1042. The Lapwing.
Vanellus vulgaris, Bechst. Orn. Taschenb, ii. p. 313 (1803) ; Dresser, vii. p. 545, pl. 531 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 230 ; Saunders, p. 555 ; Lilford, v. p. 43, pl. 10 ; Poynting, p. 63, pl. 16 ; ? V. capella, Schaeff. Mus. Orn. p. 49 (1789) ; Tringa vanellus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 248 (1766) ; (Naum.), vii. p. 269. Taf. 179 ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 166 ; (Ridgway), p. 172 ; V. cristatus, Wolf and Meyer, Hist. Nat. Ois. de l'Allem. p. 110 (1805) ; Gould, B. of E. iv. p. 291 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pl. 33 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 301, pl. lxviii. ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 312 ; Tacz. F. O. Sib. O. p. 838.
Vanneau dixhuit, French ; Abibe, Abecuinha, Portug. ; Ave fria, Span. ; Pavoncella comune, Ital. ; Kiebitz, German ; Kievit, Dutch ; Vibe, Dan. and Norweg. ; Tofsvipa, Swed. ; Hyyppa, Finn. ; Pigolitza, Chibis, Russ. ; Tagere, Jap.
Male ad. (England). Forehead, crown, fore throat and upper breast velvety black ; nape, sides of neck and face and under parts white ; on the hind crown a long curved crest ; upper parts metallic green tinged with purple ; quills purplish black ; wing-coverts violet-purple ; upper and under tail-coverts rust-red ; tail white on the basal, and black on the terminal half, the outer feathers nearly all white ; bill black ; legs brownish red ; iris dark brown. Culmen 1.15, wing 8.8, tail 1.45, tarsus 1.8 inch. Female duller with a shorter crest. In winter both sexes have the throat white, the breast-feathers tipped with white and those on the upper parts slightly buff-tipped. The young bird resembles the above winter dress, but has the sides of head and nape washed with buff, the pectoral band small, and the feathers on the upper parts edged with buff.
Hab. The whole of Europe, north to the Arctic Circle ; wintering in Southern Europe and North Africa ; Canaries ; Madeira, rare in the Azores ; Asia Minor and Asia east to Japan, north to Dauria ; South China and N.W. India in winter.
Inhabits the lowlands, plains, and moors except when breed¬ing, in preference damp localities, and is shy and wary ; when disturbed, especially when breeding, it flies overhead, swooping and casting itself about uttering its wailing cry, pee-wit, pee-wit. It feeds on worms and insects of various kinds. It begins to breed late in March or early in April, its nest being a mere depression in the soil, scantily lined with grass. The eggs, 4 in number, are brownish olive with a few purplish brown shell-blotches, and with many blackish brown surface spots and blotches, and measure about 1.73 by 1.35.
1042. Vanellus vulgaris
1042. The Lapwing.