Common Name : Crested Serpent-eagle
Scientific Name : Spilornis cheela (Latham, 1790)
Order : Falconiformes
Family : Accipitridae
Taxonomic Group : Falconiformes - Accipitridae ( Hawks, Kites and Eagles )
Vernacular Name : Hindi: Furj baaj, Dogra cheel, Punjab: Mukatdar ukab, Bengal: Tilaj baaj, Sabchur, Assam: Sin/Xen, Gond (Madhya Pradesh): Botta genda, Gujarat: Chotaliyo saanpmaar, Maharashtra: Murayala, Tamil: Kudumiyan, Telugu: Nalla pamula gadda, Malayalam (Kerala): C
Common Name : Crested Serpent-Eagle
Scientific Name : Spilornis cheela
Order : Falconiformes Family : Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles, and Kites)
Number of SubSpecies : 21
|Taxon Category||Sub Species / Race||Range||subspecies||Spilornis cheela cheela||N India and Nepal|
|subspecies||Spilornis cheela melanotis||Indo-Gangetic plain|
|subspecies||Spilornis cheela spilogaster||Sri Lanka|
|subspecies||Spilornis cheela burmanicus||Myanmar to sw China, Thailand and Indochina|
|subspecies||Spilornis cheela davisoni||Andaman Islands|
|subspecies||Spilornis cheela minimus||Nicobar Islands|
|subspecies||Spilornis cheela ricketti||Southern China and n Vietnam|
|subspecies||Spilornis cheela perplexus||S Ryukyu Islands|
|subspecies||Spilornis cheela hoya||Taiwan|
|subspecies||Spilornis cheela rutherfordi||Hainan (s China)|
|subspecies||Spilornis cheela palawanensis||Palawan (sw Philippines)|
|subspecies||Spilornis cheela pallidus||Lowlands of n Borneo|
|subspecies||Spilornis cheela richmondi||S Borneo|
|subspecies||Spilornis cheela natunensis||Natunas and Belitung islands (off Borneo)|
|subspecies||Spilornis cheela malayensis||Malay Peninsula, n Sumatra and Anambas Islands|
|subspecies||Spilornis cheela batu||S Sumatra and Batu Islands|
|subspecies||Spilornis cheela abbotti||Simeulue I. (off w Sumatra)|
|subspecies||Spilornis cheela asturinus||Nias I. (off w Sumatra)|
|subspecies||Spilornis cheela sipora||Mentawai Archepelago (off w Sumatra)|
|subspecies||Spilornis cheela bido||Java and Bali|
|subspecies||Spilornis cheela baweanus||Bawean I. (off n Java)|
3rd Edition, 2003. Revised and Corrected per Corrigenda to December 31, 2006
Common Name : Crested Serpent Eagle
Scientific Name : Spilornis cheela
SubFamily : Accipitrinae
Number of SubSpecies : 22
|Sub Species / Race||Spilornis cheela cheela|
|Spilornis cheela melanotis|
|Spilornis cheela spilogaster|
|Spilornis cheela burmanicus|
|Spilornis cheela ricketti|
|Spilornis cheela malayensis|
|Spilornis cheela davisoni|
|Spilornis cheela minimus|
|Spilornis cheela perplexus|
|Spilornis cheela hoya|
|Spilornis cheela rutherfordi|
|Spilornis cheela pallidus|
|Spilornis cheela richmondi|
|Spilornis cheela natunensis|
|Spilornis cheela sipora|
|Spilornis cheela batu|
|Spilornis cheela asturinus|
|Spilornis cheela abbotti|
|Spilornis cheela bido|
|Spilornis cheela baweanus|
|Spilornis cheela palawanensis|
|Spilornis cheela holospilus|
IOC Common Name : Crested Serpent Eagle
IOC Scientific Name : Spilornis cheela
Region : OR Range : widespread, including one form on Great Nicobar Is (P Rasmussen)
Order : ACCIPITRIFORMES Family : Accipitridae
Category : Kites, Hawks & Eagles
Note: Raptor families Cathartidae, Accipitridae, Sagittariidae, and Pandiondae are in the Order "Accipitriformes" because falcons (Falconidae) are separated as the Order Falconiformes (Hackett et al. 2008)
SYNOPIS NO : 196-201
Scientific Name: Spilornis cheela
Common Name: Crested Serpent Eagle
Common Name : Crested Serpent-eagle
Scientific Name : Spilornis cheela ((Latham, 1790))
Birdlife Synonym :
BirdLife Redlist Status Year 2010: LC
BirdLife Species FactSheet for Crested Serpent-eagle ( Spilornis cheela )
Taxonomy Treatment : R
Birdlife Taxonomy Notes : Spilornis minimus (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) has been split into S. klossi with the remainder (i.e. nominate minimus) lumped with S. cheela (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) following Rasmussen and Anderton (2005).
IUCN Common Name (Eng) : Crested Serpent-eagle, Crested Serpent Eagle
Scientific Name : Spilornis cheela (Latham, 1790)
IUCN Redlist Species FactSheet for Crested Serpent-eagle, Crested Serpent Eagle ( Spilornis cheela )
Species : cheela
Genus : Spilornis
Family : Accipitridae Order : Falconiformes
IUCN RedList Status : LC
IUCN RedList Criteria Version : 3.1
IUCN RedList Year Assessed : 2008
IUCN RedList Petitioned : N
Family : ACCIPITRIDAE
Scientific Name : Spilornis cheela
Common Name : Crested Serpent Eagle
IOC Checklist Difference : >S. klossi Great Nicobar Serpent Eagle
Birdlife Checklist Difference : >S. klossi South Nicobar Serpent Eagle
Bibliography of Crested Serpent-eagle ( Spilornis cheela )
Number of Results found : 87
1. Chang HW;Chou TC;De-Leung G;Cheng CA;Chang CC;Yao CT;Chuang LY;Wen CH;Chou YC;Tan KY;Cheng CC; , (2008 ), An improved PCR method for gender identification of eagles, Molecular and Cellular Probes, 22: 184 - 188.
2. Chang H;Gu D;Su C;Chang C;Cheng H;Huang C;Yao T;Chou L;Chuang L;Cheng C; , (2008 ), High-throughput gender identification of Accipitridae eagles with real-time PCR using TaqMan probes, Theriogenology, 70:1: 83 - 90.
3. Yao CT;Chan FT; , (2006 ), Study on the rescue to raptors from the Wildlife First Aid Station of the Endemic Species Research Institute, CAO, Taiwan, in Abstracts of the 3rd Symposium on Ecology of Raptors in Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan, Raptor Research of Taiwan, 6: 49 - 50.
4. Chen EL; , (2006 ), A brief report of 2002-2004 Taiwan Raptor Database, in Abstracts of the 3rd Symposium on Ecology of Raptors in Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan, Raptor Research of Taiwan, 6: 50 - 51.
5. Bezuijen MR; , (2006 ), Incidental wetland bird observations from Attapu and Savannakhet Provinces, Lao PDR, March-June 2005, Forktail, 22: 49 - 56.
6. Craig Robson , (2005), Crested Serpent-Eagle (Spilornis cheela), BIRDS OF SOUTH-EAST ASIA; New Holland Publishers Ltd, : 59.
7. Kahn MMH; , (2005 ), Species diversity, relative abundance and habitat use of the birds in the Sundarbans East Wildlife Sanctuary, Bangladesh, Forktail, 21: 79 - 86.
8. Germi F; , (2005 ), Raptor migration in east Bali, Indonesia: observations from a bottleneck watch site, Forktail, 21: 93 - 98.
9. Eames JC; , (2005 ), A preliminary ornithological assessment and conservation evaluation of the PT Daisy logging concession, Berau district, East Kalimantan, Indonesia, Forktail, 21: 51 - 60.
10. Irham M;Abu J;Chong MHN;Sebastian AC;Aik YC; , (2005 ), Effects of habitat disturbance on the raptor community in monsoon forests and savannahs of East Java, Indonesia, Proceedings of the 4th Symposium on Asian Raptors 2005 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Committee for the 4th Symposium on Asian Raptors 2005;, : 93 - 107.
11. Chang MHN;Abu J;Chong MHN;Sebastian AC;Aik YC; , (2005 ), Habitat use of raptors at Lambir Hills, Niah and Similajau National Parks, Sarawak, Malaysia and implications on their conservation, Proceedings of the 4th Symposium on Asian Raptors 2005 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Committee for the 4th Symposium on Asian Raptors 2005;, : 57 - 69.
12. Orden C van; Paklina N , (2005), Raptors of the Tibetan Plateau in 1988-2001., De Takkeling, 13: 124 - 138.
13. Birand A;Pawar S; , (2004 ), An ornithological survey in north-east India, Forktail, 20: 15 - 24.
14. Chou TC;Lee PF;Chen H;Chancellor RD;Meyburg BU; , (2004 ), Breeding biology of the Crested Serpent Eagle Spilornis cheela hoya in Kenting National Park, Taiwan, Raptors worldwide Berlin and Budapest World Working Group on Birds of Prey/MME-BirdLife Hungary;, : 557 - 568.
15. Tsou MH; , (2003 ), [A photo gallery and notes on Oriental Honey-buzzard ( Pernis ptilorhyncus ) and immature Crested Serpent-eagle ( Spilornis cheela )], Raptor Research of Taiwan, 2003:9: 71.
16. Choudhury A; , (2003 ), Birds of Eaglenest Wildlife Sanctuary and Sessa Orchid Sanctuary, Arunachal Pradesh, India, Forktail, 19: 1 - 13.
17. Sano, K. , (2003), [Breeding biology of the Ryukyu Crested Serpent-Eagle in Ishigaki Island, Okinawa.], Strix, 21: 141 - 150.
18. Kuroda N; , (2002 ), Fragmentary notes on avian morpho-anatomy: 3. Myological notes on Neophron percnopterus (Egyptian Vulture) and Spilornis cheela (Crested Serpent Eagle), , : 198.
19. Eames JC;Steinheimer FD;Bansok R; , (2002 ), A collection of birds from the Cardamom Mountains, Cambodia, including a new subspecies of Arborophila cambodiana, Forktail, 18: 67 - 86.
