Black-crowned Night-Heron - Nycticorax nycticorax


General Information


Nycticorax nycticorax

Common Name : Black-crowned Night-Heron
Scientific Name : Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus, 1758)

Order : Ciconiiformes
Family : Ardeidae
Taxonomic Group : Ciconiiformes - Ardeidae ( Bitterns, Herons and Egrets )
Vernacular Name : Sindh: Gadri, Hindi: Waak, Kwaak, Tar or Taal bagla, Kokrai, Sanskrit: Nakht bak, Kashmir: Bor, Punjab: Chor bagla, Assam: Waak chorai, Bengal: Bachka, Manipur: Chongkhu, Gujarat: Awaak, Waak, Maharashtra: Raat baggal, Raat kokku, Kvarf, Orissa: Rati baga



Nycticorax_nycticorax_666575984.jpg Nycticorax_nycticorax_733915977.jpg Nycticorax_nycticorax_932708191.jpg Nycticorax_nycticorax_948958852.jpg



Taxonomy



Common Name : Black-crowned Night-Heron
Scientific Name : Nycticorax nycticorax
Order : Ciconiiformes Family : Ardeidae (Herons, Egrets, and Bitterns)
Number of SubSpecies : 4

Taxon Category Sub Species / Race Range
groupNycticorax nycticorax nycticoraxEurasia south to Indonesia, Africa and Madagascar
groupNycticorax nycticorax hoactliS Canada to n Argentina and Chile
subspeciesNycticorax nycticorax obscurusN Chile and n-central Argentina to Tierra del Fuego
groupNycticorax nycticorax falklandicusFalkland Islands



3rd Edition, 2003. Revised and Corrected per Corrigenda to December 31, 2006

Common Name : Black-crowned Night Heron
Scientific Name : Nycticorax nycticorax
SubFamily : Ardeinae

Number of SubSpecies : 4

Sub Species / Race
Nycticorax nycticorax nycticorax
Nycticorax nycticorax hoactli
Nycticorax nycticorax obscurus
Nycticorax nycticorax falklandicus



IOC Common Name : Black-crowned Night Heron
IOC Scientific Name : Nycticorax nycticorax

Distribution :
Region : Worldwide Range : except AU
Order : PELECANIFORMES Family : Ardeidae
Category : Herons, Bitterns
Note: The herons (Ardeidae) and ibises,spoonbills (Threskiornithidae) are sister taxa in the Order Pelecaniformes (Hackett et al. 2008)


SYNOPIS NO : 52

Scientific Name: Nycticorax nycticorax
Common Name: Night Heron



Common Name : Black-crowned Night-heron
Scientific Name : Nycticorax nycticorax ((Linnaeus, 1758))
Birdlife Synonym : Black-crowned Night Heron (1); Black-crowned Night Heron (1); Black-crowned Night-Heron. (2); Night Heron (6); Black-crowned Night Heron (7); Black-crowned Night Heron (15)

BirdLife Redlist Status Year 2010: LC
BirdLife Species FactSheet for Black-crowned Night-heron ( Nycticorax nycticorax )

Taxonomy Treatment : R




IUCN Common Name (Eng) : Black-crowned Night-heron, Black-crowned Night Heron, Black-crowned Night-heron., Night Heron
Scientific Name : Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus, 1758)
French Name : Héron Bihoreau
IUCN Redlist Species FactSheet for Black-crowned Night-heron, Black-crowned Night Heron, Black-crowned Night-heron., Night Heron ( Nycticorax nycticorax )

Species : nycticorax
Genus : Nycticorax
Family : Ardeidae Order : Ciconiiformes

IUCN RedList Status : LC

IUCN RedList Criteria Version : 3.1
IUCN RedList Year Assessed : 2008
IUCN RedList Petitioned : N



Family : ARDEIDAE

Scientific Name : Nycticorax nycticorax
Common Name : Black-crowned Night Heron



Bibliography


Bibliography of Black-crowned Night-Heron ( Nycticorax nycticorax )
Number of Results found : 100

This is latest 100 Papers. To see Complete Bibliography of Black-crowned Night-Heron ( Nycticorax nycticorax ) Use Species Bibliography Module

1. Uzun A; , (2009), Do the Height and Location of Black-Crowned Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) Nests Affect Egg Production and Breeding Success?, Waterbirds, 32:2: 357 - 359.


2. Kim J;Koo TH; , (2009), Nest Site Selection and Reproductive Success of Herons and Egrets in Pyeongtaek Heronry, Korea, Waterbirds, 32:1: 116 - 122.


3. Wheeler SS;Barker CM;Fang Y;Veronica Armijos M;Carroll BD;Husted S;Johnson WO;Reisen WK; , (2009), Differential Impact of West Nile Virus on California Birds, The Condor, 111:1: 1 - 20.


4. Alicia MONTESINOS, Frederic SANTOUL and Andy J. GREEN , (2008), The diet of the night heron and purple heron in the Guadalquivir Marshes, Ardeola, 55:2: 161 - 167.


5. Hall CS;Kress SW; , (2008), Diet of Nestling Black-crowned Night-herons in a Mixed Species Colony: Implications for Tern Conservation, The Wilson Journal of Ornithology, 120:3: 637 - 640.


6. Post W; , (2008), Food Exploitation Patterns in an Assembly of Estuarine Herons, Waterbirds, 31:2: 179 - 192.


7. Bertolino S;Gola L; , (2008), Nest Site Selection of Two Heron Species in Italy: A Long-Term Study, Waterbirds, 31:3: 480 - 484.


8. MAURO FASOLA1, GIUSEPPE ALBANESE2, ASOER3, GIOVANNI BOANO4, ELEONORA BONCOMPAGNI1, UMBERTO BRESSAN5, MASSIMO BRUNELLI6, ANDREA CIACCIO7, GIUSEPPE FLORIS8, MARCELLO GRUSSU9, ROBERTO GUGLIELMI10, CARLO GUZZON11, FRANCESCO MEZZAVILLA12, GIORGIO PAESANI13, ALESSANDRO SACCHETTI13, MAURO SANNA14, FRANCESCO SCARTON12, CARLO SCOCCIANTI15, PAOLO UTMAR16, GABRIELLA VASCHETTI4, FRANCESCO VELATTA17 , (2007), Le garzaie in Italia, 2002, Avocetta, 31:1-2: .


9. Richard Garrigues, Robert Dean , (2007), Black-crowned Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), HELM FIELD GUIDES - BIRDS of COSTA RICA; Christopher Helm Publishers Ltd, : 26.


10. Chitoshi Mizota, Minami Sasaki and Toshiro Yamanaka , (2007), Temporal variation in the concentration and nitrogen isotopic ratios of inorganic nitrogen from soils under Cormorant and Heron colonies, Japanese Journal of Ornithology, 56.2: 115 - 130.


11. Williams B;Brinker DF;Watts BD; , (2007), The Status of Colonial Nesting Wading Bird Populations Within the Chesapeake Bay and Atlantic Barrier Island-Lagoon System, Waterbirds, 30:sp1: 82 - 92.


