1067. Upupa indica.
The Indian Hoopoe.
Upupa senegalensis, apud Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 189; id. Cat. p. 46; nee Sw. Upupa indica, Reich. Handb. spec. Orn. p. 320, pl. dxcvi, fig. 4037 (1851-4); Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 578; Salvin, Cat. B. M. xvi, p. 10. Upupa ceylonensis, Reich, t. c. pi. dcxv, fig. 4036; Blyth, His, 1866,. p. 366 ; Hume, Cat. no. 255 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 142 ; Oates in Hume's N. & E. ii, p. 334. Upupa nigripennis, Gould MS., Horsf. & M. Cat. ii, p. 725 (1858); Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 392; id. Ibis, 1872, p. 22; MacMaster,. J. A. S. B. xl, pt. 2, p. 209; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xii, pt. 2, p. 235; Butler, S. F. iii, p. 462; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 278. Upupa longirostris, Jerdon, B. I. i, p. 393; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 89; xi, p. 88; id. Cat. no. 254 bis ; Blyth & Wald. Birds Burm. p. 69 ; Hume & Dav. S. F. vi, p. 202; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 62; id. In Hume's N. & E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 338.
Hudhud, H.; Sutdr, Mahr.; Kondeh pitta, Kukudeu guwa, Tel. Chaval kuruvi, Tam., Ceylon; Toun-bee-sote, Burm.
Coloration similar to that of U. epops, except that there is no-white on the crest, that the head, neck, back, and breast are more rufous, and that this colour extends farther over the abdomen: thighs often rufous.
Typical Burmese specimens have the wing in males 5.6, bill from gape 2.6 ; in females 5.3 and 2.4 : but Indian and especially Ceylonese specimens, run smaller—wing in Ceylonese males 5-3, in females 4.85; bill 2.4 and 2.1. Skins from India, especially from the North, very often show a tinge of white on the crest; these specimens Salvin regards as intermediate between U. indica and U. epops, hybrids in fact, and I agree with him. To separate the Indian and Burmese forms, and to make three species on such very small distinctions as exist, is neither necessary nor reasonable.
Distribution. "With the exception of Sind and the "Western Punjab, throughout India, Ceylon, Burma, Siam, Cambodia, and the countries eastward to Hainan. A resident species.
Habits, &c. Similar to those of U. epops. The breeding-season in various parts of India is from February till May, earlier to the southward; in Ceylon, according to Legge, November to April. The eggs are 4 to 7 in number, sometimes, it is said, more, pale bluish or greenish-white in colour, and measure about .97 by .66.