20. Davidar P;Yogananad K;Ganesh T;Devy S; , (2002 ), Distributions of forest birds and butterflies in the Andaman Islands, Bay of Bengal: nested patterns and processes, Ecography, 25: 5 - 16.
21. Chikara O; , (2002 ), Little-known and neglected distinctive (sub) species of southern Japan, Oriental Bird Club Bulletin, 35: 26 - 32.
22. Allen D; , (2002 ), A bird survey of the Amarpur area of the Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve, Assam, India, Forktail, 18: 87 - 91.
23. Aik YC; , (2002 ), Raptor sightings from Taman Negara Natonal Park, Peninsular Malaysia: September 1999 - May 2000, Asian Raptors Bulletin, 3: 14 - 16.
24. Nagahisa Kuroda , (2002), Fragmental Notes on Avian Morpho-anatomy, Journal of the Yamashina Institute for Ornithology, 33:2: 198 - 203.
25. Kuroda N , (2002), Fragmental notes on avian morpho-anatomy: 3. myological notes on Neophron percnopterus (Egyptian Vulture) and Spilornis cheela (Crested Serpent Eagle)., Journal of theÂ Yamashina InstituteÂ forÂ Ornithology, 33: 198 - 203.
26. Hung LM;Anh DQ; , (2001 ), A preliminary survey of resident and migrant raptors' sites in North Vietnam, October 2000 and 28 February-15 March 2001, Asian Raptors Bulletin, 2: 20 - 21.
27. Evans TD; , (2001 ), Ornithological records from Savannakhet Province, Lao PDR, January-July 1997, Forktail, 17: 21 - 28.
28. Drilling N; , (2001 ), Predation attempts by raptors on the White-winged Duck (Cairina scutulata) in Way Kambas National Park, Sumatra, Indonesia, Asian Raptors Bulletin, 2: 24 - 25.
29. Choudhury A; , (2001 ), Some bird records from Nagaland, north-east India, Forktail, 17: 91 - 103.
30. RS Kennedy; PC Gozales; EC Dickinson; HC Miranda Jr; TH Fisher , (2000), Crested Serpent-Eagle (Spilornis cheela), A GUIDE TO THE BIRDS OF THE PHILIPPINES; Oxford University Press, USA, : 10.
31. Woo-Shin Lee; Tae-Hoe Koo; Jin-Young Park , (2000), Crested Serpent-Eagle (Spilornis cheela), A FIELD GUIDE TO THE BIRDS OF KOREA; LG Evergreen Foundation,Korea, : .
32. Krys Kazmierczak; Ber van Perlo , (2000), Crested Serpent-Eagle (Spilornis cheela), A FIELD GUIDE TO THE BIRDS OF THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT; Yale University Press, : 84.
33. Xiong Z;Ran J;Chen H;Tan C;Quan X; , (2000 ), [Preliminary observation on the breeding ecology of Spilornis cheela ], Zoological Research, 21: 92 - 93.
34. Hill M; , (2000 ), Bird fauna of two protected forests in northern Vietnam, Forktail, 16: 5 - 14.
35. Evans TD;Towll HC;Timmins RJ;Thewlis RM;Stones AJ;Robichaud WG;Barzen J; , (2000 ), Ornithological records from the lowlands of southern Laos during December 1995-September 1996, including areas on the Thai and Cambodian borders, Forktail, 16: 29 - 52.
36. Carol Inskipp; Tim Inskipp; Richard Grimmett , (1999), Crested Serpent Eagle (Spilornis cheela), HELM FIELD GUIDES - BIRDS of BHUTAN; A&C Black, : 86.
37. Asian Raptor R;Conservation; , (1998 ), Asian raptor research & conservation; programs & abstracts: the First Symposium on Raptors of Asia at Lake Biwa Museum, Shiga, Japan, December 12-13 1998, Shiga, Japan EINS, : .
38. , (1998), Wellawaya-Handapanagala area; Wadinahela Rock; Handapanagala - 1.4, Ceylon Bird Club Notes, 1998:March: 29 - 30.
39. Ueta M;Minton JS; , (1996 ), Habitat preference of Crested Serpent-eagles in southern Japan, Journal of Raptor Research, 30: 99.
40. Woo, Y.-T., J.-N. Lee. , (1996), Newly recorded birds of 6 species and subspecies in Korea., Korean Journal of Ornithology, 3: 59 - 61.
41. Mutsuyuki U., J. S. Minton. , (1996), Habitat preference of Crested Serpent Eagles in southern Japan., Journal ofÂ RaptorÂ Research, 30: 99 - 100.
42. Naoroji R; , (1995), The raptors of India, Ornithological Society of India Bangalore, : 62 - 70.
43. Naoroji R; , (1994 ), Observations on the courtship, nesting and hunting behaviour of the Crested Serpent-eagle, , : 311.
44. Naoroji R; , (1994), Observations on the courtship, nesting and hunting behaviour of the Crested Serpent Eagle, Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 91:2: 311 - 313.
45. Nair MV; , (1994), Some random observations, Newsletter for Birdwatchers, 34:6: 131.
46. Choudhary A; , (1992 ), Sighting of a Burmese Crested Serpent-eagle in the north bank of the Brahmapura [sic], Newsletter for Birdwatchers, 32: 19.
47. Clark WS;Schmitt NJ; , (1992), Flight identification of indian raptors with pale bars on upper wings, Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 89:1: 1 - 3.
48. Choudhury A; , (1992), Sighting of a Burmese Crested Serpent Eagle in the north bank of the Brahmaputra, Newsletter for Birdwatchers, 32:5-6: 19.
49. Young L; , (1988 ), Love and death in a Chinese nature reserve, WPA News, 20: 14 - 17.
50. Ingalhallikar S; , (1988), Birds of Prey of Pune, Journal of Ecological Society, 1:: 59 - 65.
51. Harato T; , (1987 ), [Food habits and behavior of a fledgling of the Crested Serpent-eagle, Spilornis cheela perplexus , in Iriomote-jima Island, Okinawa], Island Studies in Okinawa, 5: 49 - 59.
52. Harato, T. , (1987), [Food habits and behavior of a fledgling of the Crested Serpent Eagle, Spilornis cheela perplexus, in Iriomote-jima Island, Okinawa.], Isl. Stud. Okinawa, 5: 49 - 58.
53. Naoroji R; , (1985), Notes on some common breeding raptors of the Rajpipla forest, Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 82:2: 278 - 308.
54. Naoroji, R. R. , (1985), Notes on some common breeding raptors of the Rajpipla Forest., Journal of Bombay Natural History Society, 82: 278 - 308.
55. Naoroji RK;Monga SG; , (1984 ), Observations on the Crested Serpent-eagle ( Spilornis cheela ) in Rajpipla forests - South Gujarat, , : 273.
56. Naoroji R; , (1984), Crested Serpent Eagle, The India Magazine, 4:10: 48.
57. Naoroji RK;Monga SG; , (1983), Observations on the Crested Serpent Eagle (Spilornis cheela) in Rajpipla forests - South Gujarat, Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 80:2: 273 - 285.
58. Kumar P; , (1983), Survey of the birds of Andhra Pradesh - 10, Mayura, 4:3: 5 - 7.
59. Zafar MM;Farooqui HU; , (1981 ), Redescription of Plagiorhynchus nicobarensis (Soota and Kansal, 1972) n. comb., with comments on Centrorhynchus spilornae Schmidt and Kuntz, 1969, Indian Journal of Parasitology, 5: 179 - 182.
60. Naoroji R; , (1981), The Crested Serpent Eagle, Sanctuary Asia, 1:: 88 - 94.
61. Saha SS;Dasgupta JM; , (1980 ), The Malayan Serpent-eagle, Spilornis cheela malayensis (Swann) in the Great Nicobar Island, an addition to the Indian aviafauna, Records of the Zoological Survey of India, 77: 224.
62. Saha SS;Dasgupta JM; , (1980), The Malayan Serpent Eagle, Spilornis cheela malayensis (Swann), in the Great Nicobar Island, an addition to the Indian avifauna, Records of the Zoological Survey of India, 77:1-4: 89 - 91.
63. Salim Ali; S Dillon RipleyÂ , (1978), No. 201. Nicobar Crested Serpent Eagle (Spilornis cheela minimus ) Hume, Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan; Oxford University Press, New Delhi, Volume 1 (Divers to Hawks ): 334.
64. Salim Ali; S Dillon RipleyÂ , (1978), No. 200. Andaman Pale Serpent Eagle (Spilornis cheela davisoni ) Hume, Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan; Oxford University Press, New Delhi, Volume 1 (Divers to Hawks ): 333.
65. Salim Ali; S Dillon RipleyÂ , (1978), No. 199. Burmese Crested Serpent Eagle (Spilornis cheela burmanicus ) Swann, Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan; Oxford University Press, New Delhi, Volume 1 (Divers to Hawks ): 333.
66. Salim Ali; S Dillon RipleyÂ , (1978), No. 198. Ceylon Crested Serpent Eagle (Spilornis cheela spilogaster ) (Blyth), Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan; Oxford University Press, New Delhi, Volume 1 (Divers to Hawks ): 332.
67. Salim Ali; S Dillon RipleyÂ , (1978), No. 197. Lesser or Peninsular Crested Serpent Eagle (Spilornis cheela melanotis ) Spilornis cheela melanotis , Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan; Oxford University Press, New Delhi, Volume 1 (Divers to Hawks ): 331.
68. Salim Ali; S Dillon RipleyÂ , (1978), No. 196. Crested Serpent Eagle (Spilornis cheela cheela ) (Latham), Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan; Oxford University Press, New Delhi, Volume 1 (Divers to Hawks ): 329.
69. Ali SA;Ali S; , (1977 ), Field guide to the birds of the eastern Himalayas, Dehli, London, New york. Oxford University Press, : 1 - 265.
70. Amadon D; , (1974 ), Taxonomic notes on the serpent-eagles of the genus Spilornis, Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club, 94: 159 - 163.
