15. DUSKY THRUSH.
Turdus obscurus, Gmel. Syst Nat. i. p. 876 (1788) ; Tacz. F. O. Sib., 0. p. 306 ; (Oates) F. Brit. Ind. Birds, ii. p. 134 ; Dresser, ii. p. 71, pl. 8 ; (Seebohm) Cat. B. Br. Mus. v. p. 273 ; Dresser, Ibis, 1001, p. 445, pl. ix. figs. 1-4 (eggs) ; T. pallens, Pall. Zoogr. Boss. As. i. p. 457, (1811) ; T. pallidus (nec. Gmel.) Temm. Man. d’Orn., iii. p. 97.
Male ad. (Yenesei). Head and neck slaty brown ; rest of upper parts olivaceous brown ; wings and tail brown, the external rectrices tipped with white ; a distinct superciliary stripe ; chin and a patch below the eye white ; breast and flanks orange buff ; rest of under parts white ; axillaries and under wing-coverts grey ; bill brown ; the lower mandible pale yellowish ; iris brown. Culmen 0.8, wing 4.92, tail 3.7, tarsus 1.25 inch. The female is duller, has the head and neck blown, the eye-streak huffy white and the chin, throat, and sides of the neck dull white. The young has the head and upper parts olivaceous, spotted with ochreous, the feathers with dark tips ; under parts white, throat and breast spotted with dark brown ; flanks dull orange ; superciliary streak indistinct.
Hab. Siberia from the Yenesei valley east to Lake Baikal and the Amoor, north to Kamchatka ; Japan, China, and Mongolia on passage, wintering in Assam, Malacca, and the islands of the Malay Archipelago ; of rare occurrence in Nepal, and Turkestan, and a rare straggler to Europe where it has occurred in Austria, Italy, Southern France, Holland, Belgium, and Germany.
This species frequents woodlands, usually pine, larch, and spruce groves, and differs little from its allies in its general habits. Its song is clear and rich, but it seldom gets be¬yond two or three notes. Its nest is placed on a tree at an altitude of from 15 to 20 feet ; resembles that of a Fieldfare, is strongly built and lined with fine grass and dry larch needles. The eggs 4 to 5, seldom 6, are deposited in June, and resemble small eggs of the Blackbird, but are sometimes more richly spotted and blotched with rusty-red, and in size measure about 1.06 by 0.75.
15. Turdus obscurus
15. DUSKY THRUSH.