bird 78257Koelz, Walter N1934-02-27 00:00:00.0SpecimenKhinjar Lake Sind Pakistan Southern Asia Link
64University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyAquila rapax vindhianaUMMZ Bird 78258Koelz, Walter N1934-03-03 00:00:00.0SpecimenTatta Sind Pakistan Southern Asia Link
65Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard UniversityAquila rapax vindhianaMCZ BIRDS 172789Ali, S.1936-10-28 00:00:00.0SpecimenDehra Dun United India Asia Southern Asia Link
66Cornell University Museum of VertebratesAquila rapaxCU CUMV-Bird 234501945-11-27 00:00:00.0SpecimenAgra Uttar Pradesh India Southern Asia Link
67Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard UniversityAquila rapax vindhianaMCZ BIRDS 278134Ali, S.1948-03-02 00:00:00.0SpecimenGalkund Surat Dangs India Asia Southern Asia Link
68National Museum of Natural HistoryAquila rapaxUSNM Vertebrate Zoology; Birds 483848.4101986R. Tasker & S. Rizvi1960-02-04 00:00:00.0Specimen Pakistan Southern Asia Link
69Michigan State University MuseumAquila rapaxMSU OR OR.4043Julian P. Donahue1961-12-27 00:00:00.0Specimen10 mi. SW New Delhi Delhi Territory India Southern Asia Link

Biodiversity occurrence data provided by: (Accessed through GBIF Data Portal, 2009-08-06)


Data Providers
  • Cornell University Museum of Vertebrates ( 1 Records )

  • Field Museum ( 2 Records )

  • Michigan State University Museum ( 1 Records )

  • Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University ( 19 Records )

  • National Museum of Natural History ( 1 Records )

  • University of Michigan Museum of Zoology ( 44 Records )

  • Yale University Peabody Museum ( 1 Records )


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Cite this website along with its URL as:
Anonymous. 2014 Aquila rapax - Temminck, 1828 (Tawny Eagle ) in Deomurari, A.N. (Compiler), 2010. AVIS-IBIS (Avian Information System - Indian BioDiversity Information System) v. 1.0. Foundation For Ecological Security, India retrieved on 07/26/2014
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