1218. JAPANESE WREN.
Troglodytes fumigatus, Temm. Man. d’Orn, iii. p. 161 (1835) ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 225 ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. vi. p. 276, pl. xvi. rig. 2 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 89 ; Tacz. F. O. Sib. O. p. 206 ; T dauricus, Dyb. and Tacz. Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr. 1884, p. 155.
Male ad. (Japan). Differs from T. parvulus in being more rufous and much darker and, as a rule more distinctly barred both on the upper and under parts ; bill brown, the lower mandible yellowish ; feet rufous, the claws yellowish ; iris brown. Culmen 0.5, wing 2.1, tail 1.2, tarsus 0.7 inch. Examples, even from the same locality, vary considerably in colour some being paler than others.
Hab. Eastern Siberia, Northern China, Corea, and Japan.
In its general habits this species is said to resemble T. parvulus, but is wilder ; it is found high up in the mountains of Japan in the summer, and in winter frequents bushes near streams in the lowlands. Its song is described by Mr. Jouy as low, delicious, and warbling, similar to that of the American Winter Wren.
Taczanowski separates the form from Dauria, the Ussuri country, and Corea, subspecifically under the name T. dauricus, but I doubt if the slight differences in colour justify this. Dr. Stejneger also considers the form from Bering Island as separable, and described it (Zeit. Gesammt. Orn. 1884, p. 11) under the name T. pallescens, and he likewise separates under the name T. fumigatus kurilensis (Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1888, p. 548) the Wren from the Kurile Islands.
The nest of this Wren resembles that of T. parvulus and its eggs 6 to 7 in number, are laid late in April or in May, and also resemble those of that species, being white faintly dotted with red, and average 0.7 by 0.52.
Of the sub-species not included I may name the following, viz.
Turdus coburni, Sharpe. Bull. B.O.C, xii. p. 28 (1901), of which I have examined the type, appears to me to be merely a pale variety of T. iliacus. Cinclus olympicus, von Madarasz. Ora. Monatsb. xi. p. 6 (1903), from Cyprus, appears to be an insular form of C. cashmiriensis, and Cinclus bilkevitchi, Zarudny, Orn. Jahrb, viii. p. p. 57 (1902), seems also to be very close to that sub-species.
Saxicola albicollis has been separated into two forms, the eastern and western. Of these the eastern form Saxicola amphileuca, Ehr. (Symb. Phys. fol. b. b. (1829)), inhabits Asia Minor, Transcaspia, Palestine, Syria, Arabia. Egypt, ranging as far west as Albania. Dalmatia, and Greece, and as far east probably as Persia, whereas the western form Saxicola albicollis (Vieill.), Nouv. Dict. xxi. p. 424 (1818), is found west of Greece to Spain, Morocco, and Algeria. The difference between these two consists in the eastern form having a black line across the forehead, in being as a rule rather smaller in size, and in having generally the white in the plumage less tinged with pale rufous, whereas the western form has the forehead white without any black line, and the white portions of the plumage are more tinged with rufous. It has also the under-surface of the quills as a rule paler, but this character I find on examining a series so variable that it can scarcely be taken into consideration.
Of Saxicola lugens also an eastern and western form have been recognised, the former as S. lugens, and the latter as S. halophila, Tristram, but I have not yet been able to examine a sufficiently large series to be quite sure if this view is correct.
Saxicola semenovi, Bianchi and Zarudny, Ann. Mus. Zool. Acad. Imp. St. Petersburg, v. No. 1, pp. 187, 189 (1900), from Eastern Persia, appears to be very close to, if not identical with S. chrysopygia. Cyanecula discessa, von Madarasz, Term. Fuzetek, xxv. p. 489 (1902), and Sylvia clara, Kleinsch. Orn. Monatsb, ix. p. 167 (1901), I have not seen, but the latter appears to be very close to Sylvia hortensis. Parus corsus, Kleinsch., from Corsica, seems to be scarcely separable from Parus major. Parus atlas, Meade Waldo, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club. xii. p. 27 (1901), from the Atlas Mountains, and Parus moltchanovi, Menzbier, Bull. B.O.C, xiii. p. 49 (1903), from the Crimea, are both local forms of Parus phoeonotus. Motacilla subpersonata, Meade Waldo, Bull. B.O.C, xii. p. 27 (1901), is a form of M. personata from Morocco. Cotile mauritanica, Meade Waldo, Bull. B.O.C, xii. p. 27 (1901), from Morocco, is described as being nearest to C. minor, but much paler. Loxia guillemardi, von Madarasz, Orn. Monatsb, xi. p. 5 (1903), is a form or race of Loxia curvirostra from Cyprus. Garrulus glaszneri, von Madarasz, Orn. Monatsb, x. p. 163 (1902), from Cyprus, of which I have examined a skin in the Tring Museum, differs slightly from G. glandarius in being darker, with no white on the forehead, the chin and extreme upper throat white, but the rest of the under parts uniform dark to the vent. Culmen 0.94, wing 5.8, tail 5.2, tarsus 1.22 inch. Asio canariensis, von Madarasz, Orn. Monatsb, ix. p. 54 (1901), is the short-eared owl from the Canaries which I do not consider as separable from A. accipitrinus. Scops semenovi, Zarudny and Harms, Orn. Monatsb, x. p. 49 (1902), from Baluchistan, is described as being closely allied to Scops brucii. Strix ernesti, Kleinschm. Orn. Monatsb, ix. p. 168 (1901), is the dark race of Aluco flammeus from Sardinia, and Accipiter wolterstorffi, Kleinschm. Orn. Monatsb, ix. p. 168 (1901), is described as being a small dark form of Accipiter nisus from Sardinia.
Sub-species described under trinomial titles I have not considered it necessary to include.
1218. Troglodytes fumigatus
1218. JAPANESE WREN.