(574) Turdus eunomus.
The Dusky Thrush.
Tardus eunomus Temm., PL Col., ii, pi. 514 (1831) (Japan). Merula fuscata. Blanf. & Oates, ii, p. 129.
Vernacular names. Daokat (Cachari).
Description.— Adult male in Winter. Forehead and crown black with narrow grey margins, the remainder of the upper plumage blackish brown, each feather with broad rufous-grey margins which become more and more rufous towards the tail; tail dark brown ; winglet brown; wing-coverts and quills dark brown, the former and the secondaries broadly and the primaries narrowly edged with pale chestnut; a broad supercilium greyish white; lores and posterior ear-coverts black; cheeks, sides of throat and neck white spotted with black; chin, throat and fore-neck white tinged with buff; lower parts white tinged with buff on the breast and the feathers of the breast and flanks with broad black centres which form a gorget across the upper breast; under tail-coverts pale chestnut with white edges.
Colours of soft parts. Iris golden-brown to brown ; bill dusky brown, almost black on the culmen, yellowish at the base; legs light brown to dark brown.
Measurements. Total length 260 mm.; wings 124 to 138 mm.; tail 83 to 90 mm.; tarsus 34 mm.; culmen 20 mm.
Female. Above olive-brown to brown from forehead to tail, the rump and upper tail-coverts more rufous than elsewhere ; the chin and throat are generally much more spotted with dark brown than in the male and the breast less spotted ; the rufous on the wings is much paler and duller.
Colours of soft parts and Measurements practically as in the male.
Distribution. Northern Asia from West to extreme East, in winter wandering South to Northern India, Assam, Burma and China.
Nidification. This Thrush breeds during May and June as far North as the limits of tree-growth, making a rough and untidy nest of grass, twigs, moss, etc., lined with mud and with a further lining of fine grasses. The nest is generally placed on small isolated trees and often within a foot or two of the ground. The eggs number four or five and are of the Blackbird type, though some are rather more definitely blotched and spotted. Forty-eight eggs average 27.8 x 20.6 mm.: maxima 30.6 X 19.5 and 27.0 x 22.2 mm.; minima 24.1 xl9.2 mm. and 24.2 x l9.0 mm.
Habits The Dusky Thrush is an inhabitant of open, semi-wooded country and even when on migration in its winter quarters prefers open fields and grass-lands with thin forest rather than the denser woods. Its flight is swift and powerful and it is said to have a rough harsh note.