1480. Phalaropus hyperboreus.
The Red-necked Phalarope.
Tringa hyperborea & T. lobata, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 249 (1766). Lobipes hyperboreus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxiii, p. 214 ; xxviii, p. 417 ; id. Ibis, 1859, p. 464; Hume, S. F. i, p. 246; Adam, S. F. ii, p. 338; Butler, S. F. v, p. 290; Hume, S. F. vii, pp. 150, 487 ; id. Cat. no. 890; Barnes, S. F. ix, p. 459; id. Birds Bom. p. 357. Phalaropus hyperboreus, Jerdon, B. I. iii, p. 696 ; Blanford, Eastern Persia, ii, p. 284 ; Seebohm, Charadr. p. 340 ; St. John, Ibis, 1889, p. 177; Sclater, Ibis, 1896, p. 156; Blanf. ibid. p. 288; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xxiv, p. 698. Phalaropus fulicarius, apud Hume, Ibis, 1872, p. 469; id. S. F. i, p. 245; nec Tringa fulicaria, L. Phalaropus asiaticus & Lobipes tropicus, Hume, S. F. i, pp. 246,247.
Coloration in winter. Broad forehead, more or less of the crown, lores, supercilia, cheeks, sides of neck, and all lower parts white ; a black band surrounds the eye, except above, and extends for some distance behind it; nape and hind neck dusky brown ; mantle blackish brown, with white or buffy-white streaks formed by the edges of the feathers ; a broad white bar on the wing composed of the white tips of the greater secondary-coverts ; inner secondaries mostly white; middle of rump, upper tail-coverts, and the tail-feathers black, with white edges.
In summer the crown, sides of head, hind neck and sides of the breast, back, scapulars, and tertiaries are blackish grey; down each side of the back are buff streaks formed by the edges of the scapulars; wings and tail browner; sides of neck ferruginous-red, united across the fore neck in females, but not in males, which have the ferruginous patches divided in front by a dark slaty-grey area.
Bill blackish; irides brownish black ; legs and feet lavender-blue (Butler).
Length 7.5 ; tail 1.85; wing 4.25; tarsus .8 ; bill from gape .94.
Distribution. This Phalarope breeds in the North of Europe, Asia, and America, amongst other places in the Orkneys and Hebrides, and in autumn migrates to the southward. Its principal winter abode in the Eastern Hemisphere is on the coasts of Arabia, Baluchistan, and Sind, where it abounds. It also occurs on the west coast of India and on the east coast as far north as Madras, where, at times, it is not uncommon ; but it has not been observed farther east within Indian or Burmese limits, though it is known to visit Japan, China, and the Malay Archipelago. Inland in India it only occurs when migrating, but it has been several times shot in the Punjab and Rajputana, as far east as the neighbourhood of Delhi, about September and May.
Habits, &c. On the coasts of Baluchistan and Sind this Phalarope is found in flocks sitting on the sea, often several miles from land. I have seen what is doubtless the same species off Aden, where specimens were obtained by Barnes. When swimming thus Bed-necked Phalaropes are very wary, and do not allow a boat to come near; whereas on the pools of fresh water occasionally haunted by them on land they are remarkably tame.