1461. Totanus glareola.
The Wood Sandpiper.
Tringa glareola, Gmel. Syst, Nat. i, p. 677 (1788). Totanus glareola, Temm. Man. d' Orn. p. 421; James, S. F. i, p. 421; Hume, S. F. ii, p. 298; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 678; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 857; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 589 ; Biddulph, Ibis, 1882, p. 288; Swinhoe, Ibis, 1882, p. 121; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 401; Seebohm, Charadr. p. 365 ; St. John, Ibis, 1889, p. 177. Rhyacophilus glareola, Kaup, Naturl. Syst. p. 140; Hume & Inglis, S. F. v, p. 46 ; Hume & Dav. S. F. vi, pp. 462, 521; Cripps, S. F. vii, p. 303; Hume, ibid. p. 488 ; id. Cat. no. 891 ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 86 ; Butler, S. F. ix, p. 429 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 70; Davidson, ibid. p. 321 ; Davison, ibid. p. 414; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 324; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 491. Actitis glareola, Blyth, Cat. p. 267; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 697 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 169; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, p. 273; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 252 ; Walden, Ibis, 1873, p. 317 ; Butler, S. F. iv, p. 17 ; v, p. 233 ; Armstrong, S. F. iv, p. 344 ; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 228; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 96 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 357.
The Spotted Sandpiper, Jerdon; Chupka, Chobaha, Tutwari, H.; Chinna ulanka, Tel.
Coloration in winter. Upper parts brown, feathers of the crown and hind neck with pale greyish edges ; white supercilia from the bill; lores brown ; sides of head and neck paler, with dark streaks ; back, rump, scapulars, tertiaries, and wing-coverts spotted with dark brown and white, forming a border of alternating dark and pale spots on the tertiaries ; smaller coverts, primary-coverts, primaries, and secondaries dark brown, later primaries and secondaries with narrow white borders terminally ; upper tail-coverts white; median rectrices ashy brown with dark brown cro?s-bands, other rectrices barred brown and white, the brown bars disappearing on the outer tail-feathers ; fore neck and upper breast brownish streaked with dark brown, rest of lower parts white ; axillaries barred with brown.
In summer the markings above and below are better defined, the crown and hind neck are broadly streaked, the tertiaries barred, and the breast spotted.
Bill greenish at the base, dusky black at the tip ; irides deep brown; legs pale greenish (Jerdon).
Length 8.5; tail 2 ; wing 4.8 ; tarsus 1.5 ; bill from gape 1.3.
Distribution. This Sandpiper breeds in Europe and Northern Asia, and passes the winter in Africa, Southern Asia, the Malay Archipelago, and Australia. It is common at that season throughout India, Ceylon, and Burma, arriving in August and leaving in May.
Habits, &c. On the whole this is the commonest and most abundant of the Sandpipers in India, and is found singly or in small flocks on the edges of marshes, around reedy tanks, or in paddy fields, as well as on the banks of rivers, but it is chiefly a marsh bird. This and T. ochropus are commonly called " Snippets " in India.