Pycnonotus haemorrhous, Gmelin.
462. :- Jerdon's Birds of India, Vol. II, p. 94; Butler, Guzerat; Stray Feathers, Vol. III, p. 473; Deccan, Stray Feathers, Vol. IX, p. 402 ; Murray's Vertebrate Zoology of Sind, p. 135 ; Swinhoe and Barnes, Central India ; Ibis, 1885, p. 68.
THE COMMON MADRAS BULBUL.
Length, 8 ; expanse, 11; wing, 3.6 ; tail, 3.3; tarsus, 0.8; bill at front, 0.52.
Bill black; irides deep-brown ; legs greenish-slaty.
Head, chin, and throat, black ; nape and back smoky-brown more or less edged paler, and the pale edging often extends to the darker feathers of the hind-head and nape, giving it a speckled appearance; rump somewhat cinerascent; upper tail-coverts white; beneath, from the top of the breast, brown, edged with ash, paling posteriorly, and becoming albescent on the lower abdomen and vent; under tail-coverts crimson; wings smoky-brown ; tail brownish-black, tipped with white, except the central pair.
The Common Madras Bulbul is very abundant throughout the region, except in Upper Sind, where it is very rare ; it is a permanent resident and breeds from April to October, rearing at least two broods in the year. The nest is generally built on a low bush or fruit, tree, rarely at any great height from the ground. It is neatly but lightly made, cup-shaped, and is composed of grass stems, lined with finer grass, and occasionally with hair. The eggs, three or four in number, are rather longish ovals in shape, pinkish-white in color, speckled, blotched, streaked and clouded with red and purplish-red. They average 0.9 inches in length by 0.68 in breadth.