(431) Pycnonotus gularis.
THE RUBY-THROATED BULBUL.
Brachypus gularis Gould, P. Z. S., 1835, p. 186 (Belgaum). Pycnonotus gularis. Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 289.
Vernacular names. None recorded.
Description. Forehead, crown, nape, sides of head and extreme point of chin black; throat ruby-red, the feathers long and rather bristly; upper plumage yellowish green ; wings brown, the outer webs of the feathers yellowish green ; tail the same; lower plumage bright yellow; under wing-coverts and edge of wing yellow.
Colours of soft parts. Iris pale cream to bright yellow; bill black; legs and feet dark plumbeous to almost black, claws black.
Measurements- Length about 180 mm.; wing 71 to 78 mm.; tail about 66 mm.; tarsus about 15 mm.; culmen about 11.5 to 12.0 mm.
Distribution. Western India from Kanara to South Travancore.
Nidification. Nests taken by Mr. J. Davidson are described as " small cups, outwardly composed of a mass of large, red dead leaves, slightly bound with one or two roots and spiders' web, and lined inside with a few roots and grass stems of a coarse description." The nests were taken from low bushes, only a foot or two above the ground, higher bushes and small saplings as high as 10 feet up. The nests are all placed in forest, generally dense, sometimes thinner but never in open country.
" The eggs are two in number, very small for the size of the bird; they are quite devoid of gloss and of a pink colour, mottled thickly all over with the smallest possible dark reddish-brown and purple spots." Eggs sent me by Messrs. J. Davidson and T. R. Bell measure about 20.9 X 15.2 mm. They are very like those of the last bird.
Habits. This is said to be a shy Bulbul, keeping to forested areas in the plains, sometimes going about in small flocks and sometimes in pairs or singly. Davidson says that it is common in Siddapur and in the wooded parts of Honwar and Kumta and to a less extent in the denser forests of Karawar, Ankola and Tellapur.