1304. Turtur orientalis.
The Rufous Turtle-Dove.
Columba orientalis, Lath. Ind. Orn. ii, p. 606 (1790). Columba rupicola, Pall. Zoogr. Hosso-Asiat. i, p. 566 (1811). Columba meena, Sykes, P. Z. S. 1832, p. 149. Columba agricola, Tickell, J. A. S. B. ii, p. 581 (1833). Columba gelastis, Temm. Pl. Col. pl. 550 (1835). Turtur meena, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiv, p. 875 ; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 476; Beavan, Ibis, 1868, p. 375; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 272; xiv, pt. 2, p. 83; Hume, Ibis, 1870, p. 438 ; id. Lah. to York. p. 277 ; id. N. & E. p. 501 ; id. S. F. iii, p. 163 ; Blyth & Wald. Birds Burm. p. 146; Fairbank, S. F. iv, p. 262; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 665; Hume & Dav. S. F. vi,. p. 420; Davids. & Wend. S. F. vii, p. 86; Ball, ibid. p. 224; Cripps, ibid. p. 296; Hume, Cat. no. 793 ; Vidal, S. F. ix, p. 74 ; Butler, ibid. p. 420; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 292; Swinh. & Barnes. Ibis, 1885, p. 130; Barnes, Birds-Bam. p. 290 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 298 ; Oates in Hume's N. & E. 2nd el. ii, p. 350. Turtur orientalis, Blyth, Cat. p. 236 ; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 666 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 340 : Wardl. Bams. Ibis, 1880, p. 69 ; Salvadori, Cat. B. M. xxi, p. 403.
Kala fakhta, Basko fakhta, H.; Sam ghugu, Beng.; Yedru poda guwa, Tel.
Coloration. Head, neck, and back brown, more or less suffused with vinous, the edges of the feathers sometimes rufous, the crown aud forehead often tinged with bluish grey : on each side of the neck a patch of black feathers tipped with bluish grey ; lesser and median coverts, scapulars, and tertiaries blackish with broad ferruginous borders : primary and larger coverts brown, tinged with grey ; quills brown, with linear pale outer edges ; lower back and rump slaty grey; upper tail-coverts brown; tail-feathers blackish brown, all except the median pair tipped with slaty grey, the border of the outer web on the outermost pair also grey; lower parts vinous, chin and middle of throat paler; vent, under tail-coverts, and wing-lining dark slaty grey.
Young birds want the neck-patch ; they are browner and less rufous than adults, and have pale borders to the feathers of the back, wing-coverts, and breast.
Bill brown, with a tinge of vinous on the basal half; irides orange; eyelids pale blue; edges of eyelids red ; legs vinous red ; claws black (Oates).
Length about 13 ; tail 5; wing 7 ; tarsus .85 ; bill from gape 1.
Distribution. A resident species, ranging from the Eastern Himalayas,throughout Assam and Burma, to Northern Tenasserim; found also in Bengal, Chutia Nagpur, Central India, and the Deccan north of about 15° K. 1st., but not in the Himalayas west of Nepal, the N. W. Provinces, nor Raiputana, except as an occasional straggler. To the north-eastward this Dove ranges to Manchuria, Corea, and Japan.
Habits, &c. Although it moves about to some extent, this is not a truly migratory bird like the next two species. It is more often seen in flocks than Indian doves generally are, but it is on the whole nor a common bird. It has a very deep, thrice-repeated note. Hume thinks that the breeding-season is from December to April; the eggs are of course two in number, white, glossy, and oval.