1310. Turtur risorius.
The Indian Ring-Dove.
Columba risoria, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 285 (1766), partim. Turtur douraca, Hodgs. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 85 (1844), descr. nulla; Salvadori, Cat. B. M. xxi, p. 430. Turtur risorius, Blyth, Cat. p. 235; id. J. A. S. B. xxiv, p. 261; Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 481 ; Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 151 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. 2, p. 67; xii, pt. 2, p. 248; Godw.-Avst. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 272; Hume, S. F. i, p. 218 ; Adam, ibid. p. 390; Hume, N. & E. p. 506; id. S. F. iii, p. 165 ; Walden in Blyth's Birds Burm. p. 146; Butler, S. F. iv, p. 3 ; vii, p. 171; ix. p. 420; Fairbank, S. F. iv, p,262; v, p. 409; Ball, S. F. vii, p. 224 ; Cripps, ibid. p. 297 ; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 666; Hume, Cat. no. 796; Vidal, S. F. viii, p. 173; ix, p. 75; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 342; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 702; Barnes, S. F. ix, p. 458 ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 60; Davison, ibid. p. 408; Swinhoe, Ibis, 1882, p. 118 ; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 293 ; id. in Hume's N. & E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 357 ; C.H. T. Marsh. Ibis, 1884, p. 421; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 291 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 299; St. John, Ibis, 1889, p. 174. Turtur stoliczkae, Hume, S. F. ii, p. 519 (1874).
The Common Ring-Dove, Jerdon: Dhor fakhta, Perki, Panduk, Gugi, H,; Kalhak, Kahalaki, Pankghugu, Beng.; Pitha Hola, Mahr.; Pedda-bella guwa, Tel.; Cally-praa, Tam. (Ceylon).
Coloration. Head and neck grey, tinged with lilac, paler on the forehead and sides of head, and whitish on the chin ; a black collar, narrowly bordered above and still more narrowly below with white, round the hind neck ; upper parts thence to the tail and middle tail-feathers light brown, passing into ashy grey on the outer wing-coverts, greater secondary coverts, and secondaries ; primary-quills dark brown ; outermost tail-feathers with the basal half grey above, black beneath, the black running some distance down the outer web, terminal half or rather less and narrow extreme outer edge throughout white; other tail-feathers, except median pair, white at the ends, beneath partly white, partly greyish brown above ; breast pale lilac, passing into ashy grey on the abdomen and flanks and slaty grey on the lower tail-coverts ; wing-lining white, grey near the edge of the wing.
Bill black ; irides crimson ; orbital skin whitish ; feet dark pink-red (Jerdon); claws horn-colour (Oates).
Length about 12.5; tail 5 ; wing 6.75 ; tarsus .9; bill from gape .9.
Distribution. Throughout India and Ceylon, in open and cultivated tracts and even in dry parts of the country, but not in forest; rare on the Malabar coastland. This Dove occurs, but is not common, in Assam, Cachar, Upper Burma, and Pegu, but not in Tenasserim. It is found in the open Western Himalayas, but not in the forest-clad ranges of Sikhim. It has been met with in China and throughout Central and South-western Asia, and as far west as Turkey in Europe.
Habits, &c. As Jerdon observes, this Dove chiefly frequents hedges and trees about cultivation and also low bush- or reed-jungle. It is very common in many parts of the country, and is almost or quite as familiar as T. cambayensis. The voice is rather deep; the call trisyllabic. The breeding-season lasts throughout the year ; the nest, of the usual type, is generally in a bush or tree, often a thorny one, and not far from the ground, and the eggs measure about 1.16 by 1.92.
Salvadori, following Schlegel, has adopted the name of T. douraca, Hodgson, for this Dove; but Hodgson's term was published without any figure or description, and Lord Walden has shown that Linnaeus's name risorius does apply to the present species.