Turdus iliacus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 292 (1766) ; Naumann ii. p. 276, Taf. 67 ; Hewitson, i p 87, pl. xxiv. figs. 1,2; Newton, i. p. 268 ; Dresser, i. p. 35, pl, 3 ; Tacz. F. O. Sib. O. p. 314 ; Seebohm, Cat. B. Br. Mus. v. p. 189 ; Saunders, p. 5 ; Lilford, iii. p. 84, pl. 42.
Mauvis, French ; Tordo pisco, Portug. ; Malvis, Span. ; Tordo sassello, Ital. ; Rothdrossel, German ; Roeddrossel, Dan. ; Roedving, Norweg. ; Rodvinge-Trast, Swed. ; Punirastas, Finn. ; Drozd-ariechowyi, Russ. ; Skogar Throestr, Icel.
Ad. (Sweden). Above brown, the wings rather darker, the coverts edged with greyish brown ; below white spotted and streaked with blackish brown : a well defined whitish eye-streak, axillaries wing-coverts, and flanks orange chestnut ; bill dark brown, lower mandible paler at the base ; legs greyish flesh brown ; iris brown. Culmen 0.7, wing 4.6, tail 3.5, tarsus 1.0 inch. Sexes alike. The young are streaked above with ochreous, and have the flanks and under wing-coverts dull rufous. In the autumn the adult is rather darker, the eye-streak is tinged with rufous, and the flanks and the wing-coverts are less richly coloured.
Hab. Iceland, the northern portions of Norway, Sweden Finland, and N. Russia, breeding as far south as North Germany. In Asia it is common to the Yenesei valley and occurs in decreasing numbers east to the Pacific Ocean. In winter it ranges south to Algeria, Madeira, the Canaries, Turkestan, Persia, and the Himalayas. In Britain it only occurs on migration and in winter.
It frequents the woodlands and is but seldom seen in open tree-less localities, and its food is similar to that of its congeners. Its song is clear and sweet, though somewhat melancholy and in quality inferior to that of Turdus musicus. The nest, which is placed on a very low tree or bush, or even on the ground, is constructed of pine-twigs, bents, and lichens, the foundation being plastered with earth, and the eggs, usually 6 in number, are deposited in May or early in June, resemble those of T. merula but are smaller, measuring about 1.0 by 0.70, but like thoseof many other species they vary, exhibiting what may be termed a “red” or a “green” type, not that either of these colours is in its purity ever reached, but in a series of eggs the tendency to one or the other extreme tinge is clearly shown.
7. Turdus iliacus