839. Burrow Sheldrake.
Tadorna cornuta (S. G. Gmel.), Reis. Russl, ii. p. 185, Taf. 19 (1774) ; Dresser, vi. p. 451, pl. 420 ; Salvadori, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xxvii. p. 171 ; Blanf. F. Brit. Ind. Birds, iv. p. 427 ; Seebohm, B. Jap. Emp. p. 241 ; Saunders, p. 419 ; Lilford, vii. p. 83, pl. 32 ; A. tadorna, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 195 ; Naum. xi. p. 534, Taf. 298 ; (Tacz.), F. O. Sib. O. p. 1124 ; T. vulpanser, Flem. Hist. Brit. Anim. p. 122 (1828) ; Hewitson, ii. p. 397, pl. cxii. fig. 1 ; Gould, B. of E. v. pl. 357 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit, v. pl. 11.
Le Tadorne, French ; Pato-tarro, Span. ; Volpoca, Ital. ; Bergente, Brandente, German ; Bergeend, Dutch ; Gravand, Dan. and Norweg. ; Grafand, Swed. ; Ristisorsa, Kivisorsa, Finn. ; Pegannka, Russ. ; Shah-chakwa, Hindu. ; Tsukushi-gamo, Jap.
Male ad. (Norway). Head and upper neck black glossed with bottle- green, the feathers on hind-crown and nape elongated ; lower neck white ; back and band across the breast fox-red ; lower back, lump, upper tail- coverts, and under parts white ; primaries and scapulars black ; secondaries black on the inner and bottle-green on the outer webs, the elongated inner secondaries chestnut and white with a black stripe ; abroad stripe of white all along the middle of the under parts ; under tail-coverts orange-red ; bill blood-red with a large fleshy knob at the base above ; legs rich flesh-red ; iris brown. Culmen 2.25, wing 13.0, tail 5.2, tarsus 1.05 inch. Female rather smaller and duller in colour and lacks the knob. In the young the black is replaced by dull dark brown, and the fox red by rufous brown.
Hab. Europe generally, from the Lofoten islands to the Mediterranean, west to the British Islands ; north Africa ; Asia east to Japan, north to Mongolia, Manchuria, and southern Siberia, south to northern India and China in winter.
In general habits it resembles the Wild Duck a good deal, but is chiefly a coast bird, and is usually shy and wary. The call-note of the male is a deep korr, korr, but the note of the female is a quack. It feeds on vegetable matter, small crusta¬ceans, and worms. It breeds in May in holes in the ground, usually rabbit-burrows, and deposits 7 to 12, sometimes as many as 16 eggs, which are well bedded in down, and are yellowish or ivory white, smooth in grain and measure about 2.7 by 1.8.
839. Tadorna cornuta
839. Burrow Sheldrake.