(413) Otocompsa flaviventris flaviventris.
THE BLACK-CRESTED YELLOW BULBUL.
Vanga flaviventris Tick., J. A. S. B., ii, p. 573 (1833) (Dholbhum). Otocompsa flaviventris. Blanf. & Gates, 5, p. 278.
Vernacular names. Pahariya kangdhara (Gorakpur); Mandiphhur (Lepcha) ; Hagrani Dao-bulip (Cachari).
Description. Head, with long crest, chin and throat glossy black; upper plumage and wing-coverts olive-yellow, brighter on the rump and upper tail-coverts; quill-feathers of wing brown, primaries and outer secondaries edged with olive-yellow and inner secondaries with all, or nearly all, the outer webs of this colour; tail brown, the feathers edged with olive-yellow for nine-tenths of their length; whole plumage below and sides of neck bright King's yellow.
Colours of soft parts. Irides bright pale yellow; bill dark horny, culmen and tip almost black and the gape dull yellowish : legs brown or grey-brown.
Measurements. Total length 180 to 190 mm.; wing 78 to 90 mm.; tail about 81 mm.; tarsus about 16 mm.; culmen about 13 mm.
Distribution. The Himalayas from the Sutlej Vdley to East Assam; the forests of the Central Provinces ; Orissa, South of the Mahanadi, Eastern Bengal, hills and plains South of the Brahma¬putra, Burma, Siam, Shan States, Tunnan. In Peninsular Siam and Burma it is replaced by the next form.
Nidification. This Tel low Bulbul makes a nest much like that of the two genera last described, but deeper and better built and nearly always made of tan-coloured materials amongst which dead leaves are always prominent. The lining is of fine grass-stems, occasionally of fine moss roots or similar material, whilst one nest was lined with mithna (Bos frontalis) hair. They breed most numerously in May and June but eggs are laid almost any time •between early March and late August or even early September. The full clutch numbers two to four and the eggs differ from those of the other species of Otocompsa in being more profusely stippled and speckled all over with very fine markings varying in colour from reddish- or creamy-pink to deep purple-red or red-brown. 100 eggs average 22.3x16.5 mm. and vary in length between 24.2 X 16.4 and 20.5 x 16.8 mm. and in breadth between 21.9 x 17.2 and 23.1 x 15.3 mm.
Habits. In its actions, flight and food this bird is a true Otocompsa but it is often found in light scrub- and bamboo-jungle and sometimes on the outskirts of deep forest. In Assam it frequents the vicinity of the hill villages, cover of any kind in and around patches of cultivation and open places near roads and streams. It collects in the cold weather in flocks of half-a-dozen to a score or more individuals and frequents indifferently scrub, bushes, bamboos and high trees. They eat both insects and fruit and I have seen them on the ground eating wild strawberries and also feeding oft termites as they came up from the ground. They are, for Bulbuls, not noisy birds and their song, which may be written " weet-tre-trippy-wit," with the last three syllables repeated twice or more, forms a rather sweet though jerky little song. They are found commonly up to 3,500 feet and rarely up to 5,000.