778. Passer hispaniolensis.
The Spanish Sparrow.
Fringilla hispaniolensis, Temm. Man. a Orn. ed. 2, p. 353 (1820). Fringilla salicicola, Vieill. Faune Franc. p. 417 (1828). Pyrgita salicaria, Bonap. Comp. List B. Eur. & N. Am. p. 30 (1838). Passer salicaria (Bonap.), Blyth, Cat. p. 119. Passer salicicola (Vieill.), Horsf. & M. Cat. ii, p. 501 : Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 364; Hume, S. F. i, p. 209 ; Scully, S. F. iv, p. 164. Passer hispaniolensis (Temm.), Hume, Cat. no. 707; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xii, p. 317; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 266.
The Willow Sparrow, Jerd.
Coloration. Male. After the autumn moult the forehead, crown, nape, and a band behind the ear-coverts are chestnut with creamy-white fringes; sides of the forehead and a small patch behind the eye, forming a disconnected supercilium, dull white; lores and under the eye black ; cheeks, ear-coverts, and sides of the neck white; chin, throat, and upper breast black with whitish fringes; lower breast and sides of the body creamy white streaked with black ; abdomen and under tail-coverts creamy white unstreaked ; back black with broad fulvous margins, some of the lateral feathers with the whole outer web fulvous and the inner black; lesser wing-coverts chestnut; median coverts almost entirely white; greater coverts and quills dark brown, broadly edged with chestnut-brown ; rump and upper tail-coverts fulvous ashy with paler margins ; tail brown, edged with fulvous. In spring and summer the fringes everywhere get worn away and the parts affected become uniform.
Female, Resembles the female of P. domesticus so closely as to require no separate description. It differs in having a much larger bill and the lower plumage faintly streaked throughout.
Legs and feet horny brown; soles yellow; iris brown; bill brown, yellow at gape (Hume, December); in summer the bill of the male is black.
Length about 6; tail 2.4; wing 3.2; tarsus .8; bill from gape .55.
Distribution. Sind ; the Punjab ; the northern part of Rajputana down to Sambhar; the N. W. Provinces and Oudh as far east as Mirzapore. This Sparrow is apparently found throughout the above tracts in the winter months only. It occurs in Kashmir, so far as I have been able to ascertain, both in summer and winter. It extends north to Yarkand, where it breeds. To the west it ranges to Europe and Northern Africa.
Habits, &c. This Sparrow is said by Dr. Scully to frequent reeds, poplar trees, and corn-fields. He states that it breeds in Turkestan in May and June, nesting in trees.