Common Name : Ceylon Frogmouth
Scientific Name : Batrachostomus moniliger (Blyth, 1849)
Order : Caprimulgiformes
Family : Podargidae
Taxonomic Group : Caprimulgiformes - Podargidae ( Frogmouths )
Vernacular Name : Malayalam (Kerala): Makkachikkata, Sinhala (Sri Lanka): Gembikatabassa
Common Name : Ceylon Frogmouth
Scientific Name : Batrachostomus moniliger
Order : Caprimulgiformes Family : Podargidae (Frogmouths)
Range : Humid forests of sw India and Sri Lanka
This Species is Monotypic, No Subspecies
3rd Edition, 2003. Revised and Corrected per Corrigenda to December 31, 2006
Common Name : Sri Lankan Frogmouth
Scientific Name : Batrachostomus moniliger
SubFamily : Batrachostominae
This Species is Monotypic, No Subspecies
IOC Common Name : Sri Lanka Frogmouth
IOC Scientific Name : Batrachostomus moniliger
Region : OR Range : s India, Sri Lanka
Order : CAPRIMULGIFORMES Family : Podargidae
Category : Frogmouths
Note: Recognition of the Asian frogmouths (Batrachosomus) vs Australasian frogmouths (Podargus) as separate families (Christidis and Boles 2008) requires equal consideration for Rigidipenna inexpectatus as a monotypic family (see Tree of Life phylogeny)
SYNOPIS NO : 666
Scientific Name: Batrachostomus moniliger
Common Name: Ceylon Frogmouth
Common Name : Sri Lanka Frogmouth
Scientific Name : Batrachostomus moniliger(Blyth, 1846)
Birdlife Synonym : Ceylon Frogmouth (10)
BirdLife Redlist Status Year 2010: LC
BirdLife Species FactSheet for Sri Lanka Frogmouth ( Batrachostomus moniliger )
Taxonomy Treatment : R
IUCN Common Name (Eng) : Sri Lanka Frogmouth, Ceylon Frogmouth
Scientific Name : Batrachostomus moniliger (Blyth, 1846)
IUCN Redlist Species FactSheet for Sri Lanka Frogmouth, Ceylon Frogmouth ( Batrachostomus moniliger )
Species : moniliger
Genus : Batrachostomus
Family : PodargidaeOrder : Caprimulgiformes
IUCN RedList Status : LC
IUCN RedList Criteria Version : 3.1
IUCN RedList Year Assessed : 2008
IUCN RedList Petitioned : N
Family : PODARGIDAE
Scientific Name : Batrachostomus moniliger
Common Name : Sri Lanka Frogmouth
Bibliography of Ceylon Frogmouth ( Batrachostomus moniliger )
Number of Results found : 36
1. Sahas Barve , (2009), Sri Lanka Frogmouths Batrachostomus moniliger of Kogar: filling in the â€˜gapsâ€™, INDIAN BIRDS, 5:6: .
2. K.D. THANDULA JAYARATHNA , (2004), Observations on a nest of Sri Lanka Frogmouth Batrachostomus moniliger, Forktail, 20: 129.
3. Thandula Jayarathna KD , (2004), Observations on a nest of Sri Lanka Frogmouth Batrachostomus moniliger., Forktail, 20: 129 - 130.
4. Eldhose KV; , (2001), Calls of Frogmouths. Batrachostomus moniliger (Blyth), Newsletter for Birdwatchers, 41:1: 13.
5. Krys Kazmierczak; Ber van Perlo , (2000), Ceylon Frogmouth (Batrachostomus moniliger), A FIELD GUIDE TO THE BIRDS OF THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT; Yale University Press, : 152.
6. Simpson B; , (2000), Thattakad Bird Sanctuary, India, Oriental Bird Club Bulletin, 32:: 53.
7. , (2000), Mahadei. Jewel in Karnataka's crown. A Sanctuary report, Sanctuary Asia, 20:3: 52 - 55.
8. Baskaran ST; , (1999), A creature of the rain forest, Oxford University Press New Delhi, : 53 - 55.
9. Baskaran ST; , (1999), The Dance of the Sarus: Essays of a Wandering Naturalist, Oxford University Press New Delhi, : xvii.
