819. Hirundo fluvicola.
The Indian Cliff-Swallow.
Hirundo fluvicola, Jerd., Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxiv, p. 470 (1855) ; Jerd. B. I. i, p. 161; Blanf. J. A. S. B. xxxviii, pt. ii, p. 172; Hume, J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p.-115; id. Cat. no. 86; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 81; Oates in Hume's N. & E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 191. Lagenoplastes fluvicola (Jerd), Hume, N. & E. p. 80. Petrochelidon fluvicola (Jerd), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x, p. 200.
Coloration. Forehead, crown, and nape dull chestnut, with black shaft-streaks; back and scapulars glossy steel-blue; rump and upper tail-coverts dull brown, with narrow pale margins; wings and tail dull brown; lores and upper part of the ear-coverts dark brown; remainder of the sides of the head, chin, throat, and upper breast white, tinged with very pale fulvous, and boldly streaked with brown; remainder of lower plumage white, the sides of the body slightly streaked with brown.
The young bird has the head brownish, the feathers of the back margined with rufous, those of the rump very broadly margined with fulvous, and the wings more or less margined with the same.
Legs dark brown ; toes black; iris brown ; bill black (Hume).
Length about 4.5; tail 1.75; wing 3.6; tarsus .4; bill from gape .5 ; bifurcation of tail .15.
Distribution. A considerable portion of India proper. Towards the south this species has been found as far as Coimbatore; to the east as far as Etawah ; and on the north and west to the foot of the Himalayas and in Kashmir, extending into all parts of the north-west except Sind.
Habits, &c. Breeds in large societies from February to April and in July and August, constructing a mud nest, which is spherical or oval with a long neck or tubular entrance attached to it. Large numbers of nests are plastered together against the face of cliffs or under bridges. The eggs are sometimes spotless white, more frequently white speckled with yellowish or reddish brown, and usually three in number. They measure about .76 by .53.