12. Kelly JP;Etienne K;Strong C;McCaustland M;Parkes ML; , (2007), Status, Trends, and Implications for the Conservation of Heron and Egret Nesting Colonies in the San Francisco Bay Area, Waterbirds, 30:4: 455 - 478.


13. Jungsoo K;Tae-Hoe K; , (2007), Clutch Size, Reproductive Success, and Growth Rate of Black-Crowned Night Herons Nycticorax nycticorax, Waterbirds, 30:1: 129 - 132.


14. FernA-ndez-Juricic E;Zollner PA;LeBlanc C;Westphal LM; , (2007), Responses of Nestling Black-crowned Night Herons (Nycticorax nycticorax _%) to Aquatic and Terrestrial Recreational Activities: a Manipulative Study, Waterbirds, 30:4: 554 - 565.


15. Angehr GR;Kushlan JA; , (2007), Seabird and Colonial Wading Bird Nesting in the Gulf of Panama, Waterbirds, 30:3: 335 - 357.


16. Hoek D , (2007), A small colony of Purple Heron Ardea purpurea on Bahrif Island, Nile valley, Aswan - a new breeding species for Egypt?, Sandgrouse, 29: 221 - 224.


17. Ber Van Perlo , (2006), Black-crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), Field Guide Birds of Mexico and Central America; Collins , : 9.


18. Latta, Rimmer, Keith, Wiley, Raffaele, McFarland, Fernandez , (2006), Black-crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), HELM FIELD GUIDES - BIRDS of the Dominican Republic & Haiti; Christopher Helm Publishers Ltd, : 7 / 52.


19. Riehl C; , (2006), Widespread Cannibalism by Fledglings in a Nesting Colony of Black __crowned Night-Herons, The Wilson Journal of Ornithology, 118:1: 101 - 104.


20. Wong LC;Young L; , (2006), Nest Numbers of Five Ardeids in Hong Kong, South China, 1989-2004: Does Weather Affect The Trend?, Waterbirds, 29:1: 61 - 68.


21. Liang W;Wong LC;Wong JYP; , (2006), Ardeid Nesting Colony Survey in Hainan, China, Waterbirds, 29:1: 69 - 75.


22. Endo N;Sawara Y;Komatsu R;Ohtsubo M; , (2006), Diel activity patterns of presence and absence from a heronry and post-breeding roosts observed in radio-tagged Black-crowned Night Herons Nycticorax nycticorax, Ornithological Science, 5:1: 113 - 119.


23. Naoko Endo, Yuji Sawara, Ryo Komatsu and Mizuki Ohtsubo , (2006), Diel activity patterns of presence and absence from a heronry and post-breeding roosts observed in radio-tagged Black-crowned Night Herons Nycticorax nycticorax, Ornithological Science, 5:1: 113 - 119.


24. P. Sathiyaselvam , (2005), Nidification and site fidelity of the Black-crowned Nigh-Heron Nycticorax nycticorax in Chilika Lake, Orissa, India., INDIAN BIRDS, 1:1: .


25. Craig Robson , (2005), Black-crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), BIRDS OF SOUTH-EAST ASIA; New Holland Publishers Ltd, : 71.


26. STEVE P. DUDLEY , (2005), Changes to Category C of the British Listdagger, Ibis, 147:4: 803 - 820.


27. Rodgers JA;Kubilis PS;Nesbitt SA; , (2005), Accuracy of Aerial Surveys of Waterbird Colonies, Waterbirds, 28:2: 230 - 237.


28. Parkes ML; , (2005), Inter-nest Infanticide in Ardeids, Waterbirds, 28:2: 256 - 257.


29. Distel CA , (2005), Swimming in the Black-crowned Night-Heron., Ohio Cardinal, 28: 38 - 40.


30. Navarro P; Lluch J; Font E , (2005), The component helminth community in six sympatric species of Ardeidae., Journal of Parasitology, 91: 775 - 779.


31. Whaley DJ; Dawes JC , (2005), Heron breeding records in Cyprus 2003-2004., Sandgrouse, 27: 160 - 162.


32. Hamao S; Ida T; Watanabe H; Higuchi H , (2005), Prey attracting and disturbing behaviors in herons: bill-vibrating and other ingenious foraging techniques, Strix, 23: 91 - 104.


33. RF Porter; S.Christensen; P.Schiermacker-Hansen , (2004), Black-crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), BIRDS OF THE MIDDLE EAST; Poyser, : 16.


34. Spendelow JA;Kuter M; , (2004 ), Combined impacts of Black-crowned Night-Heron predation/disturbance and various management activities on Roseate Tern productivity in 2003, and testing of a video surveillance system for recording the diurnal and nocturnal behavior of terns and night-hero, Laurel, MD] [USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, : .


35. Hothem RL;Hatch D; , (2004), Reproductive Success of the Black-crowned Night Heron at Alcatraz Island, San Francisco Bay, California, 1990-2002, Waterbirds, 27:1: 112 - 125.


36. Fasola M;Galeotti P;Dai N;Dong Y;Zhang Y; , (2004), Large Numbers of Breeding Egrets and Herons in China, Waterbirds, 27:1: 126 - 128.


37. Tourenq C;Benhamou S;Sadoul N;Sandoz A;MeslAcard Fo;Martin JL;Hafner H;Hohman WL; , (2004), SPATIAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN TREE-NESTING HERON COLONIES AND RICE FIELDS IN THE CAMARGUE, FRANCE, The Auk, 121:1: 192 - 202.


38. Hothem RL; Hatch D , (2004), Reproductive success of the Black-crowned Night Heron at Alcatraz Island, San Francisco Bay, CA, 1990-2002., Waterbirds, 27: 112 - 125.


39. Fasola M; Galeotti P; Dai N; Dong Y; Zhang Y , (2004), Large numbers of breeding egrets and herons in China., Waterbirds, 27: 126 - 128.


40. Shimazaki T , (2004), [Wintering record of a Black-crowned Night Heron at Abashiri Lake, northern Japan.], Strix, 22: 197 - 199.


41. Andrew DG , (2004), Medieval Little Egrets and others., British Birds, 97: 44 - 45.


42. David Allen Sibley; Rick Cech , (2003), Black-crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), The Sibley Field Guide to Birds of Western North America; Knopf, : 60.


43. H.Raffaele; J.Wiley; O.Garrido; A.Keith; J.Raffaele , (2003), Black-crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), BIRDS of the WEST INDIES; Princeton University Press, : 36.


44. Alvaro Jaramillo, Peter Burke, David Beadle , (2003), Black-crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), HELM FIELD GUIDES - BIRDS of CHILE; Christopher Helm Publishers Ltd, : 21.


45. David Allen Sibley; Rick Cech , (2003), Black-crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), The Sibley Field Guide to Birds of Eastern North America; Knopf, 1st Edition: 55.


46. Golden NH;Rattner BA;Cohen JB;Hoffman DJ;Russek-Cohen E;Ottinger MA; , (2003 ), Lead accumulation in feathers of nestling black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) experimentally treated in the field, Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 22:7: 1517 - 1524.


47. Golden NH;Rattner BA;McGowan PC;Parsons KC;Ottinger MA; , (2003 ), Concentrations of metals in feathers and blood of nestling Black-Crowned Night-Herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) in Chesapeake and Delaware Bays, Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 70:2: 385 - 393.


