Genus TROCHALOPTERUM

The genus Trochalopterum merely differs from the three preceding genera in having the base of the bill quite free from all bristles and hairs, the nostrils and their membrane being free and exposed.

The wing is not more rounded nor is it shorter than in those genera, when compared with other parts of the body.

This large genus comprises nineteen Indian birds, which resemble the other Laughing-Thrushes in having loud and discordant notes, but they are less gregarious and sociable. The smaller species are hardly separable from Timelia in structure and general pattern of colour. Of the nineteen species, the mode of nidification and the colour of the egg of ten are known with more or less certainty. Of these ten, seven lay spotted eggs and three unspotted. The former will probably hereafter have to be transferred to the next subfamily, but until we know the colour of the egg of the remaining species any attempt to split up this genus into two or more sections will be premature.

The majority of the Laughing-Thrushes of this genus have a bright pattern on the wing, but this character is not of much use apparently as a guide in tracing the affinities of the species with other genera.

Key to the Species.

a. Crown, or nape, or both, chestnut.
a1. Back with large dark spots.
a2. Sides of head chestnut.
a3. Throat dark brown or blackish……………….T. erythrocephalum, p. 89,
b3. Throat chestnut……………….T. erythrolaema, p. 90.
b2. Sides of head ashy, ear-coverts pale rufous……………….T. chrysopterum, p. 90.
c2. Sides of head black and ashy; ear-coverts black with white margins……………T. nigrimentum, p. 91.
b1. Back plain, without spots……………….T. melanostigma, p. 92.
b. No chestnut either on crown or nape,
c1. Wings brightly coloured.
d2. Wings chiefly crimson……………….T. phaeniceum, p. 93.
e2. Wings chiefly bright yellow.
c3. Primary-coverts brown……………….T. subunicolor, p. 94.
d3. Primary-coverts deep black.
a4. Tail without white tips……………….T. affine, p. 94.
b4. Tail tipped with white……………….T. variegation, p. 95.
f2. Wings chiefly slaty blue, with a black patch on the secondaries……………….T. simile, p. 96.
g2. Earlier primaries chiefly bright blue, the others black……………T. squamatum, p. 93.
d1. Wings of a dull colour.
h2. Upper plumage unmarked,
e3. Breast rufous.
c4. Lores and chin deep black……………….T. cachinnans, p. 97.
d4. Lores and chin rufous-brown……………….T. cinnamomeum, p. 98.
f3. Breast whitish, streaked with ashy.
e4. Chin black……………….T. jerdoni, p. 99.
f4. Chin grey.
a5. With a conspicuous white supercilium extending to nape……….T. fairbanki, p. 99.
b5. With a short supercilium not passing behind the eye……………T. meridionale, p. 100.
i2. Upper plumage striped.
g3. With a white supercilium……………….T. virgatum, p. 100.
h3. With no white supercilium.
g4. Head and mantle ashy with dusky streaks……………….T. lineatum, p. 101.
h4. Head and mantle reddish brown with glistening black shafts……………….T. imbricatum, p. 102.

BookTitle: 
The Fauna Of British India including Ceylon and Burma
Reference: 
OATES EW. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Vol.1 1889.
Title in Book: 
Genus TROCHALOPTERUM
Book Author: 
Eugene William Oates, Edited by William Thomas Blanford
Year: 
1889
Page No: 
87
M_ID: 
24924
M_SN: 
Trochalopteron
Volume: 
Vol. 1
Term name: 
id: 
114

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