Totanus calidris (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 245 (1766) ; Naum. viii. p. 95, Taf. 199 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 329, pl. lxxxix. ; Gould, B. of E. iv. pl. 310 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pl. 54 ; Dresser, viii. p. 157, pls. 567 fig. 1, 568 fig. 1, 569 fig. 2 ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 464 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 320 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 414 ; Tacz. F. O. Sib. O. p. 866 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 264 ; Saunders, p. 615 ; Lilford, v. p. 113, pl. 49 ; Poynting, p. 217, pl. 46.
Chevalier-Gambetta, French ; Chalretta, Portug. ; Archibebe, Tifort, Span. ; Pettegola, Ital. ; Gambett-Wasserlaufer, German ; Tureluur, Dutch ; Stelkur, Icel. ; Rodben-Klire, Dan. ; Rodbenet-sneppe, Norweg. ; Rodbent-snappa, Swed. ; Punajalka-vikla, Finn. ; Krasnonoshka, Nastojasehy-ulit, Russ. ; Chota-batan, Hindu.
Male ad. (Finland). Upper parts brown striped with blackish, the elongated secondaries, scapulars, and wing-coverts barred and marked with blackish ; quills dark brown, the short secondaries white slightly marked with brown ; larger wing-coverts white-tipped ; lower back, rump, upper tail-coverts, and outer tail-feathers white, the two last barred with blackish ; middle tail-feathers similar but ashy brown instead of white ; under parts white, the throat, neck, and breast boldly striped with blackish, the flanks barred and striped, and under tail-coverts slightly barred with blackish ; bill dark red at base, otherwise blackish ; legs orange-red ; iris dark brown. Culmen 2.0, wing 6.4, tail 2.8, tarsus 1.92 inch. Sexes alike. In winter the upper parts are ashy grey, and the under parts are much less striped and marked with blackish than in the summer.
Hab. Europe generally, breeding from Lapland down to the Mediterranean ; Africa south to the Cape Colony in winter ; the Canaries ; Asia, east to Japan, north to nearly 70° N. lat., south on passage and in winter to Mongolia, Corea, China, India, and Ceylon, to the Malay Archipelago.
Frequents the sea shore except during the breeding season, when it is found both on the coast and in damp marshy places more inland. It is shy and wary, and when disturbed flies round uttering its shrill cry. Its flight is swift, but wavering, and it is able to swim with ease, and even dive when wounded. The nest is a cup-shaped depression in the ground, usually in a grass tuft, sometimes in an open situation, and the eggs, which are deposited from early in April to the latter part of May, ac¬cording to latitude, are 4 in number, clay-buff in ground-colour, marked with purplish brown underlying shell blotches and dark brown surface spots and blotches, some being much bolder marked than others ; in size they measure about 1.88 by 1.17.
1083. Totanus calidris