48. Franson JC;Hansen SP;Creekmore TE;Brand CJ;Evers DC;Duerr AE;DeStefano S; , (2003), Lead Fishing Weights and Other Fishing Tackle in Selected Waterbirds, Waterbirds, 26:3: 345 - 352.


49. Dies JI;RamA3n N;Prosper J; , (2003), Winter Breeding by Black-crowned Night Heron in Eastern Spain, Waterbirds, 26:3: 379 - 382.


50. Tomek T; Guminski W , (2003), Bird remains from the Mesolithic and Neolithic Site Dudka, Masuria, NE Poland., Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia, 46: 9 - 18.


51. Franson JC; Hansen SP; Creekmore TE; Brand CJ; Evers DC; Duerr AE; DeStefano S , (2003), Lead fishing weights and other fishing tackle in selected waterbirds, Waterbirds, 26: 345 - 352.


52. Dies, JI; Ramon N; Prosper J , (2003), Winter breeding by Black-crowned Night Heron, Waterbirds, 26: 379 - 382.


53. Crouch S;Paquette C;Vilas D; , (2002), Relocation of a Large Black-crowned Night Heron Colony in Southern California, Waterbirds, 25:4: 474 - 478.


54. Kopij G , (2002), Birds of Ooseinde and Bloemspruit sewage dams, Bloemfontein., Mirafra, 19: 2 - 6.


55. Janiszewski T; Glubowski M , (2002), [Breeding of the Great White Egret Egretta alba and Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax on the Jeziorsko Reservoir in 2002.], Notatki Ornitologiczne, 43: 259 - 262.


56. Wiehle D; Wilk T; Faber M; Betleja J; Malczyk P , (2002), [Avifauna of the upper Vistula River valley---part 1. Birds of the Ziemia Oswiecimsko-Zatorska region.], Notatki Ornitologiczne, 43: 227 - 253.


57. Dale A.Zimmerman; Donald A.Turner; David J.Pearson , (2001), Black-crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax nycticorax), BIRDS of KENYA & NORTHERN TANZANIA; Princeton University Press, : 12 / 278.


58. Joseph Kren , (2001), Black-crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), BIRDS OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC; Christopher Helm Publishers Ltd, : 69.


59. Wong LC;Corlett RT;Young L;Lee JSY; , (2001 ), Utilization of wetlands by Ardeids in Starling Inlet, Hong Kong: A year-round study and a comparison between the census and flight-line methods, Waterbirds, 24:2: 153 - 160.


60. PAREJO, D., SÃĀNCHEZ, J. M. and AVILÃČS, J. M. , (2001), Breeding biology of the Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax in the south-west of Spain, Ardeola, 48:1: 19 - 25.


61. Purandare K; , (2001), Nesting colonies of the Little Cormorant (Phalacrocorax niger) and Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) in Pune city, Maharashtra, Newsletter for Birdwatchers, 41:1: 9.


62. Dowlan, S. , (2001), Black-crowned Night Heron consumes a Brewer's Blackbird., Oregon Birds, 27: 94.


63. Weller MW; Weller DL , (2001), Pelicans and herons night-fishing under pier lights at Corpus Christi, Texas., Bulletin of the Texas Ornithological Society, 34: 27 - 28.


64. Deng, J., P. Fredrick. , (2001), Nocturnal flight behavior of waterbirds in close proximity to a transmission powerline in the Florida Everglades., Waterbirds, 24: 419 - 424.


65. RS Kennedy; PC Gozales; EC Dickinson; HC Miranda Jr; TH Fisher , (2000), Black-crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), A GUIDE TO THE BIRDS OF THE PHILIPPINES; Oxford University Press, USA, : 04.


66. Woo-Shin Lee; Tae-Hoe Koo; Jin-Young Park , (2000), Black-crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax nycticorax), A FIELD GUIDE TO THE BIRDS OF KOREA; LG Evergreen Foundation,Korea, : .


67. Krys Kazmierczak; Ber van Perlo , (2000), Black-crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), A FIELD GUIDE TO THE BIRDS OF THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT; Yale University Press, : 48.


68. Mezzzavilla F; , (2000 ), Nidificazione tardiva della nitticora, Nycticorax nycticorax nel parco regionale veneto del fiume Sile, Societa Veneziana di Scienze Naturali Lavori, 25: 115.


69. Golden NH;Rattner BA;Cohen JB;Hoffman DJ;Ottinger A; , (2000 ), Effects of lead in nestling black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) experimentally dosed in the field, Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, annual meeting abstract book, 21: 229.


70. Fasola M;Hafner H;Prosper J;van der Kooij H;Schogolev IV; , (2000 ), Population changes in European herons in relation to African climate, Ostrich, 71:1-2: 52 - 55.


71. Aurigi S;Focardi S;Hulea D;Renzoni A; , (2000 ), Organochlorine contamination in bird's eggs from the Danube Delta, Environmental Pollution, 109:1: 61 - 67.


72. Matthew J. Medeiros , Emily E. Emond , Bonnie J. Ploger , (2000), An Unusual Type of Sibling Aggression in Black-Crowned Night Herons, The Condor, 102:2: 438 - 440.


73. Barbour DL;Morris RD;Moore DJ; , (2000), EGG AND CHICK FATES OF COMMON TERNS IN AREAS OF HIGH AND LOW NEST DENSITY, Journal of Field Ornithology, 71:1: 34 - 45.


74. Patel P;Patel N;Jat M; , (2000), Survey of heronry at Atul Chemical Industrial Complex, Newsletter for Birdwatchers, 40:2: 15 - 17.


75. Madhavan L; , (2000), Night Herons and Little Cormorants in Thrissur, Kerala, Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 97:1: 142.


76. Fasola M; Hafner H; Prosper J; Van der Kooij H; Schogolev V , (2000), Population changes in European herons in relation to African climate., Ostrich, 71(1&2): 52 - 55.


77. Williams, B., B. Akers, M. Beck, R. Beck, J. Via. , (2000), The 1998 survey of colonial and beach-nesting waterbirds on the Virginia barrier islands., Raven, 70: 42 - 45.


78. Zhang YM; Ruan LZ; Dong YH; Gong ZH , (2000), Breeding biology of Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) and Little Egret (Egretta garzetta) in Taihu Lake of Wuxi, China., Zoological Research, 21: 275 - 278.


79. Endo, N., Y. Sawara. , (2000), [Diel rhythmic activity and foraging site utilization of the Black-crowned Night Heron in its breeding season.], Japanese Journal of Ornithology, 48: 183 - 196.


80. Kobayashi, S. , (2000), [Records of Black-crowned Night Heron, Little Egret and Grey Heron nesting on the ground.], Strix, 18: 121 - 126.


81. K.Mullarney; L.Svensson; D.Zetterstrom; P.J.Grant , (1999), Black-crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), COLLINS BIRD GUIDE - BRITAIN & EUROPE; Collins, : 031.


82. Carol Inskipp; Tim Inskipp; Richard Grimmett , (1999), Black-crowned Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), HELM FIELD GUIDES - BIRDS of BHUTAN; A&C Black, : 102.


