99. Trochalopterum lineatum.
The Himalayan Streaked Laughing-Thrush.
Cinclosoma lineatum, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 56. Cinclosoma setifera, Hodgs. As. Pes. xix, p. 148 (1836). Garrulax lineatus ( Vig.), Blyth, Cat. p. 97. Pterocyclus lineatus ( Vig), Horsf. & M. Cat. i, p. 209. Trochalopteron lineatum (Vig), Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 50; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 38 ; Jerd. Ibis, 1872, p. 308 ; Cock & Marsh. S. F. i, p. 354; Hume & Henders. Lah. to Yark. p. 195, pl. 8; Hume, N. & E. p. 264; Brooks, S. F. iii, p. 238; Hume, Cat. no. 425; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 291; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 54, 1882, p. 272; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 440; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. vii, p. 377; Oates in Hume's N. & E. 2nd ed. i, p. 64. Trochalopteron imbricatum (Hodgs.), apud Hume, N. & E. p. 266.
The Streaked Laughing-Thrush, Jerd.
Coloration. Forehead, crown, nape, and mantle dark ashy, streaked with dusky, the shafts black : lower back and wing-coverts reddish brown, with white shafts; rump and upper tail-coverts plain ashy ; tail washed with rufous, cross-rayed, with a subterminal black band and grey tips; wings chiefly rufous on the outer webs, the tertiaries edged with grey; lores and ring round the eye mingled white and grey ; cheeks, ear-coverts, and an indistinct supercilium castaneous ; chin, throat, breast, and upper abdomen chestnut, all the feathers with ashy margins and those on the breast with glis¬tening white shafts ; lower abdomen, flanks, and under tail-coverts ashy brown.
Bill dusky ; the base of the lower mandible greyish or brownish horny; iris brown or reddish brown ; feet fleshy brown; claws livid horny (Scully).
Length about 8; tail 3.6; wing 3.1 ; tarsus 1.05 ; bill from gape .9.
The above description applies to Nepal birds, which are extremely rufous and richly coloured. Further to the north-west the grey margins of the feathers of the lower plumage become much wider and the streaks on the head and back are much paler. In Kashmir and Gilgit the prevailing colour of the lower plumage is grey, and the rufous is in pale streaks; the shafts of the breast-feathers are much whiter, and frequently terminate in a triangular terminal spot; and the upper plumage is more ashy.
Distribution. The whole of the Himalayas from Nepal to the. extreme west of Kashmir and the Hazara country. This species appears to be found up to about 9000 feet.
Habits, &c. This is a very common bird throughout its range, and one of the best known of Himalayan birds, frequenting the neighbourhood of bungalows at the hill-stations. It breeds from April to September, constructing a bulky, deep, nest of grass and fine stems of herbaceous plants in thick bushes near the ground. The eggs, usually three in number, are greenish blue without any marks, and measure 1.01 by .73.