1037. Hoplopterus spinosus

1037. SPUR-WINGED PLOVER.
HOPLOPTERUS SPINOSUS.
Hoplopterus spinosus (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 256 (1766) ; (Gould), B. of E. iv. pl. 293 ; Dresser, vii. p. 530, pl. 530 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 157.
Zic-zac, Arab. ; Pavoncella armata, Ital.
Male ad. (Egypt). Crown, nape, chin, middle of throat and neck, and breast to lower abdomen glossy black ; sides of head, neck, and of throat, hind neck, sides of rump, upper tail-coverts, base of tail, under surface of wings, crissum, and under tail-coverts white ; back, scapulars and inner secondaries pale buffy brown ; quills and tail, except at base, black, the latter narrowly tipped with white ; and outer part of wing-coverts white ; a sharp spur on the carpus ; bill and legs black ; iris lake-red. Culmen 1.2, wing 8.15, tail 4.2, tarsus 2.85 inch. Sexes alike.
Hab. Africa south to Kordofan and the Niger district ; Palestine, Asia Minor, Southern Russia, Turkey, and has also occurred in Greece, Malta, and Italy ; in Asia it is said to have occurred as far east as Persia, but this is doubtful.
In general habits it has much in common with Vanellus vulgaris, and like that bird is wary, restless, and noisy, and whenever an intruder is noticed t dies overhead uttering its warning cry, zac, zac, zac. It breeds in Egypt in March and April, its nest being a mere depression in the sand, and deposits 3 or 4 eggs, which are greyish olive or warm dark ochreous, closely spotted and blotched with olive-brown and blackish, the markings being usually more numerous at the larger end ; in size they measure about 1.64 by 1.23.

BookTitle: 
A Manual Of Palaearctic Birds
Reference: 
Dresser, Henry Eeles. A Manual of Palaearctic Birds. Vol. 2. 1903.
Title in Book: 
1037. Hoplopterus spinosus
Book Author: 
H. E. Dresser
CatNo: 
1037
Year: 
1903
Page No: 
745
Common name: 
Spur Winged Plover
M_ID: 
3993
M_CN: 
River Lapwing
M_SN: 
Vanellus duvaucelii
Volume: 
Vol. 2
id: 
10856

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