1462. Totanus ochropus.
The Green Sandpiper.
Tringa ochrophus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 250 (1766). Totanus ochropus, Temm. Man. d'Orn. p. 420; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 679; Hume, Cat. no. 892; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 357 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 862 ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 86 ; Butler, ibid. p. 430; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 589; Reid, S. F. x, p. 71; Davison, ibid. p. 414; Swinhoe, Ibis, 1882, p. 122 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 358 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 324; Seebohm, Charadr. p. 368 ; Sharpe, Yark. Miss., Aves, p. 141. Helodromas ochropus, Kaup, Naturl. Syst. p. 144; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 400; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 437. Actitis ochropus, Blyth, Cat. p. 267 : Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 698 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 70 ; xii. pt. 2, p. 253 ; Butler, S. F. iv, p. 18; v, p. 233 ; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 228 ; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 96. Totanus ochrophus, Hume, S. F. i, p. 247 ; Adam, ibid. p. 396; Hume & Dav. S. F. vi, p. 462; Cripps, S. F. vii, p. 303.
Nella ulanka, Tel.
Coloration in winter. Crown and hind neck brown with an ashy tinge, lores the same with a white band above them; back, scapulars, tertiaries, and inner wing-coverts brown with an olive tinge, each feather edged with alternating whitish and dark spots ; outer wing-coverts, primaries, and secondaries darker brown, without markings ; rump brown; upper tail-coverts and base of tail white; remainder of tail broadly barred with dark brown, the bars disappearing on the outer rectrices; lower parts white; sides of neck, fore neck, and upper breast with narrow brown streaks, the upper breast sometimes brownish throughout; under wing-coverts and axillaries brown, with narrow white bars.
In summer the feathers of the crown and hind neck have white edges; the back, scapulars, and tertiaries are spotted with buff or white ; and the brown streaks on the sides of the face, fore neck, and upper breast are very broad and distinct.
Bill dusky green, blackish at the tip; irides brown; legs dingy green (Jerdon). There is only one notch on each side in the posterior margin of the sternum.
Length 9.5 ; tail 2.3 ; wing 5.75; tarsus 1.3 ; bill from gape 1.5.
Distribution. Throughout Europe, Africa, and Asia, breeding in the North and migrating in winter to Africa, Southern Asia, and the Malay Archipelago. Common in the cold season throughout Northern India, but less abundant in the South, in Ceylon, and in Burma.
Habits, &c The Green Sandpiper is generally solitary in India, and in the North may be found by almost every marsh, tank, or river, even in rice-fields, and about pools in streams. It arrives in Northern India sometimes as early as the latter half of July and does not leave till the middle of May. It is a wary bird, and utters a shrill piping note when flying off on being disturbed. The nidification is peculiar, for this Sandpiper lays four eggs of the usual character in the deserted nest of a Thrush, Blackbird, Jay, or even of a Squirrel.