71. Amadon D; , (1974), Taxonomic notes on the Serpent-Eagles of the genus Spilornis, Bulletin of the British Ornithologists Club, 94:4: 159 - 163.
72. Osman SM; , (1972), The Crested Serpent Eagle, Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 69:3: 461 - 468.
73. Gay T; , (1970), A Serpent Eagle Spilornis cheela capturing its prey, Newsletter for Birdwatchers, 10:4: 11 - 12.
74. Tetsuo Takara ; Nagahisa Kuroda , (1969), Rare and new records of birds from the Ryu Kyu Is., Journal of the Yamashina Institute for Ornithology, 5:5: 547 - 562.
75. J. Cairns , (1968), THE SERPENT EAGLES SPILORNIS CHEELA OF PENANG ISLAND, MALAYA, Ibis, 110:4: 569 - 571.
76. Fleming RL;Traylor MA; , (1961 ), Notes on Nepal birds, Fieldiana Zoology, 35: 462 - 463.
77. Delacour J;Greenway J; , (1940 ), [VIIx Exped!tion Ornithologique en Indochine Fran aise: liste des oiseaux dans la Province du Haut-M kong et le Royaume de Luang-Prabang], L'Oiseau et la Revue Fran aise d'Ornithologie, 10:1-2: 1 - 77.
78. Dharmakumarsinhji KS; , (1939), The Indian Crested Serpent Eagle [Spilornis cheela cheela (Lath.)], Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 41:1: 177.
79. Donald CH; , (1920 ), Birds of prey of the Punjab. Part IV, Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 26: 1000 - 1020.
80. Baker ECS; , (1914), Some notes on tame Serpent Eagles. Spilornis cheela, Avicultural Magazine, 5:5: 154 - 159.
81. Whitehead CH; , (1906), Notes on the occurrence of certain birds in the plains of N.-W. India, Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 17:1: 243 - 244.
82. Daly M; , (1895), The southern indian harrier eagle, Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 09:4: 487.
83. Hume AO; , (1873), Nests and Eggs of Indian Birds, Office of Superintendent of Government Printing Calcutta, : 662.
84. Hume AO; , (1873), Additional remarks on the avifauna of the Andamans, Stray Feathers, 1:2,3&4: 304 - 310.
85. Bevan RC; , (1867 ), The avifauna of the Andaman Islands, Ibis, 3: 314 - 334.
86. Jerdon TC; , (1844), Supplement to the catalogue of birds of the peninsula of India, Madras Journal of Literature and Science, 13:: 156 - 174.
87. Temminck CJ; , (1820), , F.G. Levrault Paris, : .
Falco, apud Daudin - Blyth, Cat. 86 - Horsf., Cat. 62 - H. undulatus, Vigors, P. Z. S., 1831. - Gould, Cent. Him. Birds, pl. 1 - Circaetus undulatus, apud, Jeedon, Cat. 14 - C. Nipalensis, Hodgson, A. R. XVIII., Pt. 2, p. 20, pi. 2 - Buteo bacha apud Franklin, and Sykes, Cat. No. 9 - F. albidus, Cuvier, Temm, PI. col. 19 - (the young bird) - Buteo melanotis, Jerdon, Suppl., Cat. 21 ter. (the young) - Tilai baj, Beng., i. e., Spotted Hawk; also Sab-cheer, i. e. the full crested ditto - Furj baj, at Saharunpore - Nulla pamula gedda, Tel., i. e. the Dark Serpent Kite - Botta genda of the Gonds - Goom, Can. - Murayala, Mahr.
The Crested Serpent Eagle.
Descr. - Adult, head black, the feathers white on their basal portion, and for nearly two-thirds their length, showing a conspi- cuous full black and white crest; above hair brown, shoulders and lesser wing coverts with small white spots, the quills with broad dusky bands ; tail brown, mottled and clouded with white, and with two broad blackish bands ; beneath, chin to breast unspotted brown; thence to undertail coverts, pale brown, with whitish faint bars, and white ocelli; cere and orbits deep yellow ; irides bright yellow ; legs dirty yellow.
The young has the upper plumage brown, edged with pale rufous, the crest feathers having more white than the adult; the tail hoary brown, with three broad bars; quills brown, with darker bands, and the quills and medial wing coverts tipped white ; beneath pale whity buff; the feathers of the breast darkest, and centred with brown; ear coverts', and stripe beneath the eyes, deep black - One young specimen before me differs in having the whole of the color of the head and lower parts replaced by tawny buff or ferruginous.
Length of male 25 to 26 inches ; of a female 30 to 32. Of one of the latter dimensions the wing was 21 ; ext. 62 ; tail 14; tarsus 4 1/4 ; mid-toe and claw 2 3/4 ; bill at gape 2 1/8. The wings do not reach to the end of the tail by about 3 inches.
A very fine specimen from Darjeeling has the whole of the feathers of the upper plumage edged with whitish and rufous ; the lower parts pale tawny brown, the feathers of the throat and breast with brown marks, the chin white, with black streaks, and the ear feathers pure black; lower abdomen, flanks and thigh coverts, banded with white, dark edged, ocelli; under tail coverts banded brown and white. Length 30 inches ; wing 21; tail 12.
The Crested Serpent Eagle is found over all India, most numerous in jungly countries, but also by no means rare in well-wooded and irrigated districts. It extends into Assam and Burmah. It usually watches for its prey from a high tree, or sails slowly over the fields and woods. It lives chiefly on snakes, also on lizards, rats, large insects, and frogs. According to Mr. Blyth, it clutches these last out of the mud of shallow tanks, and its toes are very often covered with mud. It has a plaintive wild cry. It breeds on trees, making its nest of sticks; and lays two dirty white eggs, with a few dark specks.
Other species of Crested Serpent Eagles are S. Bacha of Daudin, (F. bido, Horsf.,) from Java and Sumatra; S. spilogaster, Bl., from Ceylon, and perhaps from S. India; and S. holospilus, Vigors, from the Philippines. The first of them is figured by Levaillant, Ois. d'Afrique, pl. 15, and was long thought to be African. But it does not occur in any of the authentic lists of African birds, though M. du Chaillu, the Gorilla-slayer, has it in his Fauna of Equatorial Africa. M. Le Vaillant, indeed, gives a long account of its habits, asserting it to be a great killer of the cape conies, (Hyrax capensis) and even syllabizes its cry; but I fear alas! that this does not prove its authenticity as an African bird any more than du Chaillu's insertion of it in the list of birds obtained by him. V. 'Ibis' vol. 2, for a critique on Le Vaillant's Birds of Africa.
5th. - Sea Eagles, or Fishing Eagles.
39. :- Jerdon's Birds of India, Vol. I, p. 78 ; Butler, Deccan, &c.; Stray Feathers, Vol. IX, p. 373 ; Murray's Vertebrate Zoology of Sind, p. 80; Hume's Scrap Book, p. 222.
The Crested Serpent Eagle,
Length, 26 to 28 ; expanse, 58 to 63 ; wing, 18.5 to 20; tail, 12 to 13 ; tarsus, 3.9 to 4.3 ; bill from gape, 1.9.
Length, 29 to 32; expanse, 67.5 to 73; wing, 19.5 to 21; tail, 14 to 15 ; tarsus, 4.15 to 4.5 ; bill from gape, 2.12.
Cere and orbits deep yellow; irides bright yellow; legs dirty yellow.
Adult: head black, the feathers white on their basal portion, and for nearly two-thirds their Length, showing a conspicuous full black and white crest; above hair-brown; shoulders and lesser wing-coverts with small white spots, the quills with broad dusky bands; tail brown, mottled and clouded with white, and with two broad blackish bands; beneath chin to breast unspotted brown; thence to under tail-coverts pale brown, with whitish faint bars, and white ocelli.
The young bird has the upper plumage brown, edged with pale rufous, the crest feathers having more white than the adult; the tail hoary-brown, with three broad bars; quills brown, with darker bands, and the quills and medial wing-coverts tipped white; beneath pale whity-buff; the feathers of the breast darkest, and centred with brown; ear-coverts, and stripe beneath the eyes, deep black.
The Crested Serpent or Indian Harrier Eagle is very rare ; one was obtained at Savantvadi by Mr. Crawford, and another in Sind by Mr. Blanford. These are, I believe, the only recorded instances of its occurrence within our limits.
39bis. :- Butler, Deccan, &c.; Stray Feathers, Vol. IX, p. 373; Hume's Scrap Book, p. 230.
The Southern Harrier Eagle differs perceptibly from S. cheela of Upper India; the wings of the latter vary in the males from 18.5 to nearly 20 inches, and in the females from 19.5 to nearly 21; while in this present species they vary in the males from 17 to barely 18 inches, and in the females from 18 to 18.5 inches; the lower parts also are somewhat less conspicuously ocellated, and the barring on the breast, so conspicuous in adult cheela, is almost entirely wanting.
The Southern Harrier Eagle is a permanent resident and is not uncommon in the hilly tracts and jungles along the Western Ghats, but has not been recorded from elsewhere within our limits.
Lath. Ind. Orn. i. p. 14 ; Bp. Consp. i. p_. 17 ; Strickl. Orn. Syn. p. 17; Jerd. Birds of Ind. i. p. 77, No. 39; Hume, Rough Notes, i. p. 222; Hume, S. F. i. p. 306; Sharpe, Cat. Acc. p. 287; Murray, Hdbk. Zool. &c. Sind, p. 110; id. Vert. Zool. Sind, p. 80. Circaetus cheela, Gray, Cat. Acc. p. 18.-
Jerd. Madras Journ. xiii. p. 165 ; Sharpe, Cat. Acc. B. M. p. 289, Sub-sp. a; Davison and Wenden, Stray F. vol. vii. sp. 74; Ball. id. p. 199; Vidal, Stray F. ix. p. 33 ; Butler, id. ix. p. 373 Haematornis spilogaster, Blv. F. A. S. B. xvi. p. 351. Spilornis spilogaster, Blanf. F. A. S. B. 1871, p. 270. Spilornis davisoni, Hume, Stray F. i. pp. 305, 422 ; id. iv. pp. 281, 358. Spilornis rutherfordi, Swinh. Ibis, 1870, p. 85 ; id. P. Z. S. 1871 ; Wald. Ibis, 1870, p. 298. Spilornis bacha. Holds, (non Le Vaill) P. Z. S. 1872, p. 412.-
The Crested Serpent-Eagle,
Spilornis cheela (Daud,), Jerd. B, Ind. i, p. 77; Hume, Rough Draft N. & E. no. 89.