83. Naoko ENDO and Yuji SAWARA , (1999), Diel Rhythmic Activity and Foraging Site Utilization of the Black-crowned Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) in its Breeding Season, Japanese Journal of Ornithology, 48.3: 183 - 196.


84. Voskamp P;Zoetebier D; , (1999 ), De kwak Nycticorax nycticorax als broedvogel in de uiterwaarden van de IJssel: territoria, nesten, habitat en gedrag, Limosa, 72:4: 131.


85. Golden NH;Ottinger MA;Rattner BA;McGowan PC;Schmidt SR;Iacobucci JE;Parsons KC; , (1999 ), Metal concentrations in feathers of nestling black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) in Chesapeake and Delaware Bays, Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, annual meeting abstract book, 20: abstract.


86. Fioretto M;Pegoraro F;Benedetti P; , (1999 ), Nidificazione di airone cenerino, Ardea cinerea , e nitticora, Nycticorax nycticorax , in provincia di Vicenza, Bollettino del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Venezia, 48 (Supplemento): 169 - 171.


87. Taher SA;Jaltare S; , (1999), Field craft, Pitta, 101:: 5.


88. Santharam V;Rangaswami S; , (1999), Discovery of new heronries, Newsletter for Birdwatchers, 39:1: 3 - 4.


89. Pande SA; , (1999), Newly discovered large heronry of Night Herons in Pune, Newsletter for Birdwatchers, 39:2: 35.


90. Davis, W. E., Jr. , (1999), Identification review. Black-crowned and Yellow-crowned Night Heron., Birding, 31: 410 - 415.


91. Denis, D., L. Mugica, M. Acosta, L. Torella. , (1999), Nuevos reportes sobre las época repoductiva de aves acuáticas coloniales en Cuba. [New reports about the reproductive period of colonial waterbirds in Cuba.], El Pitierre (Newsl. Soc. Caribbean Ornithol.), 12: 7 - 9.


92. Brunton, D. , (1999), AOptimal" colony size for Least Terns: An intercolony study of opposing selective pressures., Condor, 101: 607 - 615.


93. Parejo D; Sánchez JM; Avilés JM , (1999), Factors affecting the nest height of three heron species in heronries in the South-west of Spain., Ardeola, 46(2): 227 - 230.


94. Voskamp PJ; Zoetebier TKG , (1999), De Kwak Nycticorax nycticorax als broedvogel in de uiterwaarden van de IJssel: territoria, nesten, habitat en gedrag. [Breeding of Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax in the forelands of the river IJssel, The Netherlands: territories, nests, habitat and behavior.], Limosa, 72: 133 - 142.


95. Wong, L. C., et al. , (1999), Foraging flights of nesting egrets and herons at a Hong Kong egretry, South China., Waterbirds, 22: 417 - 423.


96. Jarvie, S., H. Blokpoel, T. Chipperfield. , (1999), A Geographic Information System to monitor nest distributions of Double-crested Cormorants and Black-crowned Night-Herons at shared colony sites near Toronto, Canada., USDA Anim. Plant Health Inspection Serv. Tech. Bull., 1879: 1 - 2.


97. Parejo, D., J. M. Sánchez-Guzmán. , (1999), Effects of agricultural development on colonial ardeid populations in southwestern Spain., Waterbirds, 22: 297 - 301.


98. Katzir, G., et al. , (1999), Cattle Egrets are less able to cope with light refraction than are other herons., Animal Behaviour, 57: 687 - 694.


99. Chris Kightly; Steve Madge; Dave Nurney , (1998), Black-crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), POCKET GUIDE TO THE BIRDS OF BRITAIN AND NORTH-WEST EUROPE; , : 17.


100. Ian Sinclair; Olivier Langrand , (1998), Black-crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), BIRDS OF THE INDIAN OCEAN ISLANDS; , : 46.



Book Excerpts



937. Nycticorax griseus, Linnaeus.

Ardea, apud LINNAEUS-Blyth, Cat. 1646-Jerdon, Cat. 311 -Sykes, Cat. 179-GOULD, Birds of Europe, pl 279-Wak, H.- Oyah Beng.; also Kowa dauk, and Batchka, Beng.- Chinia wakka, Tel.-Gadri in Sindh.

The Night-Heron.

Descr.-Forehead and a narrow streak above the eye white ; crown of the head, upper part of back, and scapulars, black glossed with green ; occiput with a crest of three (or more) narrow long white feathers, 6 to 7 Inches long, channeled, and fitting into each Other; lower back, wings, and tail fine blue grey; all beneath pure white.

Bill black, yellowish at the base ; lores and orbits yellowish- green; irides blood red; feet yellowish-green.¬†¬† Length 21 to 23 inches ; wing 12 ¬Ĺ; tail 3 ¬ĺ; bill at front 2 8/10 ; tarsus 3 ; middle toe and claw 3 1/10¬† .

The young bird wants the occipital plumes ; the upper plumage is brownish ashy, with whitish spots; and the lower plumage whitish with brown streaks.
The Night-heron is found throughout India, is very common in many parts of the country, but is somewhat local in its distribution. During the day it roosts in Palm groves. Tamarind trees, and patches of jungle near water, issuing forth soon after sunset, and winging its way towards its feeding grounds, uttering at intervals its well known cry, wak-wak, which has been given as its name throughout the greater part of India. It breeds on Palms, Tamarind or Other trees, in society, making a nest of sticks, and laying usually four pale bluish-green eggs.

The Night-heron is somewhat rare in England, but is found throughout most parts of Europe, Asia, and Africa. In the latter country, it is said sometimes to breed on the ground in swamps, among the matted roots of reeds. Swinhoe states that it is the sacred bird of the Great Temple in Canton; that he observed that the eggs were hatched at different periods; and that whilst it had young, it fed them all the day long. I have never, to my knowledge, seen the Night-heron abroad during the day.

Various other Night-herons are found in different parts of the world, viz., N. Gardeni of America, (if really distinct from the European bird); N. obscurus, Licht., from Chili and the Malouine Islands; and N. violacea, L., from the West Indies and South America, made the type of the genus Nyctherodius, Reich.
One group has the upper plumage chesnut, thus approximating the Bitterns and Ardetta, viz. N. caledonicus, Gmelin; N. manillensis, Vigors; and N. crassirostris, Vigors, from Manilla and the Borneo Islands.

