24. Turdus alpestris

24. SUBSP. Turdus ALPESTRIS.
Turdus alpestris, Ch. Brehm. Isis, 1828, p. 1281 ; Naumann, Taf. 361, fig. 3 ; Dresser, ix. p. 9, pls. 15, 635.
Male ad. (Transylvania). Differs from T. torquatus in having the feathers on the under parts broadly margined with white and with a large white median patch, the, female also having broad white margins. In winter the feathers on the upper parts have broad brown margins, and the white portions of the, plumage are duller in colour.
Hab. The mountain ranges of south central and southern (chiefly south-eastern) Europe ; Asia Minor, and it is probably this form which is found in Persia. In winter it descends to the lowlands, and probably visits North Africa.
In habits it resembles T. torquatus, but its song is said to be more powerful and of a higher quality, and it differs in placing its nest in a tree, usually a spruce, at from 15 to 50 feet above the ground. Its eggs resemble those of T. torquatus, but are, as a rule, bluer in tone of ground colour, and less boldly marked.

BookTitle: 
A Manual Of Palaearctic Birds
Reference: 
Dresser, Henry Eeles. A Manual of Palaearctic Birds. Vol. 1. 1902.
Title in Book: 
24. Turdus alpestris
Book Author: 
H. E. Dresser
CatNo: 
24
Year: 
1902
Page No: 
20
M_ID: 
27316
M_SN: 
Turdus torquatus alpestris
Volume: 
Vol. 1
id: 
10873

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