Accentor modularis, (Linn.) Syst. Nat. i. p. 329 (1766) ; Naum. iii. p. 951, Taf. 92, figs. 3, 4 ; Hewitson, i. p. 97, pl. xxvii. fig. 1 ; Gould, B. of E. ii. pl. 100 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. ii. pl. 55 ; Newton, i. p. 301 ; Dresser, iii. p. 39, pl. 100 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. vii. p. 649 ; Saunders, p. 93, ; Lilford, iii. p. 4. pl, 2 ; A. orientalis, Sharpe, op. cit. p. 652.
Mouchet, French ; Churruca, Span. ; Passera scopaiola, Ital. ; Hecken-Braunelle, German ; Boeren-Nachtegall, Dutch ; Brunellen, Dan. ; Jernspurv, Norweg. ; Jernsparf, Swed. ; Rautiainen, Finn. ; Lisnaya-Zavirooshka, Russ.
Male ad. (England). Upper parts reddish brown streaked with dark brown, the head and nape greyer, the rump dull olive-brown scarcely streaked ; wings and tail brown, the former margined with buffy brown and rufous brown, the wing-coverts tipped with yellowish brown ; throat greyish white ; sides of head and neck, and the breast ashy grey ; ear- coverts washed with brown ; abdomen greyish white ; flanks pale brown streaked with darker brown ; bill blackish brown, fleshy at the base ; legs dull yellowish brown ; iris dark brown. Culmen, 0.5. wing 2.7, tail 2.2 tarsus 0.75 inch. Sexes alike.
Hab. Europe generally, north to Lapland ; North Africa ; Arabia, Asia Minor, and east to Persia.
Frequents groves, gardens, &c., and is very tame and familiar, frequenting localities inhabited by man, and is one of our best- known birds. It is generally seen creeping about in the hedge¬rows where it finds a plenteous supply of small insects and seeds which form its food. Its song is short but clear and pleasantly modulated. It breeds from March to May and its nest, which is usually placed in a hedge or bush, is constructed of dry grass and moss, and lined with hair or wool. The eggs from 5 to 6 in number are glossy greenish blue unspotted and average about 0.78 by 0.54 in size. Two broods are usually raised in the season.
Dr. Sharpe has (l.c.) separated the Persian bird from the European, naming the former A. orientalis, but I cannot find any specific difference between birds from these two localities.
219. Accentor modularis