10. Ramachandran K; , (1998), A photographic expedition, Hornbill, 1998:4: 25.
11. Hoffmann TW; , (1997), Notes on the distribution of some Sri Lankan birds, Ceylon Bird Club Notes, 1997:September: 51 - 53.
12. Gaston AJ;Zacharias VJ; , (1996), The recent distribution of endemic and disjunct birds in Kerala state: preliminary results of an ongoing survey, Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 93:3: 389 - 400.
13. Warakagoda D;Rooke S; , (1995), Kitulgala; Sinharaja; Gilimale; Kalametiya; Yala; Bundala Salterns; Yala Blocks III & IV (Kataragama-Buttala road); Nuwara Eliya, Lake Gregory; Horton Plains; Puttalam, Palavi, Ceylon Bird Club Notes, 1995:March: 22 - 23.
14. Santharam V; , (1995), A Frogmouth's 'darshan', Blackbuck, 11:1: 23 - 27.
15. Hoffmann TW; , (1995), Gilimale forest; Welimada, Uva Ben Head Estate, Ceylon Bird Club Notes, 1995:April: 39.
16. Hoffmann TW; , (1995), Gilimale Forest, Ceylon Bird Club Notes, 1995:March: 27.
17. Editor; , (1995), Gilimale Forest Reserve, Ceylon Bird Club Notes, 1995:April: 34.
18. Kannan R; , (1994), Are frogmouths 'living flytraps'?, Oriental Bird Club Bulletin, 19:: 57.
19. Kannan R; , (1994), Notes on the status and ecology of the Ceylon Frogmouth (Batrachostomus moniliger Blyth) from the Anaimalai Hills of Tamil Nadu, Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 91:3: 454 - 455.
20. Kannan, R. , (1994), Are frogmouths "living flytraps"?, Oriental Bird Club Bulletin, 19: 57.
21. KANNAN, R. , (1993), Recent sightings of the Ceylon Frogmouth, Batrachostomus moniliger, in India, Oriental Bird Club Bulletin, 17: 36 - 36.
22. Kannan R; , (1993), Recent sightings of the Ceylon Frogmouth in India, Oriental Bird Club Bulletin, 17:May: 36 - 38.
23. Hoffmann TW;Warakagoda D;Ratnayake A;Wijemanne A; , (1993), Bodhinagala, Ceylon Bird Club Notes, 1993:April: 37 - 38.
24. Kannan, R. , (1992), Recent sightings of the Ceylon Frogmouth in India., Oriental Bird Club Bulletin, 17: 36 - 38.
25. Daniels RRJ; , (1986), A Frogmouth again, Newsletter for Birdwatchers, 26:11-12: 24 - 25.
26. Borges R; , (1986), On the occurrence of the Ceylon Frogmouth (Batrachostomus moniliger) in North Kanara, Karnataka, Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 83:1: 200.
27. Daniels RRJ; , (1984), The Ceylon Frogmouth Batrachostomus moniliger, Newsletter for Birdwatchers, 24:1-2: 21.
28. Salim Ali; S Dillon RipleyÂ , (1983), No. 666. Ceylon Frogmouth (Batrachostomus moniliger ) Blyth, Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan; Oxford University Press, New Delhi, Volume 4 (Frogmouths to Pittas ): 1.
29. Editor; , (1983), [Notes of Dr CN Hacking.], Ceylon Bird Club Notes, 1983:March: 10 - 11.
30. Sugathan R; , (1981), A survey of the Ceylon Frogmouth (Batrachostomus moniliger) habitat in the Western Ghats of India, Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 78:2: 309 - 316.
31. Sugathan, R. , (1981), A survey of the Ceylon Frogmouth (Batrachostomus moniliger) habitat in the Western Ghats of India., Journal of Bombay Natural History Society, 78: 309 - 316.
32. W. W. A. Phillips , (1947), A Note on the Nesting of the Ceylon Frogmouth, Batrachostomus moniliger Blyth, Ibis, 89:3: 515 - 516.
33. Phillips WWA; , (1947), A note on the nesting of the Ceylon Frogmouth, Batrachostomus moniliger Blyth, Ibis, 89:3: 515 - 516.
34. Baker ECS; , (1914), [Exhibition of adult female, and a nest with eggs, of Batrachostomus moniliger, from Travancore.], Bulletin of the British Ornithologists Club, 35:: 38.
35. Legge WV; , (1875), Additions to the avifauna of Ceylon, and notes on various species found there, Stray Feathers, 3:1,2&3: 194 - 204.
