808. Cotile riparia.
Hirundo riparia, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 344 (1766); Blyth, Cat. Cotyle riparia (Linn.), Horsf. & M. Cat. i, p. 95; Jerd. B. p. 163; Blanf. S. F. iv, p. 507; Hume, Cat. no. 87; id. S. F. xi, p. 28 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 82. Cotile riparia (Linn.), Oates, B. B. i, p. 310; Sharpe. Cat. B. M. x, p. 96.
The European Sand-Martin, Jerd.
Coloration. The whole upper plumage greyish brown, each feather with a more or less distinct pale margin ; a dark spot in front of the eye ; lores and ear-coverts brown ; quills and coverts dark brown; tail dark brown, narrowly margined with whitish ; a broad and distinct band across the 'breast brown; cheeks and remainder of lower plumage pure white.
Young birds have all the feathers of the upper plumage and the wings margined with rufous, the chin and throat fulvous, and the breast broadly brown.
Bill black ; iris brown ; legs dark brown.
Length about 5; tail 2.3; wing 4; tarsus .45; bill from gape .5 ; bifurcation of tail .4.
Distribution. The Sand-Martin is probably spread over the whole of the northern portion of India proper as far south as the latitude of Bombay. It appears to be rare in India, for the Hume Collection contains but very few specimens, and these from Sind only; specimens from the eastern part of the Empire are more numerous. This species extends from Assam to Tenasserim, the most southern locality from which I have seen a specimen being That one near Moulmein. It appears to be a winter visitor to India for the most part, but specimens procured in May and June are contained in the Hume Collection. This Martin is found over the whole northern hemisphere.