460. Troglodytes troglodytes neglectus

(460) Troglodytes troglodytes neglectus Brooks.
THE KASHMIR WREN.
Troglodytes troglodytes neglectus, Fauna B. I., Birds, 2nd ed. vol. i, p. 446.
This Wren is found over the whole of the North-West from the frontier, throughout Kashmir, to the Simla States. On the Safed Koh Whitehead reported it to be fairly common, from 8,000 feet upwards, chiefly in Juniper-scrub. He took one nest there on 15th June. In Kashmir it breeds in great numbers from 6,000 to 10,000 feet.
Brooks was the first to take its nests in Kashmir. Of these he writes :—“ The Cashmir Wren is not uncommon in the pine-woods of Cashmir, and in habits and manners resembles its European congener. I found two nests. One was placed in the roots of a large upturned pine, and was globular with entrance at the side. It was profusely lined with feathers and was composed of moss and fibres. A second nest was placed in the thick foliage of a moss- grown fir-tree and was about 7 feet from the ground. It was similarly composed to the other nest.”
Davidson, writing of Kashmir, whence I have received many nests and eggs from various collectors, says that he “found many nests in the first fortnight of June. These varied much. Some were placed in the roots of fallen pines, and were large structures of moss, lined with feathers and with the entrance on one side. Others were in holes in banks or dead trees, and consisted merely of a few feathers separating the eggs from the rotten wood.”
The upturned roots of a fallen tree seem as favourite a site in India for our little Wren as it is in England for the English Wren. Osmaston, who took several nests of this Wren in the Lidarwat Valley at about 9,000 feet, found two of them in the upturned roots of fallen Silver Firs, about 4 feet and 6 feet from the ground ; another he found under a fallen log. It is noticeable that in twoof his nests lichen was one of the materials used on the outside and that hair was mixed with the feathers in the lining. All his nests were taken in the month of June.
Whitehead found one on the Safed Koh “on his cook-house roof, made of grass well lined with fur and feathers, at B-kba Dhana, 10,500 feet,” containing five eggs.
Another unusual place is recorded by Osmaston, who found a “nest in a hole in a dead birch-tree, an old woodpecker’s nest, 15' from the ground. The Wren’s nest was domed as usual, though the dome was here quite unnecessary, a roof being provided by the wood of the tree.”
The nesting season seems to be extraordinarily regular. Hume says the nesting season is May and June and Brooks took one nest in the earlier month, whilst Ward also took one or two at the end of that month, but practically every other record is for June. Even at their highest elevations June seems their chief breeding month, very few birds extending their breeding operations into July.
The normal full complement of eggs is four or five, but six have been taken, and I have one incubated set of three taken by Col. A. E. Ward. Four or five seem to be laid about equally often.
The eggs have a white, rather a chalky white, ground and occasionally one or two eggs are immaculate, whilst the others are more or less marked, but I have one clutch of five all pure white. Brooks also refers to one of his clutches as unmarked white. Most eggs are lightly freckled or speckled with tiny pin-point marks of light red or dark red, these being rather more numerous at the larger end, where they sometimes form a fairly definite ring. Some eggs have the specks distributed evenly over the whole surface ; rarely the specks are large enough to be called blotches, and in such cases are generally confined to the big end. I have also one egg in a curious clutch of four handsomely marked with deep red at the larger end and sparsely freckled elsewhere with the same colour. In two other rather smaller eggs of the same clutch the markings are fewer, and in the fourth egg, a pigmy, they are absent.
Sixty eggs average 16.8 x 12.3 mm. : maxima 18.1 x 1.21 and 17.6 x 13.2 mm. ; minima 15.1 x 12.2 and 15.8 x 11.3 mm. The pigmy referred to above measures only 14.6 x 10-3 mm.
The shape varies a great deal. Most eggs are fairly long ovals, decidedly pointed at the small end, but others are broad ovals and a few are almost elliptical. The texture is fine and close but, as a rule, there is very little gloss, a few clutches only showing this at all strongly, while it is noticeable that the least marked are the most glossy.

BookTitle: 
The Nidification Of Birds Of The Indian Empire
Reference: 
Baker, Edward Charles Stuart. The nidification of birds of the Indian Empire. Vol. 1. 1932.
Title in Book: 
460. Troglodytes troglodytes neglectus
Spp Author: 
Brooks.brooks.
Book Author: 
Edward Charles Stuart Baker
CatNo: 
460
Year: 
1932
Page No: 
419
Common name: 
Kashmir Wren
M_ID: 
26122
M_SN: 
Troglodytes troglodytes neglectus
Volume: 
Vol. 1
id: 
13639

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