The Crested Serpent-Eagle, or, as it should perhaps more properly be called, the Indian Harrier-Eagle, breeds throughout the Sub-Himalayan ranges and regions, as far west at any rate as Kangra, at heights of from 1500 to 5500 feet above the sea-level, laying m March, April, and May.
The nest is, I believe, always placed on trees in the immediate vicinity of water, not at the top of the tree, but in some fork, as Major Cock says, " like that of the common Kite."
It is circular, loosely made of thicker or thinner sticks and twigs, and lined with fresh leaves or fine twigs and roots of grass; it varies in size from 1.5 to 2 feet in diameter, and from 4 to 8 inches in thickness.
They lay, I should say, usually only one egg, but in the Doon, where they are plentiful, natives assert that they not infrequently have two young ones, and must therefore, if this be true, occasionally at least lay two eggs.
The late Major Cock sent me the following note in regard to the nidification of this species ; - " I have taken, or rather found, four nests of this species in the neighbourhood of Dhurumsala, at heights of from 4000 to 4200 feet above the sea. The first, which I found on the 3rd of April, contained one semi-incubated egg, and was placed on a mango-tree, one of a clump of four, situated on the banks of a stream in tolerably well-wooded country. The second, found April 8th, contained one hard-set egg, and was also in a mango-tree, one belonging to a small grove, overhanging a tiny stream, in a dark well-shaded situation.
" The third, found April 11th, contained a perfectly fresh egg ; it was in a thick grove beside which a stream runs, and in which two old nests of this same species were also found."
The fourth contained no egg, but on the 19th of April was complete and ready to lay in ; this, too, was in a grove overhanging a stream.
" The nest is about halfway up the tree, not on the top, but placed, more like the nest of the common Kite, on some fork."
" It builds a peculiar and not very large nest. The nests are always made of the twigs of the tree on which it is placed, fresh twigs broken off by the bird, and the lining of the nest is of leaves of the same tree. No feathers, mud, or other material are used in the construction of the nest, which is about 1.5 foot across ; the hollow in which the eggs are laid is rather deeper than is usual with birds of this class."
Captain Hutton sent me the following note :-
" Spilornis cheela. The nest was found on the 10th of March at 5500 feet of elevation; it was composed of dry sticks and small branches interlaced on a tall tree; on visiting it again, we found that some mischievous urchin had pulled it to pieces, which they are constantly in the habit of doing. This bird is common both in the Doon and hills, and where a pair take up their quarters, no fowl or pigeon can escape ; I have had a dove-cot cleaned out over and over again by them. They are cunning hunters, one sweeping over the hill-side at no great elevation, while the other takes a higher line, so that let the pigeon ascend or descend, he always finds himself between two fires, and unless he can find shelter in a tree he is sure to be caught, as the pursuers decrease the distance between their lines and meet the victim at the point."
Mr. Thompson says:- " This species breeds from April to June, building a coarse circular nest some 2 feet in diameter, composed of thick roots and stems, and lined with finer twigs and grass- roots. The nest is usually placed on lofty trees, in well-wooded, shady and watered ravines, or in the low Himalayan rice-lands and warmer valleys. I have found the nests of these birds in the lower valleys. They contained one young usually. I have never got the eggs."
Mr. J. C. Parker sends me the following note from Bengal:- " One egg from a nest in a peepul-tree, Magra lake, Nuddea. As regards colour this egg so nearly resembles the description given by yourself of a common variety of this species in 'Nests and Eggs,' that I need say no more, and as to the position of the neat in the tree, it exactly corresponded with that given by Major Cock in the same work. The nest as viewed from below seemed a small poor affair, composed of large sticks, and was found to be lined with the fresh leaves of the tree ; and when first discovered on 23rd February, I took it to be unfinished, but there did not appear to be anything added to the structure when I secured the egg, which was quite fresh, on the 18th March, shooting the female from the nest."
The first two eggs that I obtained of this species, both of which were taken by Major Cock near Dhurumsala, differed much in appearance. The one, though considerably larger than average specimens, and with a closer and less chalky texture, greatly reminded One of a common type of the eggs of Neophron ginginianus while the Other, though of course smaller, in shape and richness of colouring resembled some of the more brilliantly coloured eggs of the Golden Eagle. The first egg had a dingy reddish-white ground, with at the large end a ragged cap of dingy brick-red, mottled with deep blackish blood-red. Beyond the cap, which was of the size of a rupee, streaks, specks and splashes, all having a longitudinal direction and looking much like a dense reddish-brown shower fading from the cap, thickly covered the whole of the rest of the egg, growing less and less dense towards the small end.
The Other had a pure white ground, and was thickly blotched, mottled, and clouded with the richest blood- and brick-red. The big end, for the space of about a rupee, exhibits no markings but a few specks and spots, and though the rest of the egg is everywhere pretty thickly covered, the markings are most dense at the small end. In shape, the one egg is a nearly perfect ellipse slightly pointed towards the small end, but the other egg is a very broad oval, very obtuse at the large end and scarcely less so at the smaller extremity.
Subsequently I have seen many of these eggs, and I may say generally that they are broad ovals, in some specimens somewhat pyriform, and in many a good deal pointed towards the small end. The texture of the shell is much that of the egg of the common Kite, rather rough and glossless. The ground is bluish or greenish, more rarely reddish white - in some thinly and scantily speckled and spotted with reddish brown and red; in some sparingly clouded and dingily blotched with pale purple or purplish brown; in Others with the markings denser and richer, forming at times a confluent brick-dust red cap at the larger end, mottled with deep red, and the whole of the rest of the surface thickly streaked and speckled and spotted with brownish red and purple.
In length they vary from 2.62 to 2.88 inches, and in breadth from 2.12 to 2.25; but the average of a dozen eggs is 2.78 by 2.2 inches nearly.
Spilornig minor, Hume ; Hume, Rough Draft N. & E. no. 39 bis.
Spilornis melanotis (Jerd.), Hume, Cat. no. 39 bis.
Jerdon's Serpent-Eagle breeds in the neighbourhood of Raipoor, where in May Mr. F. R. Blewitt obtained a nest containing two eggs. He says: - " When the nest was robbed, the female was sitting on the eggs, and the male was perched on a branch near to the nest. The nest was near to the top of a large peepul-tree, between the forks of a branch, overhanging a small stream. The nest was composed of prickly and other twigs, some 20 inches in diameter and 4 or 5 inches in thickness. It was densely lined with green leaves, peepul and mango. These were formed into a pad, some 12 inches in diameter and fully 2 inches thick."
These two eggs are of somewhat the same type, but decidedly smaller and feebler coloured than those of S. cheela. They are very regular ovals; the ground a dull white and totally glossless, and the texture of the shell, as in the last species, rather coarse and chalky. The one is rather thinly speckled and spotted all over with very dull dingy brownish red ; the other has about half a dozen tiny spots of this colour and a number of very pale washed-out brownish-purple clouds, almost confined to the two ends, large at the large and small at the small end. They both measure 2-68 inches in length and 2.05 and 2 inches in breadth respectively”.
Mr. G. Vidal writes from the Southern Konkan :- " The only eggs of this species' I have were taken from two nests on the 18th and 20th March. They measure, respectively, 2.75 by 2.25 and 2.65 by 2.22, and are broad white ovals, slightly pointed at the small end, streaked all over with reddish brown, and with a confluent cap of the same shade at the large end."
Spilornis rutherfordi, Swinh., Hume, Cat. no. 39 ter.
Of the nidification of this Serpent-Eagle in Tenasserim, Major Bingham writes :- " Wherever there is a quin (i. e. marsh) or large patches of wet paddy cultivation, a pair of these Harrier-Bagles are almost certain to be found.
" It is very common in the Thoungyeen valley, where, on the 14th March this year, I revisited a nest I had had marked down for me in February, and took from it a solitary egg, measuring 2.57 by 2.08 - in fact rather a broad oval of a dull white ground, blotched, clouded, and dashed with pale purple and rusty red, the purple forming a dull cap of irregular shape over nearly half the egg at the larger end. The nest, which was placed some 70 feet up a kanyin tree (Dipterocarpus alatus), was composed of large branches, laid across iu a fork, with a superstructure of small sticks intertwined in a circular form, and the hollow in which the egg reposed lined with very fine twigs ; the whole mass may have been some three and a half feet in diameter and one and a half foot thick."
Mr. J. R. Cripps found the nest of this bird at Furreedpore in Eastern Bengal. He says:- " The bird shot on the 1 st April was incubating. The nest was on a bael (AEgle marmelos) tree, and within 4 feet of the outer end of one of the primary branches which grew out perfectly horizontally, and about 15 feet off the ground. She flew off the nest and settled on a bombax tree close by, when I knocked her over ; nest of twigs of sizes with a lining of fresh bael-leaves; one very hard-set egg. Found a frog in the gullet of this bird. Their principal food, however, is snakes. One day I watched a bird finishing a snake, two feet long, in five minutes. They commence at the head and go on tearing and swallowing until all is done. They are very fearless birds, allowing me to pass within twenty feet of them when sitting on the ground with snakes in their claws. On one occasion, when out Snipe-shooting, one of these birds stooped at a wounded Snipe but missed it. They are permanent residents. Their cry has a mournful sound, and, although not very loud, can be heard when the bird is flying high overhead."
