645. Ruticilla erythrogaster.
Motacilla erythrogastra, Guld. Nov. Com. Petrop. xix, p. 469,pls. 16, 17 (1775). Ruticilla erythrogastra (Guld.), Blyth, Cat. p. 168 ; Horsf. & M. Cat. i, p. 304; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 139; Blanf. J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 51; Hume & Henders. Lah. to Yark. p. 210; Scully, S. F. iv, p. 144 ; Hume, Cat. no. 499; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 63; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 445 ; Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 347. Ruticilla vigorsi, Moore, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 27, pl. lx ; Horsf. & M. Cat. i, p. 304.
The White-winged Redstart, Jerd.
Coloration. Male. After the autumn moult the crown and nape are white with a few ashy margins; forehead, sides of head and neck, back, scapulars, upper wing-coverts, chin, throat, and upper breast deep black, a few of the feathers margined with grey; wings black, the middle portion of all the quills except the tertiaries white; remainder of the plumage with the tail deep chestnut. Soon after the autumn, the few margins present on the black portions of the plumage drop off, and the crown becomes pure white. Female. Upper plumage brown tinged with ashy; the lower portion of rump, upper tail-coverts, and tail ferruginous, the middle tail-feathers and the tips of the others dusky; wings brown, edged with pale fulvous ; sides of head and whole lower plumage uniform fulvous-grey. The female has no seasonal change of plumage.
Bill black, yellow at gape; iris brown; legs, feet, and claws black (Hume Coll.).
Length about 7; tail 3; wing 4.2; tarsus 1.05; bill from gape .7.
Distribution. The Himalayas from Kashmir and Gilgit to Sikhim. In summer this species is found at very high altitudes, from 10,000 to 14,000 feet or even higher. In winter it descends to 5000 feet. This Redstart extends on the west to the Caucasus; on the north, through Turkestan and Tibet, to Lake Baikal in Southern Siberia; and on the east into China.
Habits, This species, like Chimarrhornis leucocephalus, affects streams and lakes, but is more frequently seen, according to Blanford, on rocky hill-sides. Its nest has not yet been found by any naturalist.