That curious bird the Boat-bill of South America, Cancroma cochlearia, with a large, broad, convex bill, is essentially a Heron ; and the lately discovered Whale-bill of Africa, Balaeniceps rex, Gould, is undoubtedly another nearly related form, as shown, among other points of similitude, by the peculiar powder-tufts seated on different parts of the body : the middle toe, however, is not pectinated. Parker states that it is decidedly an Ardeine bird with Pelecanine tendencies. These birds are placed as the types of two sub-families Cancrominae, and  alaenicipinae, of one family, Cancromidae, Bonaparte.
Scopus umhretta, the Umbre, is usually considered as belonging also to this family, but it appears to be rather closely related to the Tantalidae; its flight is said to be quite different from that of the Herons; the middle toe, however, is pectinated. Rhinochetus jubatus, Desmurs, is a highly crested form of bird referred to the Herons, but from its running like the Kails, (whose habits it otherwise possesses) it has been considered a sort of link between the Rallidae and Ardeidae. Eurypyga or Helias is generally classed in this family, as wed as Aramus ; the former appears to have some relations of analogy with the Scolopacidae, and especially with Rhynchaea; and Aramus with the Rails, vide antea, p. Eurypyga, however, is stated to possess one pair of powder down patches, and in that case might be placed as an aberrant form of the Herons, Its sternum is figured in the Rev, de Zool,, much narrowed, without a notch, and not at all unlike that of Aramus figured on the same plate ; both have eggs more like those of the Rails than the Herons. A.pileata, Latham, from South America, is considered to be a Night-heron, and is separated as Pilherodius, Reich.; and A. cucullata, Licht., from Africa, is made the type of Calherodius, Bonap. The only other type of the Herons not alluded to previously, is the A. agami, Gmelin, of South America, placed by some as a Nycticorax, but separated by Bonaparte as the type of Agamia, Reich., and placed between Ardeola and Butorides.




Nycticorax griseus, Lin.

 

937. :- Jerdon's Birds of India, Vol. II, p. 758 ; Butler, Guzerat; Stray Feathers, Vol. IV, p. 24; Deccan, Stray Feathers, Vol. IX, p. 435; Murray's Vertebrate Zoology of Sind, p. 276; Swinhoe and Barnes, Central India ; Ibis, 1885, p. 136.

The Night Heron.

Wale, Hin.
 

Length, 21 to 23; wing, 12.5 ; tail, 3.75 ; tarsus, 3 ; bill at front, 2.8.

Bill black, yellowish at base ; lores and orbits yellowish-green; irides blood-red; feet yellowish-green.

Forehead and a narrow streak above the eye white; crown of the head, upper part of back, and scapulars, black, glossed with green ; occiput with a crest of three (or more) narrow long white feathers, six to seven inches long, channeled, and fitting into each other; lower back, wings, and tail fine blue-grey; all beneath pure white.

The young bird wants the occipital plumes; the upper plumage is brownish ashy, with whitish spots; and the lower plumage whitish with brown streaks.

The Night Heron is a common and permanent resident in most parts of our district. It breeds during the rains, making a large loose stick nest, generally associating in colonies, with other species of herons, &c.





Nyctiardea nycticorax (Linn.).
The Night-Heron.


Nycticorax griseus (Linn.), Jerd. B. Ind. ii, p. 758.
Nyctiardea nycticorax (Linn.), Hume, Rough Draft N.& E. no. 937.

I believe that the Night-Heron breeds pretty well all over the Empire, alike in the plains and in the North-western Himalayas up to an elevation of 6000 or 7000 feet.

Common as is this species in many parts of the country, it is rarely seen in broad daylight unless one chances upon one of its hiding-places, usually some completely leaf-enshrouded bough, overhanging some stream or pond; but after sunset they may often be noticed, at times solitary, more usually in small parties, winging their way pretty high in air towards some feeding-ground, with a straight moderately rapid flight, uttering as they go, at short regular intervals, a single sharp note more like a quack, it seems to me, than a croak, as it is usually designated.

In the plains they breed in July and August, but in Cashmere, Mr. Brooks says, in April and May. They build both on trees and in reed-beds ; but I have only thrice found the nests, so cannot say which of those situations they commonly affect. When the nests are on trees they are more substantial, and more and larger sticks are used iu their construction than when they are placed in rushes and reeds. I could see nothing to distinguish their nests from those of all the other members of the family.

They lay four or five eggs ; but we found one nest in a gooler-tree near Juggernathpoor on the 21st August containing six, and all the eggs of this nest were very round and much below the usual average size.

Dr. Jerdon says that the Night-Heron " breeds on palms, tamarinds, and other trees in society" and this I believe to be the usual rule. It is curious that each of the three nests that I have seen were solitary.

Mr. Brooks writes to me:- " One of the breeding-places of this bird is a clump of fine chenar or plane trees adjoining the Shalimar Gardens, near Sirinuggur in Cashmere.

" These gardens are on the west border of the Sirinuggur Lake, and, as well as I remember, are about four miles from the city. Their elevation is the same as Sirinuggur (5000 feet)."

I visited this place about the 24th of May, and found a good number of the Common Heron (Ardea cinerea) breeding in the trees, and about eighteen pairs of the Night-Heron.

"Nearly all the pairs of both species had newly-hatched young; but a few pairs of each had eggs, of which the greater part were deeply incubated, but a few were fresh."

The nests of the Night-Heron were very similar to those of the Common Heron, but smaller; being composed entirely of sticks and twigs in the form of a simple platform, frequently so scanty that the eggs could be seen through the nest from below. As well as I remember, the greatest number of eggs or young in any nest of either species was three.

" The eggs of the Night-Heron were smaller and of a more elongated shape than those of the Common Heron, and were of a purer and lighter green. Both of these Herons breed much earlier in Cashmere than in the plains of India."

Another breeding-place of the Night-Heron which I found out was at Muniah Ghat, on the bank of the Ganges, halfway between the Tonse River and Allahabad.

" The trees in which they bred were about a dozen tamarinds close to the Muniah village. One side of the clump was occupied by a colony of Ardea alba, while the other belonged to the Night-Herons. There were about a dozen pairs, and they had fresh eggs in the beginning of August, or three months later than the breeding-time in Cashmere."

" I have only noticed these two breeding-places of the Night-Heron, but without doubt it breeds generally over North-western India in suitable localities, i.e. in well-watered districts. I should observe that in every instance in which I have found the breeding-place of Herons or Egrets in India, the trees chosen were close to native houses."

Colonel Butler writes; - " Mr. Doig and I found a large colony of Night-Herons breeding in the E. Narra, Sind, at the end of July 1878, in a dense tamarisk thicket, several acres in extent, in the middle of a large dhund, in one part of which a few clumps of tad bulrushes were growing, and in these and the adjoining trees the nests were built. Herons, Egrets, Cormorants, and Snake-birds were budding in hundreds ad round, but the Night-Herons had formed a separate colony. At the time we visited the place (24th), the birds were mostly budding, but subsequently about a week later our man took any number of eggs."

Mr. Oates records the following note from Pegu; - " This bird breeds in immense quantities in the swamps at Myitkyo. I have not taken the eggs because it was simply impossible, among the mass of birds, to authenticate the eggs properly. This bird flew off before the nest could be seen, whereas many of the other species allowed the canoe to approach pretty near before going away. July and August may, however, be considered the months in which they lay. The nests do not differ from those of A. purpurea and H. alba; for I saw only one type of nest ad the time, and many must have belonged to the present species."

The eggs vary very much in shape and size. Typically, I think, they are much of the shape of a hen's egg, but some again are considerably elongated, and here and there a specimen approaches the Cormorant shape. Typically, they are rather obtuse at both ends, but many are decidedly pointed, and some are more or less pyriform towards one end. The colour is a delicate pale sea-green, but some, when fresh, are a decidedly bright, though light green, and here and there an egg is to be met with so pale that it is scarcely more than greenish white.

