Sturnus vulgaris Linn., Syst. Nat,, 10th ed. i, p. 167 (1758). Type-locality: Sweden.
Key to Subspecies.
A. Wing about 110 mm. (108 to 115 mm ) . S. v. minor, p. 33.
B. Wing about 120 mm. (115 to 123 mm.) . S. v. humii, p. 31.
C. Wing about 130 mm. (122 to 135 mm.).
a. Head bronze-green S. v. porphyronotus, p. 32.
b. Head purple.
a1. Abdomen purple-blue, breast green.
a2.. Upper plumage green S. v. poltaratzskii, p. 34.
b2. Upper plumage very deep green . S. v. nobilior, p. 34.
b1. Abdomen purple, breast purple.
c2. Sides and flanks purple S. v. dresseri, p. 35.
d2. Sides and flanks bronzy S. v. dzungaricus, p. 35,
The above key, although it may help to discriminate between the various races, cannot be considered altogether satisfactory, as there is too much overlapping. Nor can any diagnosis of the Starlings be considered satisfactory until large series of actually breeding birds have been obtained from the various breeding-areas off their nests. Winter and migrating specimens are of no use for this purpose. It may be that some of the very numerous forms now admitted as subspecies will have to be suppressed, though, on the other hand, it may even be possible that others may be discovered.