1437. Chettusia gregaria.
The Sociable Lapwing.
Charadrius gregarius, Pall, Reis. Suss. Reichs, i, p. 456 (1771). Chettusia gregaria, Bonap. Iconogr. Faun. Ital., Introd. Cl. Ucc. p. 12 ; Irby, Ibis, 1861, p. 238 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 644; Blanf. J. A. S. B. xxxviii, pt. 2, p. 190; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 250; Hume, S. F. i, p. 231; Adam, ibid. p. 394 ; Hayes Lloyd, Ibis, 1873, p. 416; Butler, S. F. iv, p. 12; v, p. 232; ix, p. 426; Davids. & Wend. S. F. vii, p. 88; Hume, Cat. no. 852; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 82; Biddulph. Ibis, 1881, p. 95; Scully, ibil. p. 587; Reid, S. F. x, p. 65; Davidson, ibid. p. 319 ; Fames, Birds Bom. p. 332. Vanellus gregarius, Blyth, Cat. p. 339; Seebohm, Charadr. p. 211. Chaetusia gregaria, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 174.
The Black-sided Lapwing.
Coloration. Crown black ; forehead and broad supercilia, extending entirely round the crown, white; lores, orbits, and a narrow-line extending to the ear-coverts black; chin white, passing into buff on the throat and the sides of the face, and this passing into the light ashy brown of the neck, breast, back, scapulars, tertiaries, and most of the wing-coverts ; lower back rather darker; greater secondary coverts grey at base and tipped white, secondaries pure white ; primary coverts black, primaries the same except at their bases and on the inner border of the last primary, which are white; upper tail-coverts and greater part of tail white; a broad subterminal black band on median rectrices, becoming narrower on the other tail-feathers and disappearing on the outermost pair; the greyish-brown breast passes into the black abdomen, bordered with chestnut behind; thigh-coverts, vent and lower tail-coverts, flanks and wing-lining white.
In young birds (or, according to some, in winter plumage) the crown is dark brown generally mixed with black; forehead and superciliary band buff; upper parts darker than in adults and the feathers pale-edged ; the black line from the lores and the black and chestnut of the abdomen are wanting, and the lower parts are white except the breast, which is mottled brown. Most Indian specimens are in this plumage, but the adult phase appears to be sometimes met with even in the cold season.
Bill black ; irides dark brown ; legs dull black.
Length 13 ; tail 3.4; wing 8; tarsus 2.4; bill from gape 1.2.
Distribution. A migratory bird, breeding in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, and visiting North-eastern Africa and Northwestern India in winter. In India it is common in parts of the Punjab, and ranges east to Oudh and Bundelkhand, and south to the Deccan (Nagpur, Jalna, Ahmednagar) and even Eatnagiri.
Habits, &c. The Sociable lapwing occurs in flocks from 4 or 5 to 50 or 60 in number, that keep to open country, arrive in W. N. India in the beginning of October and leave about March.