In length they vary from 1.68 to 2.06, and in breadth from 1.3 to 1.45 ; but the average of eighteen eggs is 1.92 by 1.35.




1362. Nycticorax griseus (Linn),

 

Bodd., Tab. P. E. 758, 759; Naum., Vogt. t. 225; Gould, B. Eur. pl. 279; Jerd., B. Ind. iii. 758, No. 937 ; Dresser, B. Eur. vi. p. 299, pl.; Hume, Str. F. viii. p. 114; Murray, Vert. Zool., Sind, p. 276 ; Legge, B. Ceylon, p. 1165. Nyctiardea ycticorax, Hume, Nests and Eggs Ind. B. p. 624. Ardea grisea, Linn., Syst. Nat. i. p. 235; Str. F. vi. p. 415 ; Murray, Hdbk., Zool., &C, Sind,,]}. 228. (Gadri, Sind). -

The Night Heron.
 

Forehead and supercilium, also the chin', throat and a narrow mesial line on the foreneck white ; under tail coverts, breast and abdomen white, with a creamy tinge; top of head and nape, also the back and scapulars black, glossed with green; lengthened crest feathers 6 - 7 inches long, narrow and white, tipped with brown; hind neck, wing coverts, tail and sides of the body ashy grey ; first three quills emarginate near the tip ; bill black, yellow at base of lower mandible ; orbitar skin yellowish green; irides blood red.

Length - 22 to 23 inches; wing 12.5 ; tail 3.75; bill at front 2.8; tarsus 3.

Hab. - Sind, Beloochistan, Persia, Afghanistan and throughout India, Ceylon, and Burmah. It is a permanent resident in India, and breeds from May to September in societies. The nest is a loose structure of twigs. Eggs 3 - 4, glossless pale sea-green; size 1.92 x 1.35.





1568. Nycticorax griseus.

 

The Night Heron.

Ardea nycticorax & A. grisea, L. Syst. Nat. i, pp. 235, 239 (1766). Nycticorax griseus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xv, p. 373; id. Cat. p. 281 ;. Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 758; Hume & Henders. Lah. to Yark. p. 296; Ball, S. F. ii, p. 435; Butler, S. F. iv, p. 24; Oates, S. F. v, p. 168; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 690; Hume & Dav. S. F. vi, p. 484; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 231; Cripps, ibid. p. 309; Hume, Cat. no. 937; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 361 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 1165; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 91; Butler, ibid. p. 435; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 99; Scully, ibid. p. 592; Reid, S. F. x, p. 76; Davidson, ibid. p. 324 ; Davison, ibid. p. 417 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 387; id. Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. vi, p. 149. Nyctiardea nycticorax, Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xii, pt. 2, p. 254; Hume, N. & E. p. 624; id. S. F. i, p. 256; ii, pp. 315, 483; iii, p. 192 ; Armstrong, S. F. iv, p. 350; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 259 ; id. in Hume's N. & E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 258. Nycticorax nycticorax, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxvi, p. 146.

Wak, Kwak, Tar bagla, Kokrai, H.; Gadri, Sind; Kowa dauk, Batchka, Beng.; Chinta wakha, Tel. ; Sannari, Tam. (Ceylon); Rae kana koka, Cing.; Lin-wet, Burm.

Coloration. Crown and nape (the feathers of which are considerably lengthened), back, and scapulars black, glossed with metallic green ; a few narrow white feathers of great length from the nape; forehead, a streak over the eye, cheeks, chin, throat, fore neck, breast, and abdomen white; sides and back of neck, sides of body, wings, rump, and tail light ashy with a pinkish tinge, darkest on tertiaries.

Young birds are brown above, darkest on the crown, streaked with buff shaft-stripes, and with triangular buff tips to the back-feathers and wing-coverts ; lower plumage white streaked with brown, quills and tail-feathers ashy brown with white tips.

Bill black, yellowish at the base, lores and orbits yellowish green, irides blood-red, feet yellowish green (Jerdon) ; in the breeding-season the bill is black, eyelids and facial skin dull livid,, legs and toes pale rufous (Oates).

Length 23; tail 4; wing 11.5 ; tarsus 3 ; bill from gape 3.8.

Distribution. Central and Southern Europe and Asia, the whole of Africa, and the greater part of North America with the West Indies. The Night Heron is found throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma, locally distributed in the better-watered tracts.

Habits, &c. This Heron passes the day in large trees such as mangoes or tamarinds, or in palms, considerable numbers often associating together. After sunset they fly off to feed on fish, frogs, &c. Their flight is heavy, and they often, when flying, utter a characteristic cry, something like qwal; from this call one name by which they are widely known in India is taken. These Herons breed, often in company with other species of Herons, Egrets, &c, in trees, especially those standing in swamps, or sometimes in high reeds or grass ; they make the usual stick nests, and lay four or five pale sea-green eggs that measure about T92 by 1.35. The usual breeding-season in India and Burma is July and August, but in Kashmir it is earlier, April and May, and in Ceylon earlier still, about March.





216. Nycticorax griseus.

 

The Night Heron.

Wak, India; Gadri, Sind; Sannari, Ceylon; Lin-wet, Burma.

Male 21" to 24". Legs greenish. Bill black. Eye-streak white. Crown, nape, back, and scapulars black, glossed green. Crest of narrow, feathers fitting into each other. Cheeks, chin, throat, and abdomen white. C. and S. Europe, Asia, Africa, N. America, W. Indies, India, Ceylon, and Burma. Four or five eggs (1.92 x 1.35), pale sea-green. (J. 937. B. 1568.)

Also N. tayazuguira. 24". Similar to N. griseus, but beneath pale grey. From S. America. N. cyanocephalus. 24". Beneath dark slaty. From south of S. America. N. leuconotus. 20". Black above, with white patch on back. From Africa. N. caledonicus. 19 1/2". Tail chestnut, eyebrow white. From Australia. N. crassirostris. 22". Similar to N. caledonicus. From Bonin Islands. N. mandibularis. With white throat and no white eyebrow. From Solomon Islands. N. manillensis. 25". Similar to N. caledonicus, but no white eyebrow. From the Philippines and Borneo.

Also the genus Nyctinassa. With crest of nuchal plumes, dorsal plumes greatly developed, plumage slaty blue. Two species‚ÄĒ N. violacea, 22", Crown white, from N. and S. America; and N. pauper, 16", crown black, from the Galapagos.

Also the genus Cancrema. With bill flattened, broader than high. Two species‚ÄĒ C. cochlearia, 16", the Boatbill, with throat and chest white, from S. America; and C. zeledoni, 18", with throat and chest tawny, from C. America.

Culmen not so long as tarsus.





(2233) Nycticorax nycticorax nycticorax.

 

The Night Heron.

Ardea nycticorax Linn., Syst. Nat., 10th ed., i, p. 142 (1758) (Europa australi). Nycticorax griseus. Blanf. & Oates, iv, p. 397.

Vernacular names. Wak, Kwak, Tar Bogla, Kokrai (Hind.); Gadri (Sind.); Kow dauk, Batchka (Beng.) ; Chinta wakha (Tel.); Sannari (Tam., Ceylon); Rae kana koka (Cing.); Lin wet (Burma).

