Totanus glareola (Gmel.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 677 (1788) ; Naum. viii. p. 78, Taf. 198 ; Hewitson, ii. p. 330, pl. xc. fig. 1 ; Gould, B. of E. iv. pl. 315, fig. 2 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iv. pl. 57 ; Dresser, viii. p. 143, pl. 565 ; David and Oust. Ois. Chine, p. 464 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 324 ; (Sharpe), Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxiv. p. 491 ; Tacz. F. O. Sib. O. p. 874 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 261 ; Ridgway, p. 166 ; Saunders, p. 607 ; Lilford, v. p. 109, pl. 47 ; Poynting. p, 203, pl. 43.
Chevalier sylvain, French ; Carregadet, Span. ; Piro-piro-boscareccio, Ital. ; Bruch-Wasserlaufer, German ; Boschruiter, Dutch ; Kjoersneppe, Dan. ; Gronbenet-Sneppe, Norweg. ; Gronbena, Swed. ; Ucca-cavcu, Lapp. ; Lire, Suovikla, Finn. ; Travnik, Bolotney-Kulik, Russ. ; Chupka, Tutwari, Hindu.
Male ad. (Finland). Crown, nape, and hind neck blackish brown finely striped with white ; a white streak over the eye and ear-coverts, and a blackish brown one from the base of the bill to the eye ; upper parts blackish brown with a greenish tinge, spotted with white and greyish buff ; upper tail-coverts white ; middle tail-feathers like the back, but barred with buffy grey and white, the rest white barred with blackish brown ; shaft of first quill only white ; chin white ; sides of head, neck, and breast washed with buffy grey, and striped, the breast and flanks more boldly, with blackish brown angular bars ; rest of under parts white, the axillaries marked with brown ; bill black ; the base of lower mandible olive greenish ; legs greenish ochreous ; iris dark brown. Culmen 1.25, wing 4.9, tail 2.15, tarsus 1.45 inch. Sexes alike. In winter the pale margins are broader on the upper parts, which are paler than in summer, and the throat, neck, and flanks are less marked with brown, but the two former are more washed with buffy grey.
Hab. Europe generally, north far into Lapland ; and in winter migrating down to South Africa ; Asia, north to Kamchatka, east to Japan, south to Corea and China, passing down to Burma, India, Ceylon, the Malay Archipelago, and Australia in winter.
Is more particularly an inland marsh-frequenting species, and is also often seen in damp wooded localities. Its call-note is a very clear, loud whistle, and in the pairing season it utters a succession of notes, leero, leero, leero, teeleedl, teeleedl, teeleedl, uttered several times in succession. It breeds in open, marshy, grass-covered localities, the nest being a depression in an ele¬vated patch scantily lined, and the 4 eggs, which are usually laid in May, or early in June, vary in ground-colour from stone-grey to stone-ochre, with purplish grey shell-markings, and reddish brown or dark brown surface spots and blotches, and in size measure about 1.41 by 1.06.
1091. Totanus glareola