1311. Oenopopelia tranquebarica.
The Red Turtle-Dove.
Columba tranquebarica, Herm. Obs. Zool. p. 200 (1804). Columba humilis, Temm. Pl. Col. pl. 259 (1824). Turtur humilis, Blyth, Cat. p. 236; id. J. A. S. B. xxiv, p. 261; Layard, A. M. N. H. (2) xiv, p. 60; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 482; Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 151; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 67; xli, pt. 2, p. 249; Hume, Ibis, 1869, p. 19; Ball, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. 2, p. 287; Hume, S. F. i, p. 218; Adam, ibid. p. 391 ; Hume, S. F. ii, p. 269 ; id. N. & E. p. 507; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xliii, pt. 2, p. 172; Butler, 8. F. iv, p. 3; Fairbank, ibid. p. 262 ; Hume, ibid. p. 292; Armstrong & Hume, ibid. p. 338 ; Hume & Dav. S. F. vi, p. 423; Hume, Cat. no. 797 his ; Hume & Inglis, S. F. ix, p. 258; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 294; Biddulph, Ibis, 1882, p. 286 ; C. H. T. Marshall, Ibis, 1884, p. 421; Hume, 8. F. xi, p. 299; Salvadori, Cat. B. M. xxi, p. 434. Turtur tranquebaricus, Walden, Trans. Zool. Soc. ix, p. 219; Blyth, Birds Burm. p. 145; Hume, 8. F. iv, p. 292; Davids. & Wend. S. F. vii, p. 86; Butler, ibid. p. 186; Ball, ibid. p. 224; Cripps, ibid. p. 297 ; Hume, Cat. no. 797 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 342; Doig, ibid. p. 371 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 708; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 75; Butler, ibid. p. 421; Reid, S. F. x, p. 61; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 292; id. Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. i, p. 55 ; v, p. 332 ; Oates in Hume's N. & E. 2nd ed. ii,p. 359 ; Salvadori, Cat. B. M. xxi, p. 437. Turtur humilior, Hume, P. A. S. B. 1874, p. 241; id. S. F. iii, p. 279; iv, p. 292.
Seroti fakhta, Ghirwi fakhta, Biki, H.; Golabi ghugu, Ithuiya ghugu, Tuma khuri, Beng.; Rah-guwa, Peri-aripu guwa, Tel.
Coloration. Male. Head and nape dark ashy grey; a black collar round the hind neck ; below this collar the back, scapulars, tertiaries, and wing-coverts are vinous red, more or less tinged with ferruginous ; primary-coverts and quills dark brown ; rump and upper tail-coverts dark slaty grey; middle tail-feathers brown, often washed with grey, next two pairs dark grey at base, paler at the ends, the three outer pairs with the larger basal half blackish above, black below, the smaller terminal half and whole outer web of outermost pair white ; lower parts vinous red, whitish on chin and vent; under tail-coverts white; flanks and under wing-coverts grey.
Females are brown above, greyish on head, rump, flanks, and edge of wing; breast light brown, sometimes with a vinous tinge ; a black nuchal collar and the tail as in males.
Young birds are pale brown almost throughout, and have no collar; the feathers of the back and wings are pale-edged.
Bill black ; irides dark brown; eyelids plumbeous; legs vinaceous brown ; claws black; the joints of Hie scales on the legs white (Oates).
Length about 9; tail 4; wing 5.5 ; tarsus .75; bill from gape .75.
The Indian form OE. tranquebarica has of late years generally been regarded as specifically distinct from the Burmese and Chinese bird OE. humilis, on account of the Coloration of the latter being deeper and the wing-lining dark grey instead of pale. Salvadori, however, has shown that the Coloration of the upper parts is not constantly different, and although Burmese birds have very dark wing-linings, there is little if any distinction betwe?n Chinese and Indian birds, and the difference is in any case so small as scarcely to be of specific importance.
Distribution. Throughout India, by no means scarce in the Punjab, Sind, and Rajputana, though not known farther west. This Dove was obtained at Gilgit by Biddulph, and in Ceylon, where it appears to be very rare, by Layard. It ranges throughout Burma to the Andamans and through Cochin China and China to the Philippines.
Habits, &c. This is less common in India than some other doves, but it is widely distributed, except in forest-tracts. Its call is short and deep. It is not unfrequently found in small flocks. Eggs have been taken from January to July and in November; but Hume believes that this species has only two broods in the year. The eggs are slightly elongated, two in number, and waxy white or cream-coloured, and measure about 1.02 by .8. The nests are on trees and are of the usual type.