Description. Crown, nape and crest, back and scapulars black glossed with green; above the lores, forehead and supercilium white; two or three very long, narrow pure white feathers from the nape; chin, throat, fore-neck, centre of breast, abdomen and under tail-coverts white; remainder of plumage pale ashy vinous-grey, palest on the neck, darkest on the wing-quills and tail.

Colours of soft parts. Iris blood-red; bill black, greenish-yellow at the base and on most of the lower mandible; naked lores and orbital skin yellowish-green; legs and feet dull green; in the breeding-season the bill is more black and the legs and feet are pale reddish-horny.

Measurements. Wing 265 to 304 mm., exceptionally only under 272 or over 289 mm.; tail 96 to 115 mm.; tarsus about 65 to 75 mm.; culmen 64 to 81 mm. but nearly all between 70 and 80 mm. The sexes do not differ in size.

Young birds have the head blackish, with shaft-streaks of rufous; the upper parts brown, streaked with rufous, the streaks broadening to white patches on the wing-coverts; primaries and secondaries rather more ashy with white spots on the tips; lower parts white or buffy-white, broadly streaked with dark brown.

Distribution. South and Central Europe; Northern Africa and the greater part of Southern and Central Asia. In our limits it is found wherever there is sufficient water.

Nidification. The Night Heron breeds over most of India from June to September, but in Kashmir they lay as early as April and in Ceylon most birds breed in March. They nest in big colonies, sometimes in company with other Herons but more often by themselves, building their nests in trees of considerable size and height and often selecting trees in gardens or in the middle of villages for this purpose. The nests are well made of large and small sticks, often being roughly lined with smaller twigs and leaves. The eggs number four or five and are of the usual Heron green-blue, generally rather pale. Fifty Indian eggs average 49.9 X 35.1 mm.: maxima 54.1 x 35.8 and 51.3 x 37.3 mm.; minima 46.1 X 35.9 and 47.2 x 32.2 mm.

Habits. The Night Heron is truly nocturnal in its Habits. Not until after the sun has set for half an hour or so do the birds leave the trees, where they remain all day in the deepest shade they can get. As the sun sets they begin to get restless, preen themselves and fidget about; then one by one, never all together, they flap off their perches and wend their way to their feeding-grounds, uttering a loud, though not unmusical, squawk every few minutes as they fly. They feed on fish, frogs, crabs, Crustacea and worms. Their flight consists of very deliberate flaps and, in the distance, they look very like the huge flying foxes, with whom they are often seen flying. They are extraordinarily tame birds when they are not harassed and will allow observation from within a few yards without troubling to move.





Nycticorax nycticorax Linn.

 

Nycticorax nycticorax nycticorax Linn.

 

Ardea nycticorax Linn., Syst. Nat., 10th ed., vol. i, p. 142, Jan. 1758: South Europe.

Ardea grisea id., ibid., 12th ed., vol. i, p. 239,1766: "in Oriente" in errore, France.

Ardea kwaka S. G. Gmelin, Nov. Comm. Ac. Petrop., vol. xv, p. 452, pl. xiv, 1773.

Ardea ferruginea id., ibid., p. 456, pl. xvi.

Ardea maculata Gmelin, Syst. Nat., vol. i, pt. ii, p. 645, 1789 ; not of Boddaert, 1783: Europe.

Nycticorax infaustus Forster, Synop. Cat. Birds, p. 59, 1817; new name only.

Nycticorax europaeus Stephens in Shaw's Gen. Zool, vol. xi, p. 609, 1819; new name only.

Ardea australasiae Vieillot, Tabl. Enc. Meth., Orn., vol. iii, p. 1130, 1823; new name for

Ardea novaehollandiae Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., vol. xiv, p. 436, 1817: Europe ; not Ardea novaehollandiae Latham, 1790.

Nycticorax orientalis Brehm, Handb. Vog. DeutschL, p. 592, 1831: South-East, Europe.

Nycticorax badius id., ibid.: Switzerland.

Nycticorax meridionalis id., ibid., p. 593: Illyria.

Nycticorax ardeola Temm,, Man. d'Orn., 2nd ed., vol. iv, p. 384, 1840 = 1839 ; new name only.

Scotaeus guttatus Heuglin, 1873, ex Sitz. Math.-nat. Classe K. Akad. Wiss. Wien, vol. xix, p. 311, 1856, nom. nud., as synonym.

Nycticorax aegyptius Gurney in Anderson's Birds Damaraland, p. 293, 1872 ; new name only.





THE NIGHT HERON
Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeuus)


(Plate xxiv, Fig. 2, opposite page 506)

Description:-

Length 23 inches. Sexes alike. Top of the head with a drooping crest and the back black glossed with metallic green ; a few long narrow white feathers of great length spring from the crest; forehead, a streak over the eye, cheeks and the lower plumage white ; sides and back of the neck, flanks, wings, rump and tail light ashy with a faint pinkish tinge.

Iris blood-red; bare skin from the eyes to the beak yellowish-green, dull livid in the breeding season ; bill black, yellowish at the base except when breeding ; feet yellowish-green.

The bill is stouter and deeper than in the other Herons, and the neck is short and thick.

Field Identification:-
A small heavy Heron largely nocturnal in its habits, and sleeping by day in thick trees. The grey colour with white on the face and under surface, and the greenish-black crown and back are distinctive.

Distribution:-

The typical race is found through South and Central Europe as well as nearly the whole of Africa and the greater part of Asia; other races are found in North America and the West Indies. In India it is very general, being found throughout the plains and in the North-western Himalayas up to 5000 or 6000 feet. In the main a resident species, it is also locally migratory.

Another heavy looking species of similar size is the Bittern (Botaurus stellaris) which may be flushed from reed-beds in winter in Northern India. The colour is buffy-brown, streaked, barred and mottled with dark brown and black.

Habits, etc:-
The Night Heron is very common and abundant, though like many species that are colonial in their habits and dependent on water, its distribution is rather irregular. It is definitely a nocturnal species and is very shy and secretive.

The members of a colony spend their day sleeping and brooding in the thick foliage of a clump of trees, waiting till the fall of dusk. Then the whole colony moves off to the feeding grounds, in a con­tinuous Stream, each bird flying separately and each at intervals uttering the harsh raucous wock, which is almost a quack rather than a croak. The flight is dignified and moderately fast, the bird looking very short and heavy with its head tucked into its shoulders and the regularly flapping broad round wings. The roosting place once left behind, the birds spread far afield for the night's fishing in every little pond and jheel and stretch of water. The food is varied, like that of all the Herons, and consists of small fish, amphibia, crustacea, and aquatic insects.

The breeding season is in July and August in the plains, but early in April and May in Kashmir. The nest is a rough and slight Structure of sticks, unlined, and placed in a tree, usually at a good height from the ground. A few nests are solitary, but usually the birds build in colonies, and generally these colonies are in association with those of other species of Herons and Egrets.

The clutch consists of four or five eggs.

The egg is a moderately broad oval, as a rule rather obtuse at both ends. The texture is fine and hard, without gloss. The colour is a delicate pale sea-green, without markings.

The eggs measure about 1.92 by 1.35 inches.




