1522. Pelecanus crispus.
The Dalmatian Pelican. (Fig. 75, p. 331.)
Pelecanus crispus, Bruch, Isis, 1832, p. 1109; Sclater, P. Z.S. 1868, p 267 ; Hume, Ibis, 1868, p. 235; Elliot, P. Z. S. 1869, p. 582 ; Hume, S. F. i, p. 288 ; iv, pp. 33, 40; vii, pp. 98. 448; id. Cat.. no. 1004 bis ; Reid, S. F. x, p. 87 ; Hume, ibid. p. 494 ; Doig, ibid, p. 503; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 436.
Coloration. Silvery white ; the back-feathers, scapulars, greater and median wing-coverts, tertiaries, and upper tail-coverts with black shafts; primaries and primary-coverts black, ends of secondary quills ashy brown, whitish on edges; tail pure white in old birds. Feathers of head and neck soft and curly, without any dark bases ; crest broad and thick, but not long. There appears to be no change of plumage at the breeding-season, except the assumption of a yellow breast-patch of lengthened feathers.
Young birds are more or less brown on the upper parts, wings, and tail, and the neck-feathers have dark bases. The adult plumage is gradually assumed, and in this and other Pelicans requires three or four years for completion.
Bill in adults dusky plumbeous ; edges of upper and lower mandibles for the terminal two-thirds yellowish ; nail orange; pouch light primrose to pale fleshy, but in the breeding-season deep orange-red; cheeks and orbits yellow; irides white ; legs and feet pale plumbeous. In young birds the bill is horny brown or grey, lower mandible and pouch creamy white, cheeks and orbits the same, irides pale yellow (Hume).
Length of male 72; tail 9 ; wing 28; tarsus 4.5; bill from gape l7. Females are smaller: wing 26 ; bill 14.
Distribution. South-eastern Europe, Northern Africa, and Southwestern Asia as far east as India. This Pelican is a winter visitor to Oudh, the North-west Provinces, the Punjab, Sind, and Baluchistan, and abounds at the season named in the dhundhs or marshes of Sind, on the Indus, and on the Makran coast. Either this or P. onocrotalus breeds near Fao, at the head of the Persian Gulf.