1054. Rhytidoceros undulatus.
The Malayan Wreathed Hornbill.
Buceros undulatus, Shaw, Gen. Zool. viii, p. 26 (1811). Buceros plicatus, apud Muller Schleg. Verhandel. pp. 24, 30; Blyth, Cat. p. 319 ; nec Latham. Buceros ruficollis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. x, p. 922, partim ; xii, p. 176 ; nec Vieillot. Buceros pucoran, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xii, p. 990. Buceros pusaran, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xvi, p. 998 ; id. Cat. p. 45; Tickell, Ibis, 1864, p. 180. Rhyticeros plicatus, Horsf. & M. Cat. ii, p. 698; Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. 2, p. 96; Blyth, Ibis, 1866, p. 350; Jerdon, Ibis, 1872, p. 5. Aceros, sp. indet., Godw.-Aust. l. c. Rhyticeros obscurus, apud Hume, N. & E. p. 115; nec Buceros obscurus, Gm. Aceros plicatus, Blyth & Wald. Birds Burm. p. 69. Rhytidoceros undulatus, Tweeddale, Ibis, 1877, p. 292; Oates, B. B. ii, p. 93; id. in Hume's N. & E. 2nd ed. iii, p. 80; Elliot, Mon. Buc. pl. 35; Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B. M. xvii, p. 382. Rhyticeros undulatus, Hume & Dav. S. F. vi, p. 111; Hume, Cat. no. 146 bis ; id. S. F. ix, p. 247; xi, p. 52; Bingham, S. F. viii, pp. 194, 463; ix, p. 159.
Basal portion of both mandibles obliquely, somewhat irregularly ridged at the side, in adults ; the ridges wanting in the young and increasing in number with age.
Coloration. Male. Forehead, middle of crown, and whole nape deep rich chestnut, passing into black on the hind neck; sides of head, including lateral portions of crown, sides and front of neck white, more or less tinged with buff ; tail entirely white ; remainder of plumage black, glossed with dark green and purple.
Bill pale yellow, reddish towards the base, the hollows between the ridges of the casque dark; irides orange-red; orbital skin dull red ; gular skin bright yellow, with a broad transverse interrupted band black or dusky ; legs and feet blackish.
Length about 45 ; tail 13; wing 20; tarsus 2.75: bill from gape 9. Tenasserim birds are smaller than those from Assam: wing 19 ; bill from gape 8.
Female. Black throughout except the tail, which is white ; gular skin blue, with a dark transverse bar; other soft parts as in male. Length 38 ; tail 10 ; wing 17 ; tarsus 2.6 ; bill from gape 6.5.
Distribution. Assam, Khasi and Naga hills, Cachar, Manipur, Arrakan, Toungngoo, Tenasserim, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, Borneo.
Habits, &c. Very similar to those of the other large Hornbills. This is a bird of powerful and steady, not undulating flight, and the noise made by its wings when flying may be heard for a very great distance. It lives almost entirely on fruit, and often travels long distances for its food ; it not unfrequently associates in considerable flocks when flying. Its call-note is dissyllabic according to Tickell. Like other fruit-eating birds, it wanders about and does not always occupy the same forest tract. It breeds about March, usually laying two eggs, that measure on an average 2.45 by 1.75.