494. PINE GROSBEAK.
Pinicola enucleator (Linn.), Syst. Nat. i. p. 299 (1766) ; (Wils.) Am. Orn. i. p. 80, pl. 5, fig 2 ; (Naum.) iv. p. 403, Taf. 112, figs. 1, 2 ; (Gould), B. of E. iii. pl. 204 ; id. B. of Gt. Brit. iii. pl. 44 ; (Hewitson), i. p. 210, pl. liii. ; (Newton), ii, p. 177 ; Dresser, iv. p. 111, pl. 201 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Br. Mus. xii. p. 459 ; Saunders, p. 199 ; Lilford, iv. p. 73, pl. 36 ; Ridgway, p. 388.
Dur-bec vulgaire French ; Fichtengimpel, Hakengimpel, German ; Krognoeb, Dan. ; Konglebit, Norw. ; Tallbit. Swed. ; Taviokuurna, Finn. ; Pacagas-loddi, Lapp. ; Shur, Buss.
Male ad. (Sweden). Upper parts rich, light, carmine-red, the base of the feathers slaty blue, the head, neck, and rump richer coloured ; wings and tail blackish brown, margined with pale red, the secondaries margined, and the larger and median coverts broadly tipped with white, the scapulars and lesser coverts edged with slaty blue, and washed with red ; lores, fore¬head, and orbital region dull blackish ; middle of abdomen, under wing and tail-coverts slate-blue, the last tipped with white ; rest of the under parts like the upper parts ; bill dull horn, paler at the base below ; legs blackish brown ; iris dark brown. Culmen 0.7, wing 4.35, tail 3.7, tarsus 0.9 inch. The female differs in having the red in the plumage replaced by apple-yellow. The young bird resembles the female.
Hab. The Northern portions of the Old and New Worlds, occasionally straying in winter to continental Europe, and even to Great Britain ; has been obtained as far south as Italy.
Is an inhabitant of the woodlands, chiefly those of conifers, and though said to be a stupid bird it certainly is not so in its breeding-haunts where it is eminently cautious and wary, but in the winter, when it wanders south it is trustful and evidently ignorant of any danger from man, though I have found them there even very shy where they have been subject to persecution. Its foods consists of seeds, to a large extent those of conifers, and of berries. Its note when flying from tree to tree is a low, plaintive, and somewhat melodious whistle, and its song somewhat resembles that of the Bullfinch, but is sweeter and more varied. It breeds in the high north, and its nest, which is placed on a conifer tree is lightly constructed of fine twigs, lined with tine rootlets and grass or moss. The eggs, usually 4 in number are pale blue, with a greenish tinge, spotted and blotched with pale purplish shell, and dark brown surface-markings, and measure about 0.99 by 0.73. Mr. Bidgway separates the American bird into two subspecies, P. enucleator canadensis and P. enucleator kodiaka, and considers it subspecifically separable from our European bird, but I fail to detect any difference.
494. Pinicola enucleator
494. PINE GROSBEAK.