The egg taken by Major Bingham is a very regular and broad oval, with a rather smooth shell and a white ground with an immense confluent cap of dingy rufous brown, extended as a shower of blotches, smears, and clouds over the whole of the rest of the egg. Here and there the markings have a dull purplish tinge. I have seen Neophron eggs not very different in appearance from this one. The egg taken by Mr. Cripps is a regular moderately broad oval, just appreciably pointed towards one end; the shell is dull, coarse, and full of pores and entirely glossless. The ground is greyish white, and it is pretty thickly sprinkled over the upper half of the egg, and more thickly elsewhere, with small irregular patches and blotches of a dull pale yellowish brown. Doubtless very much brighter coloured examples occur. It measures 2.51 by 2.
The Ceylon Serpent-Eagle.
Spilomis spilogaster (Bl.), Hume, Cat. no. 39 bis A.
Of this somewhat doubtful species. Colonel Legge writes in his ' Birds of Ceylon ':- " The nest of this Eagle has very seldom been found; and the eggs I have never been able to procure. It breeds in the Western Province in March and April, Mr. MacVicar, of the Ceylon Public Works Department, having received a young bird taken from a nest in the Hewagam Korale in the latter month. The nest was described to me as being a large structure of sticks placed in the fork of a tree.
" Layard, who was very fortunate in finding the nests of rare birds, remarks that ' it builds in the recesses of the forest on lofty trees. The structure is a mass of sticks piled together and added to year by year. The eggs, generally two in number, are 3 inches in length by 2 in diameter, of a dirty chalk-white, minutely freckled at the obtuse end with black dots.”
The Crested Serpent-Eagle.
Furj baj, Dogra Chil, H. (Sabaranpur); Tilai baj, Sabchur, B.; Nalla pamula gedda, Tel; Botta Genda, Gond; Goom, Can.; Murayala, Mahr.; Rajaliya, Cing.; Kadumbien, Tam. (Ceylon); Doun-zoon, Bunnese.
Coloration. Adult. Crown and nape with full crest black, basal half or more of the feathers white; nape-feathers generally tipped with brown; lores nearly naked, bearing a few black bristles only; car-coverts blackish ashy; upper parts dark brown with a rich purple or ruddy gloss; smaller wing-coverts blackish, generally with small white spots ; quills blackish, with three bars brown above, whitish below, that farthest from the base of the feathers is by far the broadest, and is 3 or 4 inches from the tips, the basal two are sometimes confluent; upper tail-coverts tipped white, as are sometimes the back-feathers, scapulars, and secondary quills; tail brown at the base, thence almost black, with one broad white or whity-brown bar, tip pale; lower parts brown, sometimes dark umber, sometimes pale and tawny, sometimes rufous ; chin and throat more or less tinged or streaked with black or ashy; fore-neck and upper breast, as a rule, closely barred with pale brown; lower breast and abdomen, flanks, under wing-coverts, and axillaries ornamented with ocelli that are white surrounded with dark brown, these spots passing into dark-edged cross-bars, more or less broken, on the vent, thigh-coverts, and lower tail-coverts. The variation in the Coloration of the lower parts and in size is unusually great in this Eagle.
In young birds the crown and nape-feathers are white, with black and brown tips; the upper plumage of various shades of brown, the ends of the feathers generally darker, and the base white, many feathers with white tips ; lower parts, including the wing-lining, white with dark shafts or shaft-stripes on the breast; the whitish bars on the wings and tail are more numerous than in adults, generally there are 2 well-marked pale bands on the tail beyond the coverts.
As the bird grows older bars and ocelli appear on the lower parts. When nearly adult, there is still much white on the wing-lining, and remains of the second pale tail-bar may often be traced even in full-grown birds. In the intermediate stage the chin is very black, there are still dark shaft-stripes to the barred breast-feathers, and sometimes a few small white ocelli on the upper breast.
Bill plumbeous, bluish black at tip and on culmen; cere, skin of lores, and gape bright, or in some dingy lemon-yellow; irides intense yellow ; legs and feet pale dingy yellow.
Distribution. Throughout the Oriental region in suitable places, ascending the Himalayas to 4000 or 5000 feet. Very rare in the north-west of India, but I have seen this bird even in the Sind hills. There are several well-marked races so different in size and Coloration as to have been generally kept distinct; these are:—
(1) Typical S. cheela. This is the largest form—length about 29 inches; tail 13; wing 20 ; tarsus 4; bill from gape 1.9 : male rather smaller than female in general, but there is no constant difference. The breast and fore-neck are closely and distinctly barred, sometimes the throat also, the chin and throat are often black, and in adults there is a single broad whitish band on the tail. This form is found in Northern India from Sind and Kashmir to Bengal, especially at the base of the Himalayas, and stragglers have been met with throughout the Peninsula, there being one from Mysore in the Hume collection.
The race found in Assam, Cachar, and Burma is by Hume, rightly, I think, identified with the Hainan S. rutherfordi. The breast is generally barred, though less distinctly than in typical S. cheela, and the barring becomes less distinct in many Southern specimens. The chin and throat are dark ashy grey. As a rule, there is a second pale tail-bar, less distinct than the posterior one, just beyond the coverts; wings 17 to 18 inches long in Assamese and North-Burmese birds, in Tenasserim specimens the whole length is 23 to 28, tail 9.5 to 11, wing 15.25 to 18, tarsus 3.5 to 3.62.
The Andaman race S. davisoni, specimens of which have also been obtained in the Nicobars. This is simply a miniature of S. rutherfordi. Length 22 to 24, tail 10, wing 15, tarsus 3.7, bill from gape 1.7. Some Tenasserim specimens seem undistinguishable.
Further south, in the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, and Borneo, is another small form, S. pallidas, Walden (Ibis, 1872, p. 363; Cat. B. M. i, p. 290, pl. ix), without any bars on the breast; wing about 14.
Habits, &c. This Eagle is usually found on trees near water, especially the fine trees along irrigation-channels and canals in Upper India, and along stream-beds in the lower Himalayas and in the Central Provinces and Southern India. It may also be seen soaring and may be at once recognized by the strongly marked bars on its wings and tail, and by its loud plaintive cry, which it frequently utters on the wing. It feeds on snakes, lizards, and frogs, occasionally on small mammals, on birds, and on insects. It breeds on trees in March, April, and May, making a nest of sticks about 2 feet in diameter, lined with a pad of green leaves. It lays usually one egg, sometimes two, more or less densely streaked and spotted with brownish red and purple, and measuring about 2.78 by 2.2.
The Little Nicobar Serpent-Eagle.
Spilornis minimus, Hume, S. F. i, p. 404; ii, p. 149; iv, p. 282; id. Cat. no. 39 sept.; Gurney, Ibis, 1878, p. 101.
Coloration. Adult. Crown and nape black, the feathers white at the base and for more than half their length; upper parts dull umber-brown, with little or no metallic gloss ; quills blackish at the end, then a broad bar pale brown below, brown above, next a blackish bar narrower than the pale one, then another pale band, inner webs above this mostly white; tail blackish brown, with two paler brown bars; ear-coverts and lower parts brown, but paler than back; upper breast without bars; lower breast, abdomen, and thigh-coverts with broad white spots, the borders of the spots scarcely darker than the spaces between; inner wing-coverts chiefly white.
Young very similar to that of S. cheela.
Bill light blue, dark horny at tip; cere, gape, orbital skin, and irides bright yellow; legs and feet also yellow (Hume).
Length about 19; tail 8; wing 11.5; tarsus 3; bill from gape 1.6.
Distribution. The Nicobar Islands, whence several specimens were obtained by Mr. Hume.
The Lesser Serpent-Eagle.
Falco albidus Temm., Pl. Col., iv, pl. 19 (1824) (Pondicherry). Spilornis cheela. Blanf. & Oates, iii, p. 357.
Vernacular names. Walla pamula gedda (Tel.); Botta Genda (Gond.)* Goom (Can.); Murayala (Mahr.).
Description. Similar to S. c. cheela but rather smaller; the upper breast is generally uniform, the white spots not reaching so high and the barring being obsolete; the chin and throat never appear to become black but are grey or grey-brown in very old birds; the tail in adults nearly always has two pale bands, though that at the base is sometimes indistinct; the underparts are normally less rufescent.
Colours of soft parts as in the other races.
Measurements, Wing 421 to 461 mm.; tail 275 to 310 mm.; tarsus 94 to 101 mm.; culmen 42 to 46 mm.
Distribution. Practically all India South of the Himalayas. Specimens from Bengal can be distinguished by their rufous under plumage, similar to that of the Himalayan birds. On the other hand, their small size seems to link them with the Southern form. They are very close to S. c. burmanicus but have the long terminal black band to the primaries, as in S. cheela cheela.
Nidification. Stewart found this Eagle breeding in some numbers in the Plains of Travancore from December to March, and Vidal took nests in the latter month in the Konkan. Further North it breeds later. Irvine took eggs in Chota Nagpore in April and May, whilst in Rungpur I took one egg in September, perhaps an abnormal time. The nest is like that of the preceding bird and the eggs only differ in being smaller and, as a series, less richly coloured. Thirty eggs average 65.7 x 50.9 mm.: maxima 72.4 x 52.4 and 68.1 x 54.3 mm.; minima 61.1 X 48.7 mm.
Habits. Those of the species. Stewart found both this form and S. c. spilogaster in Travancore but the present race kept entirely to the plains whereas the Ceylon form kept entirely to the hills. He at first thought the two forms were S. c. cheela and S. c. albidus but an examination of the skins proved them to be the latter form and S. c. spilogaster, the latter race being very common in the hills of South Travancore.
The Burmese C rested Serpent-Eagle.
Spilornis cheela burmanicus Kirke-Swann, Synopsis Accip., 2nd ed. p. 81 (1920) (Thyetmyo, Burma). Spilornis cheela. Blanf. & Oates, iii, p. 357 (part.).
Vernacular names. Doun-zoon, Lin-yen (Burmese); Sin (Assam).
Description. A rather smaller, paler race than typical cheela ; the white spots on the lower plumage are larger and more conspicuous, the black adjoining spots are paler and less conspicuous; the terminal black band on the primaries is not quite so broad.
Colours of soft parts the same in all races.
