Troglodytes parvulus, Koch, Baier. Zool. i. p. 161 (1816) ; Naum. iii. p. 725, Taf. 83, fig. 4 ; Dresser, iii, p. 219, pl. 124, fig. 1 Newton, i. p. 460 ; Saunders, p. 115 ; Lilford, ii. p. 120, pl. 54 ; Baedeker, Eier, Eur. Vog. Taf. 43, fig. 1 (eggs) ; T. europoeus, (Vieill.) Gould, B. of E. ii. pl. 130 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. ii. pl. 63 ; Anorthura troglodytes, (L.) Macg. iii. p. 15 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. vi. p. 269.
Roitelet, French ; Carricinha das moitas, Portug. ; Cucito, Ratilla, Span. ; Re di macchia, Ital. ; Zaunkonig, German ; Winterkoning, Dutch ; Gjerdesmutte, Dan. ; Gjerdevippe, Norweg. ; Gardsmyg, Swed. ; Peukaloinen, Finn. ; Krapivnik. Russ.
Male ad. (England). Upper parts reddish brown transversely barred with lark brown ; under parts buffy white, the belly and flanks browner, the latter slightly barred ; a dull white streak over the eye ; outer quills barred with blackish brown and dull brownish white on the outer web ; bill horn-brown, paler at base of lower mandible ; legs light brown ; iris brown. Culmen 0.6, wing 1.9 tail 1.4, tarsus 0.74 inch. The female is somewhat duller in colour and the under parts are browner, and the young are rather mure spotted above and less barred on the underparts.
Hab. Europe generally ; Asia Minor, east to Persia ; N. Africa.
Confiding, trustful, and active in its movements, the Wren is one of our best known birds. It frequents gardens, outhouses, and groves, and appears to prefer the vicinity of man. Its flight is short and weak, but it creeps about the underbrush and hedges like a mouse, and with the greatest ease. Its call-note is sharp and clicking, and its song, which is uttered throughout most of the year, is loud, shrill, and pleasing. It feeds chiefly on insects and their larvae, but also to some extent in the autumn on berries. It commences nidification early, building an oven-shaped nest of grass, moss, and lichens, with an entrance-hole on the side, and lines it with feathers. It is placed in a bush, against a tree, a wall or a bank, or in a thatch- roof. The eggs, which are deposited from the middle of April to June, are usually from 6 to 8 in number, and are white, more or less spotted with red. and measure from 0.63 by 0.47 to 0.68 by 0.50. Seebohm described the St. Kilda Wren as distinct, naming it (Zool. 1884, p. 333) T. hirtensis ; and Dr. Stejneger separates the bird from S.W. Norway as T. bergensis, but I cannot concur in either of these separations.
290. Troglodytes parvulus