270. Phalacrocorax fuscicollis.
THE INDIAN SHAG.
Pan-kowa, India; Niru-kahi, (Telugu); Nir-kakam, Ceylon.
Male 24" to 27". Legs black. Bill brown, red below. Cheeks pale brown. Scapulars and wing-coverts grey, bordered black. Bronze feathers as in P. carbo.— In summer: White ear-tufts. Chin black. India, Ceylon, and Indo-Burmese countries as far south as Tenasserim. Resident in India. Three to five eggs (2.1 x 1.4), white (emerald-green when held up to light). (J. 1006. B. 1527.)
Also P. pencillatus. 30". Back, wing-coverts, and scapulars oil-green, margined dark green. Feathers bordering naked throat white. Tuft of long white hair-like feathers behind the ear. Pacific coast of N. America.
P. neglectus. 28". Back, wing-coverts, and scapulars ash, margined brown; no white band bordering chin and throat. S. Africa.
P. sulcirostris. 25". Head, neck, and below brownish black, with dull green gloss. Australia and New Zealand, ranging to New Guinea, the Moluccas and Borneo.
P. vigua. 30". Feathers of back, wing, and scapulars lanceolate. White band bordering chin and throat. Atlantic and Pacific coasts of S. and C. America.
P. mexicanus. 28". A subspecies similar to P. vigua. Gulf of Mexico.
P. carunculatus. 30", Below pure white. Legs red. Nasal caruncles well developed. New Zealand.
Also with legs and feet black:—
P. varius. 28". Scapulars bronze-grey, margined black. Lower back dark green. New Zealand.
P, gouldi. 24". Scapulars bronze-green, narrowly margined steel-blue. Lower back dark green. Australia, Tasmania, and Louisiade Archipelago.
P. hypoleucus. 27". Similar to P. gouldi, but feathering on throat not continued on lower mandible. W. Australia.
Also with semi-erect crest on crown.
P. graculus. 30". The Shag. Scapulars bronze-green, with narrow dark margins. Legs black. No white in plumage. Said to dive to a depth of 120 feet. Three to five eggs (2.5 x 1.5), white (emerald-green when held up to light). Coasts of Norway, from Norway to Portugal, extending to British Isles and Iceland.
P. desmaresti. A subspecies of P. graculus. Mediterranean, Black and Caspian Seas.
P. chalconotus. 28". Similar to P. graculus, but scapulars are edged pale green. Legs orange. New Zealand.
Also with single crest well developed. General colour below white;—
P. onslowi. 25". Foreneck white. Nasal caruncles well developed. Dorsal patch white.. From Chatham Island.
P. stewarti. 29". Similar to P. onslowi, but no nasal caruncles. Stewart and South Island, New Zealand.
P. colensoi. 25". Similar to P. onslowi, but without caruncles and the white dorsal patch-Auckland I.
P. campbelli. 25". Similar to P. colensoi, but foreneck is entirely black, tbe white on chin and throat forming an isolated patch. Campbell Island.
P. bougainvillii. 30". Similar to P. campbelli, but scapulars and wing-coverts margined greenish blue. Pacific coast of S. America.
P. magellanicus. 26". Throat black, a white patch on the ear-coverts. Southern coasts of S. America.
P. atriceps. 29". Similar to P. albiventer, but feathers round the eye white. South-west coast of S. America.
P. albiventer. 27". Feathers round the eye black. Nasal caruncles largely developed. No white dorsal patch. South coast of S. America.
P. verrucosus. 27". Similar to P. albiventer, but no trace of white bar on outer scapulars. Kerguelen Land.
Also with two crests, one on crown and one on nape. Beneath grey:—
P. punctatus. 29". No white flank-patch. Broad white eyebrow stripe continued down each side of neck to shoulder. New Zealand.
P. featherstoni. 25". Similar to P. punctatus, but no white eyebrow stripe. Chatham Islands.
Also with two crests. Beneath black:—
P. perspicillatus. 38". Feathers of face and crests purple. Spectacles of thick white skin round the eyes. Weight 12 to 14 lbs. Similar to P. bicristatus. Behring Island. Probably extinct.
P. bicristatus. 30". Forehead naked. Wing-coverts and scapulars dark purple. Crests bronze-green. E. Siberia to Alaska.
P. pelagicus. 27 1/2" to 30". Forehead feathered. Wing-coverts and scapulars violet-bronze with green reflections. Similar to P. bicristatus. Kamschatka to S. China, Alaska to W. Mexico.
Also with two crests, one on each side of crown :—
P. auritus. 31". Crest-feathers mostly or entirely black, Loral region and gular pouch deep orange. Labrador to Florida, W. Indies, Gulf of Mexico, extending far inland to W. Texas.
P. cincinnatus. 32". Differs from P. auritus in having crest-feathers white or mostly white. From Aleutian Islands and Alaska to Lower California and W. Mexico eastwards to Great Salt Lake.
With culmen less than 1 1/2" from feathers on forehead to tip.