Measurements. Wing 408 to 463 mm.*
Distribution. Burma, South to Tavoy, North to Shan States, Ruby Mines District, Chin Hills and Assam South of the Brahmapootra. Hume identified this form with the similar but much smaller Hainan race rutherfordi, which does not occur within our limits.
Nidification. Harington obtained a nest of this species with one egg on the 26th March, built high up against the trunk of a big tree in dense forest; Hopwood took another on the 14th February in the Lower Chindwin; Bingham took an egg in Tenasserim in March; a fourth egg was taken by myself in Silchar in May. These four eggs measure 67.9 x 58.2, 73.1 x 56.0, 69.3 x 57.1 and 66.3 x 54.0 mm. One egg is white with a little stippling of light, red at the larger end, the second is lightly clouded and blotched with pale purple-red at this end and the others are handsomely marked all over with dark red.
Habits. Exactly the same as those of the typical form.
* Possibly the bigger birds are wandering specimens of S. o. cheela, as there are very few over 450 mm. and these from, the Western area only.
The Indian Crested Serpent-Eagle.
Falco cheela Lath., Ind. Orn., i, p. 14 (1790) (Lucknow). Spilornis cheela. Blanf. & Oates, iii, p. 357 (part.).
Vernacular names. Fury baj, Dogra chil (Hind. Sabaranpore) ; Tilai baj, Sabchur (Beng.); Sin (Assam).
Description. Crown, nape and full crest black, the white bases of the feathers showing through more or less, the feathers of the nape edged with fulvous-brown and those of the posterior crown to a lesser degree; upper parts dark brown, often with a distinct gloss; lesser wing-coverts blackish-brown with white spots ; other wing-coverts like the back, sometimes, perhaps in younger birds, with narrow white edges; quills blackish-brown with a broad paler brown band near the end and two narrower bands below this, inner webs mottled and marked with white on the inner webs below the notches; there are also narrow white tips to the quills in freshly-moulted birds; upper tail-coverts tipped white; tail black, narrowly tipped whitish, brownish at the base and with one broad pale brown or white band across the centre; lower parts rufous or tawny-brown; chin and throat ashy-brown with narrow rufous bars and tips; the breast generally all brown or grey-brown with little barring and very narrow rufous fringes; remainder of lower parts with white spots, having black patches above and below them ; on the abdomen these spots and patches become more like bars, whilst on the lower tail-coverts they appear as alternate bars of brown, white and black.
Colours of soft parts. Iris golden yellow; bill slaty-blue, nearly black on the culmen and tip ; cere and lores yellow, brighter in the breeding-season, rather dull and dingy at other times ; legs and feet dull yellow, the tarsi naked and covered with hexagonal scales, claws black.
Measurements. Wing 468 to 507 mm.; tail 295 to 315 mm. tarsus 100 to 102 mm.; culmen 41 to 45 mm. The sexes in this genus do not differ in size.
Young birds have the feathers of the head, nape and crest fulvous-white, with dark brown sub-apical patches ; the upper parts are brown, often paler than in the adult, with broad white fringes; the inner wing-coverts have broad white edges and broken bars ; the tail has six bands of dark brown and pale brown, the latter often mottled with white; the lower parts are at first white, sullied brownish-white or fulvous-white with a few dark streaks on the breast and flanks; the bars on the wings are more numerous than in the adult.
The occellated brown under plumage seems to be acquired before the upper adult plumage but the chin and throat remain white for some time.
Distribution. Northern India from Sind and Kashmir to Eastern Assam but not the extreme East of Assam or to the countries South of the Brahmapootra. Birds from extreme Eastern Bengal are somewhat intermediate between the typical form and Kirke-Swann's burmanicus and the Southern Indian albidus.
Nidification. This magnificent Eagle breeds from the foot-hills up to some 7,000 feet in the Himalayas, building a large stick-nest high up on some tall forest-tree, preferably one standing by a stream or some natural opening. Some nests are well lined with green leaves, others quite unlined. The eggs, of which one only is laid, are very handsome. The ground is white, creamy white, or very faintly yellowish white and they are boldly blotched with rich brown and red-brown, with sparse secondary markings of lavender and purple-grey. In a few eggs the markings are more clouds than blotches and the underlying lavender blotches better defined; in most eggs the markings are more numerous at the larger end, in some confined entirely to it and in others distributed over the whole egg. Sixteen eggs average 71.8 x 56.2 mm.: maxima 77.3 X 57.6 mm,; minima 66.3 x 52.7 mm. The birds breed principally in May and June but some lay as early as February.
Habits. This Serpent-Eagle is found both in forests and in the open country round them, spending most of the time soaring at an immense height, often invisible to human sight. Their own sight must be very marvellous, for a pair of these birds which I had tame, though unrestrained in any way, would recognise me as I walked or rode home, though they themselves were quite out of sight. The first notice I had of their presence was the loud screaming cry, commencing with two or three loud " kok-koks " and then specks would appear in sight high above me, gradually enlarging as they sailed down in wide circles to within a few feet of me, or actually alighted on my shoulder. They feed much on snakes and will attack those of great size. The rat-snake, even when as big as 7 or 8 feet, are tackled and killed with ease and they seem to destroy poisonous snakes with as little fear as the harmless ones. When no snakes are to be found they will eat reptiles, birds of all kind up to the size of the largest pheasants, partridges and ducks and also grubs and the larger insects.
* I have not seen any specimen of S. klossi but from the description can find no character which could be used to define it as a species from S. cheela.
The Pale Andaman Serpent-Eagle.
Spilornis davisoni Hume, Str. Feath., i, p. 307 (1873) (South Andamans) Spilornis cheela. Blanf. & Oates, iii, p. 357 (part.).
Vernacular names. None recorded.
Description. Very similar to S. c. spilogaster but somewhat browner above with less purple tinge; the breast is generally more distinctly barred.
Colours of soft parts as in the other races.
Measurements. Wing 374 to 407 mm.; culmen 37 to 41 mm.
Distribution. Andaman Islands.
Habits, Hume and Davison say that the habits are exactly the same as those of the typical form.
The Great Nicobar Serpent-Eagle.
Spilornis klossi Richmond, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., xxv, pp. 304-5 (1902) (Great Nicobar).
Vernacular names. None recorded.
Description. " General colour above... drab with a slight coppery sheen and some of the feathers with narrow white tips ; nape and sides of the neck Isabella colour; top of head black, the longer feathers with narrow tips of Isabella colour; ear-coverts, cheeks and malar region clear smoke-grey; throat buffy-white with an indistinct median stripe of smoke-grey ; breast buffy wood-brown, paler on abdomen, sides, thighs and under tail-coverts; lesser and middle wing-coverts dark drab, prominently edged with white; primaries black with two dusky bars, one only on the outer primary; tail with two pale bars."
Colours of soft parts. " Iris yellow; cere, base of bill and naked skin on sides of head yellow; bill, tip black, middle bluish
Measurements. "Wing 257 mm.; tail 165 mm.; tarsus 75 mm.; culmen 33 mm."
Immature birds "have buffy tips to the feathers of head, back and wing-coverts; the tail has three bars instead of two." (Taken from original descriptions by Richmond.)
Distribution. Great Nicobar.
Habits. Richmond records that the stomachs of the birds obtained by Kloss contained the remains of lizards, rats, a small bird and an Emerald Dove.
The Nicobar Serpent-Eagle.
Spilornis minimus Hume, Stv. Feath., i, p. 464 (1873) (Camorta, Nicobars); Blanf. & Oates, iii, p. 361.
Vernacular names. None recorded.
Description. This is the smallest and palest oE all forms of Spilornis cheela except the next. The upper parts are paler grey or brown; the breast is greyish-brown and unbarred in old birds, the chin and throat the same colour as the breast. The apical black band on the primaries is short, under two inches in breadth.
Colours of soft parts. Iris yellow ; bill light blue, dark horny at the tip; cere, gape and orbital skin bright yellow; legs and feet yellow.
Measurements. Wing 286 to 290 mm.; tail 191 to 192 mm.; tarsus about 75 to 77 mm.; culmen 35 to 37 mm.
Distribution. Nicobars ; Camorta and Nancowry Islands. Nidification unknown.
Habits. Those of the species. Davison records that this lit tie Eagle was very wild and shy and was only found in forest near rivers, etc. and that it did not frequent the shores and openings.
The Chinese Serpent-Eagle.
Spilornis cheela ricketti Sclater, Bull. B. O. C., xl, p. 37 (1919) (Yamakan, Fokien). Spilornis cheela. Blanf. & Oates, iii, p. 357.
Vernacular names. Doun-zoon (Burmese).
Description. Differs from S. c. cheela in having both upper and lower parts rather paler, the back being a paler ashy-brown with a purple-brown gloss ; the cheeks are grey and the chin and throat never black but either grey or brown, concolorous with the breast; the spots on the abdomen are very white and conspicuous but the adjoining dark markings paler and less conspicuous than in cheela ; the terminal black primary band is dark, as in that race.
Colours of soft parts as in the other races.
Measurements. Wing 455 to 490 mm.; culmen 41 to 45 mm.
Distribution. South China from Amoy to North-East Burma.
Nidification. Nothing recorded.
Habits. Those of the species.
The Ceylon Serpent-Eagle.
Haematornis spilogaster Blyth, J. A. S. B., xxi, p. 351 (1852) (Ceylon). Spilornis cheela. Blanf. & Oates, iii, p. 357 (part.).
Vernacular names. Rajaliya (Cing.); Kalumbien (Tam., Ceylon).
Description. Smaller than any of the preceding forms; upper parts brown but with a stronger purple-grey tinge than in any of the Northern forms; throat very grey; breast browner than in the other races and immaculate ; remainder of lower parts browner and less rufescent than in S. c. cheela, darker than in ricketti or burmanicus.
Colours of soft parts as in the other races.
Measurements. Wing 355 to 402 mm.; culmen 38 to 45 mm.
Distribution. Ceylon and South Travancore. According to Stewart this small form is resident in the wetter evergreen forests at the lowest elevations and sea-level, whereas albidus is confined to the higher and dryer ranges where the forest is almost deciduous. A very small specimen from Khandesh, with a wing of 394 mm., seems to be nearest this race and is probably only a non-breeding wanderer so far north.
