(868) Phylloscopus proregulus simlaensis.
Phylloscopus proregulus simlaensis Ticehurst, Bull. B. O. C, xli, p. 55 (1920) (Simla).
Vernacular names. None recorded.
Description. Differs from the two preceding birds in having the upper parts brighter, more olive-yellow; the head-bands are not so dark and the supercilia are more pronounced.
Colours of soft parts as in P. p. newtoni.
Measurements. Wing 50 to 57 mm.
Distribution. Afghanistan and Baluchistan frontiers, Gilgit through Kashmir to Garhwal. In Winter it descends to the foot-hills of the Himalayas but not into the Plains.
Nidification. Ticehurst's Willow-Warbler breeds from the Afghan frontier through Kashmir to the Simla States and Garhwal from about 7,000 feet upwards. It makes a lovely little domed, or semidomed, nest of moss, sometimes mixed with lichen and scraps of birch-bark and thickly lined with feathers, these also often being mixed with birch-bark. It is placed in Fir or Pine trees, sometimes low down and sometimes forty feet from the ground, at the end of a branch and almost inaccessible. It lays three or four eggs, rarely five, during May and June. The ground is pure white and they are speckled with reddish pink, brick-red or dark brownish red. In most eggs these are most numerous at the larger end, where they may form a ring; in others they are scattered more or less profusely over the whole surface. Forty eggs average 14.1 x 11.0 mm.: maxima 15.0 x 11.1 and 14.8 x 11.8 mm.; minima 13.6 x 10.6 and 14.1 x 9.9 mm.
Habits. This little Willow-Warbler is a bird of the Pine- or Fir-forests and Birch-woods, where it keeps much to the upper branches of the trees, occasionally uttering a loud sharp " tsip " as it scrambles or flits about after insects. During the breeding-season it has a load and not unpleasant little song, something like that of the Common Willow-Wren.