(425) Pycnonotus goiavier analis.
THE YELLOW-VENTED BULBUL.
Turdus analis Horsf., Trans. L. S., xiii, p. 147 (1820) (Java). Pycnonotus analis. Blanf. & Oates, i, p. 287.
Vernacular names. Merebah (Malay).
Description. The whole upper plumage brown tinged with olive, darker on the head and the feathers with faint pale edges; wings and tail dark brown edged with olive-brown; a broad supercilium white; lores and feathers on the eyelids black; ear-coverts pale brown; cheeks, chin and throat whitish; breast brown, the feathers with pale edges; abdomen white suffused with brown and flanks darker brown; under tail-coverts sulphur-yellow.
Colours of soft parts. Iris wood-brown or chocolate; legs, feet, claws and bill black.
Measurements. Total length about 200 mm.; wing about 83 to 91 mm.; tail about 80 to 85 mm.; tarsus about 20.mm.; culmen about 15 mm.
Distribution. Tenasserim and Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Siam, Cochin China.
Nidification. The Yellow-vented Bulbul apparently breeds twice in the year, as a good series of nests and eggs were obtained by Mr. W. A. T. Eellow round about Perak and Taiping in February and early March and again in May. The nests are exactly like those of Otocompsa and are placed in bushes and small trees in scrub-jungle and thin forest. The eggs also are indistinguishable from those of that genus and are normally only two or three in number. They average (20 eggs) 22.4 x 15.9 mm. and the extremes are 23.6 x 15.1 mm.; 21.0 x 16.8 mm. The longest egg is also the most narrow and the shortest is also the broadest.
Habits. Davison describes this bird in Mergui, where it is very abundant, as being just like Otocompsa in habits, food and the country it frequents. He says:—"I have repeatedly seen it on the ground hopping about. It feeds largely on insects, such as grasshoppers etc., but also on berries and fruit, and I have seen it clinging to mangoes and pecking away at the fruit. Its note is extremely like that of Otocompsa emeria, ' kick, kick, pettigrew,' repeated several times. It is usually found singly or in pairs, though often half-a-dozen or more may be seen seated about the bushes near each other, but I do not think they act in concert or ever go in flocks; they are not shy."