Nidification. Stewart took many of the nests of this bird in South Travancore, though he at first attributed them to S. c. albidus and the larger eggs which he took in the plains to S. c. cheela. The mistake was rectified by Kirke-Swann, who examined the skins. Nests and eggs are like those of the other forms but three eggs taken by Phillips in Ceylon are of a beautiful type very uncommon in the other races. The ground is white and the eggs are well-marked with small blotches of purple-red with secondary markings of lavender-grey. Twenty-two eggs average 62.8 x 49.4 mm.: maxima 65.5 x 47.2 and 64.7 X 51.0 mm.; minima 59.3 x 49.0 and 65.5 x 47.2 mm. Stewart remarks that this bird breeds in far denser forest than does S. c. albidus and whilst that bird nearly always makes its nest on a tree near water, the Ceylon Serpent-Eagle builds on trees far away from it.
Habits. Similar to those of the other races. In Travancore this bird keeps invariably to the hills, never breeding below 500 feet and generally at about 2,000 feet. It is found in Ceylon over the greater part of the island and is common in many parts. It feeds on snakes but also very often on bull-frogs, gliding on to these from a perch in a deeply-shaded tree and, though its nest may be far from water, its daily hunting look-out is of necessity over some pool, lake or river.
Haematornis cheela cheela Latham.
Falco cheela Latham, Index Orn., vol. i, p. 14, 1790: India— Lucknow.
Haematornis undulatus Gould, Century of Birds, pl. i, 1831.
Circaetus nipalensis Hodg., Asiat. Res., vol. xviii, pt. 2, p. 17, 1833: Nepal.
Buteo melanotus Jerdon, Madr. Jour. Lit. Sci., vol. xiii, p. 166, 1844.
Circaetus mithilensis, tarayensis, and maculatior Gray, Cat. Birds Nepal, p. 42, 1846, ex Hodgs., Zool. Misc., p. 81, 1844, nomina nuda, as synonym.
Spilornis davisoni Hume, Str. Feath., vol. i, p. 307, Feb. 1873 : Andamans.
Spilornis klossi Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. xxv, p. 304, 1902 : Great Nicobars.
Spilornis minimus Hume, Str. Feath., vol. i, p. 464, 1873: Camorta, Nicobars.
Spilornis minor Hume, Nests & Eggs Ind. Birds, p. 42, 1873.
Falco albidus Temm. & Laug., Planch. Color. d'Ois., livr. 4, pl. xix., Nov. 1820: Pondicherry ; not Falco albidus Gmelin, 1788, p. 267.
Spilornis cheela ricketti Sclater, Bull. B. O. C., vol, xl, p. 37, 1919 : Fokien.
Haematornis cheela spilogaster Blyth, J. A. S. B., vol. xxi, p. 351, 1852: Ceylon.
HAEMATORNIS CHEELA (Latham)
Length 28 inches. Sexes alike. A short full crest black, the basal half of the feathers white ; upper plumage dark brown with a dull purplish gloss, some feathers tipped with white ; flight-feathers blackish with three bars brown above whitish below ; tail brown and black with the tip pale and a broad conspicuous whitish band ; lower parts brown, spotted with numerous white ocelli and barred finely with dark brown, there being great variation in the tints of the colour.
Iris intense yellow; bill plumbeous, blackish above and at tip ; cere, conspicuous bare skin in front of the eyes, and the gape yellow ; legs dingy yellow.
The bill is rather long and deeply hooked ; wings short and rounded ; tail rather long ; legs strong, the tarsus bare of feathers.
The full crest mixed with white, the peculiar purplish-brown coloration with the white ocelli beneath, the broad white bar in the tail and the barred wings are most distinctive ; these points combined with the noisy whistling calls render this Eagle easier than most to identify.
The Crested Serpent-Eagle is widely distributed in the Oriental Region from the Western Himalayas to Southern China, and is divided into a number of well-marked races ; those in India illustrate to a remarkable degree the tendency of Indian birds to decrease in size from north to south.
The typical race is found in Northern India from Hazara to Sikkim along the Outer Himalayas (which it ascends to about 7000 feet) and in the plains from Rajputana to Bengal and Assam. In Peninsular and Southern India it is replaced by the smaller H, c, melanotis in which the breast is usually unbarred and the tail-bands are grey, not white. A Still smaller form, H. c, spilogaster, is found in Ceylon.
This Eagle is a resident species, though individuals apparently wander to some extent. In Sind and the Punjab it is very scarce.
Another striking Eagle, found in open country throughout India, is the Short-toed Eagle (Circaetus ferox), which is noteworthy for its ability to hover stationary in the air like a Kestrel. It is brown above and white below, the crop-region being streaked and the flanks crescent-spotted with brown. The head appears larger than in most Eagles.
This handsome Eagle is found in well-wooded and well-watered country, being particularly partial to the pleasant sub-Himalayan valleys where mountain streams run down through the rice-fields and amongst big groves of mango trees. Its food consists chiefly of snakes, lizards and frogs, but insects are also taken. It is rather a noisy bird, frequently uttering on the wing a plaintive whistling call of several notes, kuk-kuk, queeear-queeear-queeear, the first two short notes being only audible at close range, the others carrying a great distance. It is very bold, and I have ridden up within a yard or two of one which was standing on the ground holding a snake in its talons. The claws are usually dirty with mud, indicating how large a portion of the food is procured about paddy fields and jheels. In flight the wings appear very broad and rounded, and they are held sloping backwards, while the long tail is only partly spread. This Eagle generally soars over forests and well-wooded ravines in preference to barren and open ground, and it often rises to an immense height, travelling fast or soaring in great circles.
The breeding season lasts from March to May.
The nest is always placed in trees, not on the topmost branches as in the case of the Tawny Eagle, but in a fork within the branches of the tree. It is small for the size of the bird, a cup loosely made of Sticks and twigs and lined with fresh leaves, fine twigs and grass roots.
The single egg is a broad oval, usually rather pointed at the smaller end ; the texture is rough and glossless and the shell strong.
The ground-colour is bluish- or greenish-white, with specklings, spottings and clouds of pale purple or purplish-brown or brownish-red ; some eggs are very heavily marked and handsome.
In size they average about 2.75 by 2.2 inches.
Fig. 62-Crested Serpent-Eagle (1/9 nat. size)
Number of Museum Specimen Records Found : 64 for Spilornis cheela
|No.||Museum||Species||Collection Deatils||Collector||Date of Collection||Record||Locality||GBIF Portal Link||1||Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University||Spilornis cheela albidus||MCZ BIRDS 33590||Laugier||Specimen||Bengal Bangladesh Asia Southern Asia||Link|
|2||Yale University Peabody Museum||Spilornis cheela burmanicus||YPM ORN ORN.128031||Specimen||Assam India Southern Asia||Link|
|3||Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University||Spilornis cheela cheela||MCZ BIRDS 25017||Carleton, M. M.||Specimen||Koolloo Valley Punjab India Asia Southern Asia||Link|
|4||Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University||Spilornis cheela melanotis||MCZ BIRDS 92592||Primrose, A. M.||Specimen||Cachar Assam India Asia Southern Asia||Link|
|5||Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University||Spilornis cheela melanotis||MCZ BIRDS 93404||Primrose, A. M.||Specimen||Reno, S. Sylhet Assam India Asia Southern Asia||Link|
|6||Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University||Spilornis cheela melanotis||MCZ BIRDS 194944||Specimen||Mysore India Asia Southern Asia||Link|
|7||Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University||Spilornis cheela minimus||MCZ BIRDS 80707||Abbott, W. L.||1901-02-19 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Katchall Andaman and Nicoba India Indian Ocean Southern Asia||Link|
|8||Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University||Spilornis cheela minimus||MCZ BIRDS 80706||Abbott, W. L.||1901-02-20 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Katchall Andaman and Nicoba India Indian Ocean Southern Asia||Link|
|9||Field Museum||Spilornis cheela cheela||FMNH Birds 100363||1903-03-16 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Rungagora Assam India Southern Asia||Link|
|10||Royal Ontario Museum||Spilornis cheela melanotis||ROM Birds 188.8.131.52||1904-01-09 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Margherita, Lakhimpur dist Lakhimpur dist Assam India Southern Asia||Link|
|11||Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University||Spilornis cheela melanotis||MCZ BIRDS 94655||Primrose, A. M.||1904-09-09 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Gralpara Assam India Asia Southern Asia||Link|
|12||Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University||Spilornis cheela melanotis||MCZ BIRDS 92591||Primrose, A. M.||1906-10-14 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Gralpara Assam India Asia Southern Asia||Link|
|13||Field Museum||Spilornis cheela cheela||FMNH Birds 100362||1908-09-18 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Dejoo Assam India Southern Asia||Link|
|14||Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University||Spilornis cheela cheela||MCZ BIRDS 92590||Dodsworth, P. T.||1910-10-17 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Simla, N. W. Himalayas India Asia Southern Asia||Link|
|15||Field Museum||Spilornis cheela cheela||FMNH Birds 84314||1930-10-19 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Haldibari Koch Bihar West Bengal India Southern Asia||Link|
|16||University of Michigan Museum of Zoology||Spilornis cheela cheela||UMMZ Bird 78304||Koelz, Walter N||1933-03-26 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Bhadwar Kangra District Himachal Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|17||University of Michigan Museum of Zoology||Spilornis cheela cheela||UMMZ Bird 78305||Koelz, Walter N||1933-04-04 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Bhadwar Kangra District Himachal Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|18||University of Michigan Museum of Zoology||Spilornis cheela cheela||UMMZ Bird 78306||Koelz, Walter N||1933-04-05 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Bhadwar Kangra District Himachal Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|19||University of Michigan Museum of Zoology||Spilornis cheela cheela||UMMZ Bird 78307||Koelz, Walter N||1933-04-05 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Bhadwar Kangra District Himachal Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|20||University of Michigan Museum of Zoology||Spilornis cheela cheela||UMMZ Bird 78308||Koelz, Walter N||1933-04-14 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Bhadwar Kangra District Himachal Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|21||University of Michigan Museum of Zoology||Spilornis cheela cheela||UMMZ Bird 78309||Koelz, Walter N||1933-04-19 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Bhadwar Kangra District Himachal Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|22||University of Michigan Museum of Zoology||Spilornis cheela cheela||UMMZ Bird 78310||Koelz, Walter N||1933-04-26 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Bhadwar Kangra District Himachal Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|23||Field Museum||Spilornis cheela melanotis||FMNH Birds 229002||1938-01-27 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Londa Karnataka India Southern Asia||Link|