36. Hume AO; , (1874), On two species of Batrachostomus, Stray Feathers, 2:4&5: 348 - 355.
Blyth, J. A. S. xvii, 806. - Podargus Javanensis, apud Jerdon, 2nd Suppl., Cat. 253 bis.
The Wynaad Frog-mouth.
Descr. - Above, with the throat and breast, bright bay or chesnut; breast with a torque of white spots, edged black, on the upper part of the breast, and another below it; belly, and lower tail- coverts, pale isabelline, with similar but smaller spots; flanks mottled with dusky; coronal feathers long; occipital feathers tipped white, edged black, forming a nuchal ring continuous with the pectoral collar; a pale rufescent supercilium ; the lengthened loral plumes tipped black and white ; wing-coverts tipped white, edged black ; tertiaries pale mottled dusky, with a minute terminal black and white spot; primaries black ; the scapulars like the tertiaries ; tail mottled, and obscurely banded, each band ending in a series of white spots, successively more developed in each outer feather; the lateral halves of the tail separated into two distinct lobes, the tail thus appearing forked.
Length 10 inches ; wing, 4 3/4; tail, 4 1/4.
I imagine there is little doubt that this is the species of Southern India which I considered to be Pod. Javanensis, and inserted in the 2nd. Supplement to my Catalogue, on the authority of Captain Roberts, of the 3Gth N. I. He obtained it on the Peria Pass, leading from Malabar into Wynaad. I have never procured it myself.Â Whilst on the banks of the Indrawutty river in the South-east of the Nagpore country, I saw a" Night-jar about dusk, flying about over the sandy and shingly bed of that river, and uttering a peculiar clear cry, quite unlike that of any of the Caprimulgi that I know. This was very probably the present species, but owing to the darkness, I failed in procuring a specimen, and did not again observe it. Very little is known of the habits of any of this genus.
Blyth's li. affinis from Malacca is much smaller than Javanensis and certainly distinct, and it may be the B. parvulus, Tern. (Bonap. Conspectus).Â Â It is a miniature of B. javanensis.
The South-Indian Frog-mouth.
Batrachostomus moniliger, Blyth, Jerd. B. Ind. i. p. 189: Hume, Cat. no. 105.
Mr. Bourdillon, writing from Mynall in Travancore, gives me the following interesting account of the nidification of the South-Indian Frog-mouth:-
" The nest was brought to me one evening by a coolie who had been working in the jungle. The nest was composed of vegetable down neatly and compactly interwoven with pieces of dead leaves, fragments of bark and dry wood, and one or two pieces of lichen. In shape it is a sort of disk about 2 1/2 inches broad and 1 1/4 deep, the upper surface being slightly hollowed out.
" The young one, partially fledged, was unmistakably a Frog-mouth from the colour of his plumage and bill and huge gape. On receiving the nest I at once went with the man, and, restoring it to its original position, sat down to watch."
The chick (I quote from my notes) was much pleased at finding himself in his old quarters, and repeatedly shook himself as if he could not at first settle down into a comfortable position ; this shaking being attended with some danger, as once or twice the bird seemed within an ace of rolling out of the nest. At intervals of about ten minutes it uttered a feeble chirruping call, not unlike an Ice-bird at a distance. As darkness increased its cry was more frequent and became a single chirp. I watched till night closed in and it became pitch dark without seeing anything of the old bird, though once something which might have been either bird or bat flitted past.
" Next morning I returned some time before sunrise, and in the moonlight had a good \iew of one of the old birds seated on the nest. It was in a very peculiar position, more lying down than sitting, with its head well up in the air. The nest was not 15 feet from the ground in a fork of a sapling, apparently without any attempt at concealment, so that I was able to approach very close to the bird, which without moving merely opened its large eyes to stare at me. Now comes the worst part of the story. I was so anxious to secure the specimen that I determined to shoot it on the nest; accordingly I retired as far as possible and fired. The result, owing to intervening bushes, being that to my great disappointment the bird went off into the jungle hard hit and was lost. Thinking at first the bird could not possibly have escaped I searched about for it, and at the foot of the small tree where the nest was I found the remains of an egg. These I have kept and will send with the nest, as I at least have no doubt that they originally enclosed the young Frog-mouth. You will see from these fragments that the egg of the bird is probably pure white, almost round, of thin texture, and with a smooth glossless surface."