Museum Collections


Number of Museum Specimen Records Found : 14 for Nycticorax nycticorax

No. Museum Species Collection Deatils Collector Date of Collection Record Locality GBIF Portal Link
1Field MuseumNycticorax nycticorax nycticoraxFMNH Birds 19260SpecimenSirur Bombay India Southern Asia Link
2Field MuseumNycticorax nycticorax nycticoraxFMNH Birds 19261SpecimenSirur Bombay India Southern Asia Link
3Field MuseumNycticorax nycticorax nycticoraxFMNH Birds 19262SpecimenSirur Bombay India Southern Asia Link
4Field MuseumNycticorax nycticorax nycticoraxFMNH Birds 19263SpecimenSirur Bombay India Southern Asia Link
5Yale University Peabody MuseumNycticorax nycticorax nycticoraxYPM ORN ORN.023158S. B. FairbanksSpecimen India Southern Asia Link
6Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard UniversityNycticorax nycticorax nycticoraxMCZ BIRDS 24825Carleton, M.MSpecimenKooloo Valley, no dates Himachal Pradesh India Asia Southern Asia Link
7Royal Ontario MuseumNycticorax nycticorax nycticoraxROM Birds 01.10.1.554MarshallSpecimenAmbala Punjab Pakistan Southern Asia Link
8University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyNycticorax nycticorax nycticoraxUMMZ Bird 76173Koelz, Walter N1934-01-29 00:00:00.0SpecimenKhinjar Lake Sind Pakistan Southern Asia Link
9University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyNycticorax nycticorax nycticoraxUMMZ Bird 76174Koelz, Walter N1934-01-30 00:00:00.0SpecimenKhinjar Lake Sind Pakistan Southern Asia Link
10University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyNycticorax nycticorax nycticoraxUMMZ Bird 76175Koelz, Walter N1934-02-19 00:00:00.0SpecimenKhinjar Lake Sind Pakistan Southern Asia Link
11University of Michigan Museum of ZoologyNycticorax nycticorax nycticoraxUMMZ Bird 76176Koelz, Walter N1934-02-19 00:00:00.0SpecimenKhinjar Lake Sind Pakistan Southern Asia Link
12Field MuseumNycticorax nycticorax nycticoraxFMNH Birds 2282891946-05-23 00:00:00.0SpecimenBheraghat Jabalpur Madhya Pradesh India Southern Asia Link
13Field MuseumNycticorax nycticorax nycticoraxFMNH Birds 2600501958-03-27 00:00:00.0SpecimenRaimona Goalpara Assam India Southern Asia Link
14Yale University Peabody MuseumNycticorax nycticorax nycticoraxYPM ORN ORN.040671R. A. Paynter1958-04-06 00:00:00.0Specimen Khulna Division Bangladesh Southern Asia Link

Biodiversity occurrence data provided by: (Accessed through GBIF Data Portal, 2009-08-06)


Data Providers
  • Field Museum ( 6 Records )

  • Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University ( 1 Records )

  • Royal Ontario Museum ( 1 Records )

  • University of Michigan Museum of Zoology ( 4 Records )

  • Yale University Peabody Museum ( 2 Records )


Sound/Call


21 calls found for Nycticorax nycticorax



Remarks: Calls when fleeing
Call Type: Calls (no score)


Remarks:
Call Type: Flight call (B)


Remarks: Call from an adult flying by.
Call Type: call (no score)


Remarks:
Call Type: call (B)


Remarks:
Call Type: song (no score)


Remarks: For more sonograms and recordings check my website: www.birdsongs.it
Call Type: flight calls (B)


Remarks: From Birds Sounds of Southern South America by Lopez-Lanus (2008)
Call Type: song (C)


Remarks: From Birds Sounds of Southern South America by Lopez-Lanus (2008)
Call Type: call (B)


Remarks: From Birds Sounds of Southern South America by Lopez-Lanus (2008)
Call Type: call (B)


Remarks: From Birds Sounds of Southern South America by Lopez-Lanus (2008)
Call Type: call (B)


Remarks: From Birds Sounds of Southern South America by Lopez-Lanus (2008)
Call Type: call (A)


Remarks: From Birds Sounds of Southern South America by Lopez-Lanus (2008)
Call Type: call (B)


Remarks: Ssp: hoactli. natural recording ; call from a juvenile
Call Type: call in flight (C)


Remarks:
Call Type: (C)


Remarks: Ssp: hoactli. In flight
Call Type: Alarm call (A)


Remarks:
Call Type: Flight calls (C)


Remarks: 4 birds are perched on a tree
Call Type: calls (B)


Remarks: From Birds Sounds of Southern South America by Lopez-Lanus (2008)
Call Type: call (A)


Remarks: Ssp: nycticorax.
Call Type: Call (no score)


Remarks: From Birds Sounds of Southern South America by Lopez-Lanus (2008)
Call Type: call (B)


Remarks:
Call Type: flight calls (no score)

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Links



Avibase - The World Bird Database for Black-crowned Night-Heron ( Nycticorax nycticorax )

BirdLife Species FactSheet for Black-crowned Night-Heron ( Nycticorax nycticorax )

Biodiversity Heritage Library for Black-crowned Night-Heron ( Nycticorax nycticorax )

Discover Life Maps for Black-crowned Night-Heron ( Nycticorax nycticorax )

Entrez, The Life Sciences Search Engine for Black-crowned Night-Heron ( Nycticorax nycticorax )

GBIF, Global Biodiversity Information Facility for Black-crowned Night-Heron ( Nycticorax nycticorax )

Google Images for Black-crowned Night-Heron ( Nycticorax nycticorax )

Google Scholar for Black-crowned Night-Heron ( Nycticorax nycticorax )

Google Websites for Black-crowned Night-Heron ( Nycticorax nycticorax )

Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) for Black-crowned Night-Heron ( Nycticorax nycticorax )

Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) CANADA for Black-crowned Night-Heron ( Nycticorax nycticorax )

IUCN Redlist Species FactSheet for Black-crowned Night-Heron ( Nycticorax nycticorax )

NCBI Molecular Data for Black-crowned Night-Heron ( Nycticorax nycticorax )

Pubmed Literature for Black-crowned Night-Heron ( Nycticorax nycticorax )

Catalogue of Life : Annual Checklist for Black-crowned Night-Heron ( Nycticorax nycticorax )

Tree Of Life for Black-crowned Night-Heron ( Nycticorax nycticorax )

uBio Portal for Black-crowned Night-Heron ( Nycticorax nycticorax )

uBio for Black-crowned Night-Heron ( Nycticorax nycticorax )

Wikipedia for Black-crowned Night-Heron ( Nycticorax nycticorax )

Xeno - Canto for Black-crowned Night-Heron ( Nycticorax nycticorax )

Zoonomen for Black-crowned Night-Heron ( Nycticorax nycticorax )



Cite this website along with its URL as:
Anonymous. 2014 Nycticorax nycticorax - Linnaeus, 1758 (Black-crowned Night-Heron ) in Deomurari, A.N. (Compiler), 2010. AVIS-IBIS (Avian Information System - Indian BioDiversity Information System) v. 1.0. Foundation For Ecological Security, India retrieved on 04/19/2014
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