|24||Field Museum||Spilornis cheela melanotis||FMNH Birds 229005||1938-01-28 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Londa Karnataka India Southern Asia||Link|
|25||Field Museum||Spilornis cheela melanotis||FMNH Birds 229007||1938-02-04 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Londa Karnataka India Southern Asia||Link|
|26||Field Museum||Spilornis cheela melanotis||FMNH Birds 228984||1938-02-05 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Londa Karnataka India Southern Asia||Link|
|27||Field Museum||Spilornis cheela melanotis||FMNH Birds 228990||1938-02-11 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Londa Karnataka India Southern Asia||Link|
|28||Field Museum||Spilornis cheela melanotis||FMNH Birds 229001||1938-02-13 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Londa Karnataka India Southern Asia||Link|
|29||Field Museum||Spilornis cheela melanotis||FMNH Birds 229003||1938-02-15 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Londa Karnataka India Southern Asia||Link|
|30||Field Museum||Spilornis cheela melanotis||FMNH Birds 228996||1938-02-24 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Jagalbed Bombay India Southern Asia||Link|
|31||Field Museum||Spilornis cheela melanotis||FMNH Birds 229006||1938-02-27 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Supa Karnataka India Southern Asia||Link|
|32||Field Museum||Spilornis cheela melanotis||FMNH Birds 229008||1938-03-02 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Jagalbed Bombay India Southern Asia||Link|
|33||Field Museum||Spilornis cheela melanotis||FMNH Birds 228992||1938-03-08 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Castle Rock Karnataka India Southern Asia||Link|
|34||Field Museum||Spilornis cheela melanotis||FMNH Birds 228993||1938-03-09 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Castle Rock Karnataka India Southern Asia||Link|
|35||Field Museum||Spilornis cheela melanotis||FMNH Birds 153633||1941-02-24 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Anmode, Castle Rock Kunara Karnataka India Southern Asia||Link|
|36||Field Museum||Spilornis cheela melanotis||FMNH Birds 228978||1946-03-01 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Bheraghat Jabalpur Madhya Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|37||Field Museum||Spilornis cheela melanotis||FMNH Birds 228983||1946-03-02 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Bheraghat Jabalpur Madhya Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|38||Field Museum||Spilornis cheela melanotis||FMNH Birds 228998||1946-03-13 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Bheraghat Jabalpur Madhya Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|39||National Museum of Natural History||Spilornis cheela||USNM Vertebrate Zoology; Birds 399836.4085002||S. Ali||1946-03-30 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Pakistan Southern Asia||Link|
|40||Field Museum||Spilornis cheela melanotis||FMNH Birds 228988||1946-04-11 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Bheraghat Jabalpur Madhya Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|41||Field Museum||Spilornis cheela melanotis||FMNH Birds 229004||1946-04-22 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Bheraghat Jabalpur Madhya Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|42||Field Museum||Spilornis cheela melanotis||FMNH Birds 228982||1946-04-29 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Bheraghat Jabalpur Madhya Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|43||Field Museum||Spilornis cheela melanotis||FMNH Birds 228989||1946-07-29 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Kisli, Belwani Madhya Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|44||Field Museum||Spilornis cheela melanotis||FMNH Birds 228986||1946-10-06 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Bichhia Madhya Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|45||Field Museum||Spilornis cheela cheela||FMNH Birds 228994||1947-02-03 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Nichlaul Gorakhpur Uttar Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|46||Field Museum||Spilornis cheela cheela||FMNH Birds 228981||1947-02-20 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Kalnahi Uttar Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|47||Field Museum||Spilornis cheela cheela||FMNH Birds 228999||1947-02-20 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Kalnahi Uttar Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|48||Field Museum||Spilornis cheela cheela||FMNH Birds 228980||1947-02-23 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Kalnahi Uttar Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|49||Field Museum||Spilornis cheela melanotis||FMNH Birds 228995||1947-10-08 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Ramanujganj Surguja Madhya Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|50||Field Museum||Spilornis cheela melanotis||FMNH Birds 228975||1949-02-03 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Sasan Junagadh Gujarat India Southern Asia||Link|
|51||Field Museum||Spilornis cheela melanotis||FMNH Birds 228997||1949-02-06 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Sasan Junagadh Gujarat India Southern Asia||Link|
|52||Field Museum||Spilornis cheela melanotis||FMNH Birds 228991||1949-03-25 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Korher Bastar Madhya Pradesh India Southern Asia||Link|
|53||Field Museum||Spilornis cheela cheela||FMNH Birds 229000||1949-04-20 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Nongpoh Khasi Hills Meghalaya India Southern Asia||Link|
|54||Field Museum||Spilornis cheela cheela||FMNH Birds 228985||1949-05-15 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Nongpoh Khasi Hills Meghalaya India Southern Asia||Link|
|55||University of Michigan Museum of Zoology||Spilornis cheela burmanicus||UMMZ Bird 140568||Koelz, Walter N||1949-11-03 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Palasbari [Kamrup] Assam India Southern Asia||Link|
|56||University of Michigan Museum of Zoology||Spilornis cheela burmanicus||UMMZ Bird 140569||Koelz, Walter N||1949-11-06 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Palasbari [Kamrup] Assam India Southern Asia||Link|
|57||University of Michigan Museum of Zoology||Spilornis cheela burmanicus||UMMZ Bird 140570||Koelz, Walter N||1949-12-13 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Palasbari [Kamrup] Assam India Southern Asia||Link|
|58||University of Michigan Museum of Zoology||Spilornis cheela burmanicus||UMMZ Bird 140571||Koelz, Walter N||1952-01-01 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Palasbari [Kamrup] Assam India Southern Asia||Link|
|59||University of Michigan Museum of Zoology||Spilornis cheela burmanicus||UMMZ Bird 140566||Koelz, Walter N||1952-07-18 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Cherrapunji Khasi Hills Assam India Southern Asia||Link|
|60||University of Michigan Museum of Zoology||Spilornis cheela burmanicus||UMMZ Bird 140567||RupChand, Thakur||1954-09-25 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Khasi Hills, Mawphlang Khasi Assam India Southern Asia||Link|
|61||Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University||Spilornis cheela||MCZ BIRDS 185595||Paynter, R.A.||1958-04-29 00:00:00.0||Specimen||Baramchal Sylhet Bangladesh Southern Asia||Link|
|62||Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History||Spilornis cheela melanotus||LACM Birds 32810||STAGER, K E||1959-03-27 00:00:00.0||Specimen||MUKHI BALAGHAT FOREST DIST MADHYA PRADESH India Southern Asia||Link|
|63||Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History||Spilornis cheela cheela||LACM Birds 74850||WALTNER, R C||1967-03-24 00:00:00.0||Specimen||JHAJRA DEHRA DUN DIST UTTAR PRADESH India Southern Asia||Link|
|64||Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History||Spilornis cheela melanotis||LACM Birds 74764||WALTNER, R C||1968-01-20 00:00:00.0||Specimen||KORBA BILASPUR DIST MADHYA PRADESH India Southern Asia||Link|
Biodiversity occurrence data provided by: (Accessed through GBIF Data Portal, 2009-08-06)
- Field Museum ( 34 Records )
- Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History ( 3 Records )
- Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University ( 11 Records )
- National Museum of Natural History ( 1 Records )
- Royal Ontario Museum ( 1 Records )
- University of Michigan Museum of Zoology ( 13 Records )
- Yale University Peabody Museum ( 1 Records )
17 calls found for Spilornis cheela
Remarks: Ssp: melanotis. Perched bird not seen.
Call Type: call (B)
Remarks: Ssp: richmondi.
Call Type: Call (B)
Remarks: Ssp: hoya.
Call Type: calls flight (A)
Remarks: Ssp: malayensis.
Call Type: calls (C)
Remarks: Ssp: richmondi.
Call Type: Call (B)
Remarks: Flying bird.
Call Type: song (A)
Call Type: calls (B)
Call Type: song (A)
Call Type: song (A)
Call Type: cal (A)
Remarks: Two birds chasing each other along the main river, between Tenegang and Menanggol sidearms. Recorded from a boat.
Call Type: call (A)
Call Type: calls (B)
Call Type: cal (B)
Call Type: calls (B)
Remarks: Ssp: pallidus. Three birds along one tributary, one perched two circling.
Call Type: Call (B)
Call Type: song (A)
Call Type: calls (A)
Avibase - The World Bird Database for Crested Serpent-eagle ( Spilornis cheela )
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Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) CANADA for Crested Serpent-eagle ( Spilornis cheela )
IUCN Redlist Species FactSheet for Crested Serpent-eagle ( Spilornis cheela )
NCBI Molecular Data for Crested Serpent-eagle ( Spilornis cheela )
Pubmed Literature for Crested Serpent-eagle ( Spilornis cheela )
Catalogue of Life : Annual Checklist for Crested Serpent-eagle ( Spilornis cheela )
Tree Of Life for Crested Serpent-eagle ( Spilornis cheela )
uBio Portal for Crested Serpent-eagle ( Spilornis cheela )
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Wikipedia for Crested Serpent-eagle ( Spilornis cheela )
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Cite this website along with its URL as:
Anonymous. 2013 Spilornis cheela - Latham, 1790 (Crested Serpent-eagle ) in Deomurari, A.N. (Compiler), 2010. AVIS-IBIS (Avian Information System - Indian BioDiversity Information System) v. 1.0. Foundation For Ecological Security, India retrieved on 05/14/2013