The nest of this species taken at Mynall, Travancore, by Mr. Bourdillon is very similar to that of Batrachostomus hodgsoni, but is smaller and thicker, slightly oval in shape, 2.6 inches in length by 2.3 in width, and a full inch in depth. Instead of moss, a few fragments of dead leaves are incorporated, but the material is chiefly a soft felt-like mass, precisely similar in texture to that used by B. hodgsoni, but greyish white instead of brown. It is a mere pad with a shallow depression on the outer surface, a broad groove on the lower showing where it has rested on the upper surface of a nearly horizontal bough.
J. A. S. B. xvii. p. 5o6; Jerd., B. Ind. i. p. 119, No. 105 ; Str. F. ii. p. 350; iv. p. 376; vi. p. 55. Podargus Javensis, Jerd., 2nd Suppl. Cat. 253. Batrachostomus Javensis, (Horsf.), Str. F. vii. p. 147. -
The Wynaad Frogliouth.
Above with the throat and breast bright bay or chestnut; a torque of white spots edged black on the upper part of the breast and another below it; belly and lower tail coverts pale isabelline with similar but smaller spots; flanks mottled with dusky; coronal feathers long; occipital feathers tipped white and edged black, forming a nuchal ring continuous -with the pectoral collar; supercilium pale rufescent; loral plumes tipped black and white; wing coverts tipped white and edged black; tertiaries pale, mottled dusky, with a minute terminal black and white spot; primaries black ; scapulars like the tertiaries; tail mottled and obscurely banded, each band ending in a series of white spots, successively more developed on each outer feather, the lateral halves of the tail separated into two distinct lobes. (Jerd.) Bill black; irides hazel.
Length. - 10 inches; tail 4.25 ; wing 4.75 ; tarsus 0.7; bill from gape 1.2; width at gape 1.1.
Hab. - The Malabar Coast, Wynaad, Coorg, Travancore and the Central Provinces. Very little is known of its habits or of that of any other species of the genus, being a nocturnal bird. Mr. Bourdillon, however, says that, if he is not mistaken, the habits of this species is very shy and retiring, for it never appears to venture into the open, and only commences calling in the breeding season some considerable time after dark, and lives entirely in dense jungle. He adds that it is a very difficult bird to secure.
The Ceylonese Frogmouth.
Podargus javanicus, apud Blyth, J. A. S. B. xi, p. 798. Podargus javanensis, apud Jerdon, Madr. Jour. L. S. xiii, pt. 2, p. 143 ; Blyth, J. A. 8. B. xiv, p. 309 (nec Horsfield). Batrachostomus moniliger, Layard, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xviii, p. 806; Layard, A. M. N. H. (2) xii, p. 165; Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 189; Holdsiv. P. Z. S. 1872, p. 420 ; Legge, Ibis, 1874, p. 12; id. S. F. iii, p. 198; Hume & Bourd. S. F. iv, p. 376 ; Tweeddale, P. Z. S. 1877, p. 439, pis. xlviii, xlix; Hume, Cat. no. 105; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 331; Oates in Hume's N. & E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 38; Hartert, Cat. B. M. xvi, p. 644. Batrachostomus punctatus, Hume, S. F. i, p. 432; ii, p. 355; iii, p. 199; iv, p. 377; id. Cat. no. 105 bis; Blanford, Ibis, 1877, p. 252; Tweeddale, ibid. p. 391; Hume, Ibis, 1878, p. 122.
The Wynaad Frogmouth, Jerdon.
Coloration. Male. General tint mottled grey, with a more or less rufous tinge; supercilia whitish; black spots, each terminated by a buff speck, on the crown and back; a white collar on the hind-neck; scapulars and tertiaries whitish, quills dark brown, with buff or rufous spots on the outer webs ; tail with pale and dark cross-bands; lower parts much like the upper, with an imperfect white gorget, and much white on the abdomen.
Female. Dull rufous, like B. affinis ; supercilia pale; an indistinct white collar on the hind-neck; scapulars with very small subterminal black spots tipped with minute white specks ; some white spots at the ends of the wing-coverts; beneath, the abdomen is much paler; there is a band across the throat of feathers white at the end with a somewhat irregular subterminal black bar; similar feathers are scattered over the abdomen. The upper parts are usually more or less mottled with blackish, and there are indications of cross-bars to the tail-feathers. Young birds are greatly mottled throughout.
Bill olive-brown, the lower mandible paler; irides yellow; legs and feet fleshy grey (Legge). Tarsus feathered for the greater part of its length.
Length about 9 ; tail 4.5 ; wing 4.75 ; tarsus .6; width of bill at gape 1.3. The type of B. punctatus was exceptionally small, tail 4, wing 4.3.
Distribution. Throughout Ceylon, in Travancore, and doubtless in the Wynaad.
Habits, &c. A shy nocturnal bird, living in forest, and very seldom seen. Legge, in Ceylon, once found one sleeping perched across a bamboo in the daytime. "When thus perched its bill was turned upwards and its eyes closed. Both Legge and Bourdillon noticed a loud chuckling cry, which they attributed to this bird, and both think this species less rare than it appears to be. Bourdillon obtained a young one and the nest in Travancore on February 24th; the nest was a pad, inches broad, of dead leaves, fragments of bark, dry wood, and lichen interwoven with vegetable down, in the fork of a sapling about 15 feet from the ground. Fragments of the egg showed that it was pure white, smooth, and glossless.
The Ceylon Frogmouth.
Batrachostomus moniliger (Layard) Blyth, J. A. S. B., xviii, p. 806 (1849) (Ceylon); Blanf. & bates, iii, p. 196.
Vernacular names. None recorded.
Description. - Male. General colour above grey-brown, the feathers being very finely vermiculated pale buff and brown; crown, nape and back spotted with black, those on the crown and nape edged with white; an obsolete pale rufous collar followed by a much better defined white one; scapulars and innermost secondaries white with black subtips and narrow wavy bars of blackish; tail with alternate bands of mottled grey and mottled chestnut, each bar edged with black; primaries dark brown, the outer webs marked with rufous and the tips mottled : chin, throat and breast vermiculated buff and dark brown; an imperfect band of white and black below the throat; abdomen much paler and more mottled with white and with black spots or bars.
Colours of soft parts. Iris yellow, or marbled yellow and grey; bill pale brownish, olive-brown or fleshy-horny, the base and gonys paler and more pink; legs and feet fleshy-grey to fleshy-pink.
Measurements. Wing 110 to 125 mm.; tail 101 to 112 mm.; tarsus about 15 mm.; culmen 17 to 18 mm.; breadth at gape 32 to 34 mm.
Female. Similar to that of B. affinis hut with the median and greater coverts boldly spotted with white, margined with black; scapulars and innermost secondaries with tiny black and white apical spots; under plumage a much deeper rufous.
Some males are rather chestnut in tinge, probably due to youth.
Young birds are barred above with narrow bars of brown.
Nestlings covered with pure white down (T. B. Bell).
Distribution. Ceylon, Travancore and the Wynaad.
Nidification. This Frogmouth breeds in Travancore from January to May and again in September and October whilst Bell took nests in Karwar in March. The nests are exactly like those of B. j. hodgsoni, but rather smaller, and are placed in similar situations though Stewart, who has taken numerous nests, says that occasionally these are placed in deciduous forest and are quite conspicuous. The cock bird sits as close as do the other members of this genus and allows itself to be photographed without trouble. Only one egg is laid, which only differs from that of Hodgson's Frogmouth in being larger. Thirty eggs average 29.9 x 20.6 mm.: maxima 31.1 x 23.0 mm,; minima 27.6 x 19.0 mm.
Habits. Those of the genus except that it is not so entirely confined to dense evergreen forest. Its ordinary call has been likened to " a soft Kooroo-koroo," repeated several times.
Batrachostomus moniliger Blyth, J. A. S. B., vol. xviii, p. 806, 1849, ex Layard MS.: Ceylon.
Batrachostomus punctatus Hume, Str. Feath., vol. i, p. 432, 1873.
No Data Avialbale for Batrachostomus moniliger
1 calls found for Batrachostomus moniliger
Call Type: song (B)
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Anonymous. 2013 Batrachostomus moniliger - Blyth, 1849 (Ceylon Frogmouth ) in Deomurari, A.N. (Compiler), 2010. AVIS-IBIS (Avian Information System - Indian BioDiversity Information System) v. 1.0. Foundation For Ecological Security, India retrieved on 05/18/2013